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Full text of "An account of the war in India, between the English and French, on the coast of Coromandel, from 1750 to the year 1760. Together with a relation of the late remarkable events on the Malabar coast, and the expeditions to Golconda and Surat; with the operations of the fleet. Illustrated with maps, plans, &c. The whole compiled from original papers"

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Treasure %oom 

- ^ 

A N 


O F T H E J^^ 

^^ WAR in INDIA, 



O N T H E 


From the Year 1750 to the Year 1760, 


A Relation of the late Remarkable Events 

O N T H E 


And the Expeditions to 


With the Operations of the FLEET. • 

Illustrated with MAPS, PLANS, ^c. 

The whole Compiled from Original Papers. 


PiUNTED fOR George a nd ALEXAKDE REwiyc,mDameHreet« 

R E F A C E. 

■^ H E importance and novelty of a fiibjedl, 
of which we have hitherto had irnperfecSl and 
inaccurate accounts, induced me to feize eve- 
ry opportunity of niaking myfelf acquainted 
with the tranra<f}:ions in the Eaft-Indies by the perufal 
of authentic Papers. The fatisfadion I received from 
thofe I had already feen, excited an eager defire for 
further enquiry, and urged me to agree to any condi- 
tions under which 1 might be enabled to gratify my 

Nothing but a determination to write fome account 
of India, could have entitled me to the fight of fuch 
materials as I have been favoured-with, or have pro- 
perly introduced me to the free converfation of the 
• perfons principally concerned ; which, as it has afford- 
ed me the greatell pleafure, as well as inftrudion, I 
ought never to mention without due acknowledgments. 
As I efteem it a lingular honour to have been indul- 
ged fo much beyond my expedation, by all whom I 
have taken the liberty to trouble on this occafion, I 
am bound to declare, that every perfon to whom I have 
applied, without exception, has given me full fatis- 
fadion in every point on which I had occafion to con- 
fult him, and has done it with the utmoft politenefs. 

After this, I need not dwell upon any further in- 
ducements to write; and yet the great reputation 
which the nation, and fo many individuals have ac- 
quired in the Eall-Indies, has doubtlefs been another 
very inviting circumflance. 

A a There 


There had been two very partial accounts publidi-t 
cd by the French ; and as Mr. Dupleix alfb in hi^ 
Memoire has mifreprefented many principal fa6\s, 
it became neceflary to ftate them in their true light. 

Though nothing appears more impertinent thari 
the prefixing an account of a work to the book tt- 
felf i yet, as it is ufual with mod people to form a 
falfe conception of things, and then to be difpleafed if 
they do not find the realities exacily conformable to the 
opinions they have entertained, it may in fome cafe« 
be pardonable to endeavour to remove fuch prejudices. 

It will not appear flrange, that the generality of the 
world, through the habit of reading novels, and 
works of imagination, (hould expect trom an hilto- 
ry of the Eafk (which has generally been made the 
fcene of moil of their ideal flories) a tale of adven- 
t-ures full of wonder and novelty, and nearly border- 
ing upon rorpance. Neither are we to be furprifed if 
others of a ferious caft, having alfo, at the fame time, 
an elegant tiirn of mind and ataflefor ornament, fhould 
have expreiTed an expedlation, and, perhaps, hinted 
their advice, that, in order-to engage the attention of 
the reader, the work ought to be embelliflied with the 
llrange manners of ^ remote people^ the works of art 
and the wonders of nature in fo very diftant and dif- 
ferent a climate frorii our own. 

It is fuflicient to fay, in anfwer to this, that the. 
work before us is not a hiflory of India, nor of war in 
the interior parts of hidia, but of war on the coafl :^ 
-of war between two European nations, who have not, 
till very lately, had any connedlioa with the govern- 
ing people of the country. It has been entirely ow- 
ing to the war, that an European has beeq allowed to. 
have any kind of famihar commerce with them, or 
that the fervants of the company have been admitted 
to an acquaintance with their courts, the fplendor of 
which has been greatly leiTened by the war. The war 
alone has taught them the geography of the country 
a hundred miles round their fettlementsj ^nd, within 


t^ R £ F A C E. V 

"tliefe few years, thofe who had been at Madura^ 
Vvhich'is about that diltance, were as eagerly liftened 
to when they returned to Madrafs, and their accounts 
were as new to all that heard them, as if they had 
come from Pekin : but it does not appedr that thofe 
accounts were very amufing, or that they would afford 
any entertainment to make up for the Interruption they 
would give to the thread of the hiilory. 

When the defign of the work is once explained, it 
"Will then beft be ken whether it has been properly ex- 
ecuted. The two things chiefly propofed by it were, 
firft, to make the generality of the readers acquainted 
with the geography of the country, of which they 
have as yet very imperfecl and confufed notions j and^ 
in the fecond place, to lay before the more informed^ 
an exa6l, clear, and impartial ftate of fads, drawn 
entirely from authentic papersj by which they may 
judge for tliemfelves, without comment or refiet'tions 
to bias them, whether the civil and military officers 
of the Engliih, or French Eaft: India Company abroad^ 
have adted with the moft uprightnefs and bravery, in 
the Gourfe of the war, and the negociations relative 
to it. 

This being the real defign of the work, every kind 
bf decoration that was not neceffary to illuftrate fa6ls 
would have diverted the attention of the reader from 
a clofe view of the condud of the two nations, by 
which he is to form his judgment. 

Had thefe materials fallen into the hands of any 
perfon capable of rendering them more pleafmg, by 
his fuperior tafte in compofition, and a happy elegance 
of ftile, furely he would have employed thofe talents 
injudicioully, had he beftowed them on this work : 
for the greateft part of it (in order to fupport by au- 
thorities what is advanced as fad) is an alkriablage of 
treaties, debates, grants, articles of war, ana lerters. 
Thefe are here a neceffary, but they. are not a favou- 
rite part of any work : but there are two pieces tliat 
are the moft valuable and elTential to the whole. The 

A 3 fiege 


fiegeof Fort St. George, which being a journal, miti^ 
of courfe be dry ; and Colon' 1 Lawrence's own nar- 
rative of his campaigns, which, though full of inftruc- 
tion, was written in a camp, with the foldier-like 
plainnefs wliich is the diftinguilhing character of that 
excellent of?.cer. 

It is now fubmitted to ire public, whether it would 
have been proper to have given a different colour to 
the continuation of a narrative which had pleafed all 
who had feen it, by its unatTeCted fimplicity ; and if, 
after has been faid, I fhall be crmvided of an 
error in judgment, it will neither furprize nor give me 
any concern, provided I am not proved to have made 
any eflential mitlake in m.uters of fadt. And herein 
I flatter myfelf I cannot be greatly to blame, as 1 am 
certain that 1 have not put down any material circum- 
ftance without the authority of authentic papers, or 
without confulting with the leveral perfons concerned, 
and examining mcft thoroughly every thing that has 
appeared dubious. 

As I have taken fo much pains not to give credit 
too hailily to any informations I may have received, I 
may be fallowed todehre the reader will not too rafhly 
give ear to fuch tefumony as he may think will con- 
fute them i and particularly, that he will not fuppoie 
a man the better acquainted with fads for having 
been in India, unlefs he has been in that very part 
which was the fcene of the tranladion in queftion i 
for the feveral fettlements being fome as remote from 
others as England is from Turky or Africa, the people 
on one coait have fom times no more knowledge of 
what is doing on the other, than we have at home. 

It is alfo to be expected, that thofe who have been 
witnelTes to any event which it has been thought pro- 
per to relate concifely, will be ready to impute that 
brevity to a want of information ; when, at the fame 
time, the European reader will think that very narra- 
tive too long, and the detail too minute and uninter- 

I Iiave^ 

P R E F A G E. vU 

1 have, therefore, in handling every new rubje6t, 
endeavoured to confine myfelf to the moft recent, as 
well as the moft important events, alone •, and have 
avoided going too far back in point of time, as that 
might occafion a confufion, by introducing a variety 
of perlons, and a multiplicity of ftrange names ; 
which would certainly give a heavinefs, if not a ridi- 
cule, to the whole. 

This naturally leads to the mention of another dif- 

The Afiatic Monarchs are exceedingly fond of aflli- 
ming new names, and frequently bellow them on 
others as a very ferious and important favour i and 
indeed they generally confer them engraved on a feal- 
ring, which exempts the wearer from all taxes, toils, 
and impofts, wherever he appears with it in the do- 
minions of the Prince who beftows it. 

By this means it often happens, that dii^rent per^- 
fons have the fame appellation, and that the fame per- 
fon is called by different names^ which creates a con- 
fufion not always in the power of the writer to pre- 
vent ; fince it is by no means proper to alter a name 
in the (ignature of original papers -, and yet, when 
the reader fees the fame perfon figning a different 
name * from that which he is commonly diftinguilhed 
by, he vv'ill be apt to think there is fome mifrake. 

As it is impofiible to find out any criterion to fpell 
the Perfic and Indian names by, fmce they are fb va- 
rioufly pronounced and fo differently written by perfbns 
of the lame nation, I cannot pretend to be exad in 
this particular. The French having publifhed an ac- 
count of the war fome years ago, many readers will 
have been habituated to fee names of fome of the 
principal perfons fpelt after their manner •, therefore, 
for the fake of conformity, I have ufed the famecon- 
fonants as I find employed by M, Dupleix and his 

A 4 country- 

* See page 323. The feveral names ufed bv the Virier, who 
is commonly calkd Shaw Abadin Cawn. 

viii PREFACE. 

countrymen -, but as their vowels are pronounced (o 
very differently from the Englifh, I have, for the 
mod part, altered them accordingly. The word 
which hgnifies a warrior, is written by the fcnglifh 
jung, jing, or jenk ; but as the French, and particu- 
larly M. Dupleix, write it zing, I have done {o like- 
whe ; • for though many hold the other to be the true 
pronunciation, there are fome who make it doubtful •, 
efpecially when they fay the word Gentoo, or Jentoo, 
might be fpelt with a z * ■, and it becomes the more a 
matter of indifference^ when we call to mind the re- 
ciprocal letters of the Spaniards ; who fpell many 
words both with the xf andj, and give exadlly the 
fame found to the one as to the other. 

I could hardly avoid faying thus much, on a fub- 
je(5l very uninterefting in itfelf, and, poffibly, tirefome 
to the generality of readers ; I fhall therefore purfue 
it no farther. 

• In like manner, Jemidar is very often fpelt Zemidar. 

•f- The Spaniards in their voyage to Peru, having occafion to 
mention our Ship the Chichefter, write it Sixter ; and as we have 
moftof our fpellings of eaftern words from foreigners or inaccurate 
feamen and traders, it may be allowable to make fome alterations j 
though, from the force of habit, fome people will condemn thofe 
which are made upon the beft reafons. The French having always 
been imitated by us in the fpelling of Schah and Khan, though the 
words have for that reafon often been pronounced wrong, the ob- 
vious fpelling of thefe names with the w, which helps to give the 
true found to the vowel, will at firft be thought a blameable fingu- 
larity : to avoid a charge of that kind, 1 have not often deviated 
from the common fpelling, but as it was necefTary to do it fome- 
times, I have particularly taken care to alter fuch as might miflead 
the reader into the fuppofition of falfe etymologies, and give him 
erroneous ideas of things : as in the ufual fpelling of the word Sea' 
poy, which made it generally fuppofed, that the Se-poys, who arc 
foot foldiers, were either failors or marines. 



^V / 







REQUEST, or petition 

An intoxicating juice of a vegetable 

An extraordinary allowance to the army 
when abroad in the field, or in any 
country garrifon where provifions are 

A leaf, not unlike that of a kidney-bean ; 
it grows on a vine exadly in the fame 
manner ; and is in great ufe, from the 
prince to the beggar. They con- 
ilantly chew it, mixed with Chinam 
and Betel-nut J for the Betel-leaf and 
the Betel-nut are from different plants. 
The farmers of Madrafs pay the com- 
pany from fix to feven thoufand pounds 
a year for the exclufive privilege of 
vending it 

A prieft 

Treafurer to the Mogul 

A cuilom-houfe 

Fine flacked lime 

A fmall feal, on which is engraved the 
name of the Mogul and the year of 



Choultry, An open honfe for all travellers, thi 

fame as a Turklfh caravanferai. A 
bramin refides always in or near ir^ 
to keep it clean, and to furnifh travel- 
lers with water, &c. He is maintain- 
ed by an endowment 

Cm OUT, Properly a fourth, but commonly ufed 

to exprefs the tribute which the Ma- 
rattas claim and raife on all the go- 
vernments in India 

CiRCAR, or •! A general name for the government, err 

Sircar, y perfons concerned in the adminiftration 

CoFFREES, (By the French called Cafres) is now be- 

come the general name for all ne- 
groes who are brought to India from 
the Cape, the coafl; of Guinea, or any 
other parts of Africa, and chiefly trom 
Madagafcar ; they are brave and ftea- 
dy in the field 

CoLLERiEs, Inhabitants of the woods under the go- 

vernment of the Polygars 

Coo LET, A labourer of any kind 

Coss, A little more than two miles 

CowLE, A protection 

DooLEY, A woman's chair, fomewhat like a fedan 

Durbar, The court of a Mogul Prince, or place 

whepe they meet in council 

DusTucK, An order 

En AM, A gift 

Firman, or 1 A patent, or paper figned by the Mo- 

Phirmaund, \ gul 

GeNTOU, 7 t V Til 

Zentoo, }IndiaiT5, Idolaters 

HousBULHOOKUM, A patent or paper figned by the Vizier 



jAGErR, or 7 A territory or domain granted for a par- 

Jaqueer, 3 ticular ufe, either to maintain a num- 

ber of troops, or keep a fort in repair ; 
and fometimes as a penfion 

Jemidar, or 7 Officers of horfe or foot, and fometimes 
Zemidar, 3 people of rank employed about the 

perfons of the great in the adminiftra- 


KiLLEDAR, A Governor of a fort 

Lack, Of roupees, above twelve thoufand five 

hundred pounds. 

Maund, a variable weight ; at Bengal, feventy- 

fix pounds; at Surat, thirty feveft 
pounds one-half; in Perfia, the Ta- 
barefe Maund is only fix pounds 

JVIooRg, The Mahometans improperly fo called 

Nabob, A Governor of a province, appointed by 

the Souba, or Viceroy 

Naib, a deputy 

Omrahs, Privy Counfellors, men of the firfl rank 

in the empire ; they are under the 
Vizier, but are moftly concerned in 
all the revolutions of the ftate 

Paddy, Rice in the hufk 

Pagoda, An Indian temple 

Pagoda, A coin paid by the Company at eight 

fhilllngs, but intrinfically worth {e\en 
Ihillings and eight pence 

Pallankeen, a bed, fupported by a wooden or ivory 

frame of fix feet long, and near three 
feet broad, faftened at each end with 
crofs flicks to a bamboo fifteen feet 
long, which forms an arch over the 
pallankeen or bed, and is covered with 
a canopy of cloth lined with filk, and 
fliffened with ribs of the coconut tree 

Paragana, Any diftrid of country 



Parsees, Worfhippers of fire 

Patamar, a port or meffenger fent from place td 


Peons, A name for the infantry of the Deckan ; 

they are armed with a broad fword, 
and fomtimes with a matchlock 

Perwanna, a paper figned by the Nabob 

Pettah, The town furrounding an Indian fort 

Phousdar, a renter 

PoLYGAR, Lord of a fmall territory 

Raja, The higheft title of the Gentoo princes 

RouPEE, About two (hillings and fiveptnce 

Saneds, CommifTions, or grants for particular 


Sardar, An officer of horf^ 

Sepoys, Indian foldiers, which are entertained 

and difciplined by Europeans 

Shroff, A moneychanger or banker 

SiRPAH, Arichdrefsof the country 

Scuba, Viceroy of one of the two great provinces 

Tank, A pond, or pool of water 

Tank A, The revenue appropriated by the Mogul 

for the maintenance of a fleet at Surat 

Tom Toms, Drums 

To PASSES, Black foot foldiers, defcended from Por-j 

tuguefe marrying natives, called To* 
paffes becaufe they wear hats 

Vakeee, An agent or minifter for the Moor« 

Moguls Empire 

into its principal 


dMitjjui'^r tltils His tori/ 

By T. Jefferys Geographer 
to His Ma J E 9 T Y. 

■"I '"'I'll miiiiiw 



FO R the better underftanding any accounts of a 
country, with which the European reader is fo 
httle acquainted, it is neceirary firft to inform 
him of fuch particulars as lerve to explain the tranf^ 
adions and events in the work before him. 

It is generally fuppofed, that the Peninfula within 
the Ganges is under the immediate government of the 
Mogul himfelf, and that the royal mandates from 
Pelli are, according to the received notion of fo ar- 
bitrary a dominion, obeyed in the mod remote parts 
of the coafl:. This is fo far from the truth, that a 
great part of that vaft Peninfula never acknowledged 
any fubje^^ion to the throne of Delli, till the reign of 
Aurengzebe •, and the revenues from thofe Indian 
jsiings and Moorifh governors, who were conquered 
pr employed by him, have, fmce his death, been in- 
tercepted by the viceroys, which his weaker iuccef- 
fors have appointed for the government cf the Pe- 
ninfula : fo that at this time neither can the tribute 
from the feveral potentates reach the Court of Delli, 
nor the vigour of the government extend from the 
capital to thofe remote countries. And ever fmce the 
province of Indoftan was ruined by Nadir Shaw, the 
vveaknefs of the Mogul, and the policy and confirm- 
ed independency of the Viceroys have in a man- 
ner confined the influence of the government to its 
inland department. 

Let it therefore be underflood, that the Sovereign 
poffelTes a third only, and that the leaft valuable part, 
of his own vaft empire. Bengal, the fmalleft, but 
moft fertile province, is governed by a Viceroy. The 
qther divifion, called the Deck^n, extending from 



Balafore Jagonaut (or thereabouts, for the geography 
is certainly not fettled) to cape Comorin, is alio dele- 
gated by the Mogul to another Viceroy, of exceeding 
great power, having wirhin his jurifdiilion feven large 
territories, to which he has the undifputed right of 
nominating feven Nabobs, or governors of provinces. 
In all parts of India there ere (liil large diftrids, 
which have prefei ved, with the Gentoo religion, the 
old form of government under Indian Kings called 
Raja's. Such are MaifTore, whofe capital is Serin- 
gapaiam, and Tanjore, whofe capital is Tanjore. 
There are aifo among the woods and mountainous 
parts of the country leveral petty Princes, or heads 
of clans diftinguilhed by the name of Polygars. 
Thefe are all tributary to the Nabobs, and thofe to 
the Viceroy, vvhofe capital is Aurengabad. The Car- 
ratick is that part of the Deckali which comprehends 
the principal fettlem.ents of the Europeans, iVladrafs, 
and Pondichery, and alfo Arcot. To eftablifh the 
government of the laft nam,ed province, and to op- 
pofe the hoflile intentions of Mr. Dupleix, the Englifh 
Eafl-India company engaged in this war in fupport 
of Mahomet Allee Cawn. 

As ir is necefiary, that the reader fliould be well 
acquainted with the geogi?phy of this country, with- 
out which he can never h.ive any juft notion of the 
government of it, the moft accurate maps of particu- 
lar fpots have been procured, a^.d diftindly engraved •, 
and there is alio prefixed an outline of the whole 
country unincumbered t\ itli the fmaller divifions, and 
containing only ilie names of fiich places as are 
mofl frequently mentioned, in order to give at one 
viev/, a full idea of the whole empire of India with- 
in the Ganges, and to fhevv the confequence of the 
two great viceroyalties, compared with that of the 
principal feat of government. 

The chain of mountains which run through the 
peninfula from north to fouth, are the caufe of an ex- 
traordinary phenomenon in natural hiflory. The 



countries which are feparated by thefe mountains, 
though under the fame latitude, have their (eafons 
and climate entirely different from each other; and 
while it is winter on one fide of the hills, it is lum- 
mer on the other fide. On the coaft of Malabar a 
fouth-weft wind begins to blow from the fea at the 
end of June, with continued rain, and rages againft 
the coaft for four months, during which time the 
weather is calm and ferene on the coaft of Coroman- 
del : and towards the end of Odober, the rainy fea- 
fon, which they term the Change of the Monfoon, be- 
gins on the coaft of Coromandel : at which time, 
the tempeftuous winds bearing continually againft 
a coaft in which there are no good ports, make it 
fo dangerous for the fhipping to remain there, for 
the three enfuing months, that it is icarce ever at- 
tempted. This is the caufe of the periodical return 
of our fhips to Bombay, where there is a fecure har- 
bour, and convenient docks. 

When the reader has been made acquainted with 
fo much of the geography of the country, as is abfo- 
lutely necelfary for his underftanding the nature of 
the government, it will be proper that he fhould be 
fatisfied in regard to certain doubts and difficulties 
that will naturally arife in the perufal of the work. 

Without a few previous explanations, he will never 
be able to conceive, by what means a handful of 
Europeans fhould appear fo refpedable in the field, 
when oppofed to a mult'tude of Afiatics. As this is 
owing to a number of concurring circumftances it 
will be requifite to give fom.e account of fuch of their 
manners, habits, and prejudices, as may have a nearer 
or more remote influence on their military cha- 

Nothing appears a greater difficulty to the military 
men in this part of the world, than the poffibility of 
fubfifting fuch vafc multitudes as the Afiatic armies 
frequently confift of, efpecially with fo large a propor- 
tion of hoife. 



If it be matter of aftonifhment, that fuch mim-? 
bers of fighting men are frequently brought into the 
field, how will it appear when it is added to the ac- 
count that every hor(e-man has two fervants, one to 
take care of his horfe, the other to procure him fo- 
rage, and that allthefe are accompanied by their wives 
and children, that there always follows the camp ^ 
moveable town of fhops, where every thing is to be 
fold as in their cities, fome hundreds of elephants for 
ilate only, and a train of women (with their num- 
berlefs retinue; belonging to the Prince and the great 
officers. For wherever the Sovereign moves, he is 
more taken up vt^ith a vain oftentation of pomp and 
magnificence, than with the objed of the war ; and 
it is his pleafure that his fubjeds fhould abandon the 
capital in order to augment his * numbers. 


* I took a view of the Leflcer, or Mogul's camp, which is onf 
of the greateft wonders I ever beheld (and chiefly for that I faw 
it fet up and finifh'd in lefs than four hours) it being no lefs than 
twenty Englifti miles in compafs, the length fomeways three coffes 
(about feven miles) including the Ocirts : in the middle, where the 
ftreets are orderly, and tents joined, there are all forts of fhops, 
and fo regularly difpofed, that every man knows whither to go 
directly lor what he wants; each man of quality, and every trade 
being appointed how far from the King's tents they fliall pitch, 
what ground they ihall take up, and on what fide, without ever 
altering. All which, as it lies together, is almoft equal to any 
town in Europe for greatnefs : but no man muft approach the 
royal quarter, by a mufket-fhot every way, which is now fo ftridl- 
ly obferved, that none are admitted but by name : and the time of 
the durbar in the evening is omitted, andfpent in hunting or hawk- 
ing on pools by boat, in which the King takes wonderful delight 
and his barges ajc removed on carts with him. 

Sir T&omas Roe's 'journal^ 
In imitation of their Sovereign, and from the fame motives of 
pride and vanity, the lefler Princes and Viceroys, afi^eft the fame 
magnificence in the fplendor of their camps and the number of 
their followers. Thofe who were with Nazirzing in 1750, give 
the like defcription of his camp, being well aiTured that it exceed- 
ed twenty miles in circumference ; but as for the numbers, there 
is no way of afcertaining them ; therefore they only fay, they 
were reported on the fpot to have been 300,000 fighting men, 



To provide for all thele, the whole country is put 
in motion, and the ftric^eft orders are given for all 
provifions to be brought into the camp. By thefe 
means, all the cities far and near are exhaufted, but 
the camp for the mofl part, is plentifully fupplied. 

The forage is procured in the following manner. 
Every horfc-man is allowed a man for the purpofe, 
who is conftantly employed in cutting turt, and wafli- 
ing the roots of it : and this is a more hearty food for 
a horfe than grafs. A fhower of rain produces ano- 
ther crop in a lew days time : and in cafe of conti- 
nued dry weather, they move their camp to frefh 
ground *. 

Many of the Indians abftain from all kinds of 
animal food, and the greateft part of them ufe rice, as 
their common and almoft only fuftenance : and as 
they have fo great a veneration for Cows, they are all 
prohibited by their religion, from killing any of that 
fpecies ; therefore there generally is a fufficient fup^ 

B ply 

and might poffibly have been near 200,000; and the followers of 
the camp faid to have exceeded a million, might pollibly have 
amounted to half that number. Nazirzing's army being, at that 
time, in the heart of his own dominions, and undi^urbed by ma- 
rauders, was regularly hipplied from all the neighbouring towns, 
which, by receiving ready money for their provifions, were en- 
abled to pay the arrears of their revenues, fo that the Viceroy 
maintained this amazing multitude by the colleftions and contribu- 
tions which he railed in his march, without diminifhing from the 
treafures which he always carried with him, and which ferved to 
fill twenty tents with gold and filver coin. 

* They alfo feed their horfes in the rice fields, and where meat 
is plenty, they boil the offal to rags, and mixing it with butter and 
fome forts of grain, make balls of it, which the thrull down the 
horfes throat. In a fcarcicy of provifions, they give them opium, 
which has the fame efi'ed both on the horfes and men. for at once 
it damps their appetites, and enables them to endure fatigue. 
The horfes of the country, are naturally fo exceedingly vicious, 
that they are not to be broke in the manage, and cannot b^ brought 
to aft with the fame regularity In the field, as a fquadron of 
European cavalry. The Perfian horfes being more gentle and do- 
cile, and greatly efteemed, and often valued at z thoufand guineas. 
Thofe of India, fell for fifty or a hundred. 


ply of beef for the Mahometan foldiery, and the fmall 
proportion of Europeans. But to lelfen the furprize 
of the more exacfl calculator, it muft be fuppofed, that 
thefe numerous armies feldom keep the field any time, 
without great lofs by famine i for a very confiderable 
diminution is fcarcely felt, among fuch numbers, and 
very little regarded from any notions of humanity : 
a famine is, therefore, neither confidered as any 
thing extraordinary ; nor v/ill the memory of it 
ever prevent the afTemblage of another multitude, 
v/ho muft alto be liable to the fame diances of fub- 
- filling or flarving, as accident fhall determine. In 
Tike manner, allowance muft be made for the great 
Jt)f& and damage they fuftain in men, beafts, and al! 
the implements of war, as often as they move in dif- 
ficult roads and * defJes, and particularly in their me* 
thod of palling over great rivers. For their riversy 
when they are not fordabJe, In the rainy feafon be- 
come torrents, being fwelled to fuch a degree, that 
they are not to be palTed but flantwife, the landing 
place being frequently above a mile below the place of 
embarkation, and heavy vellels, built of timber, could 
not be brought irp againft the ftream to ferve again. 
They therefore make large boats of a kind of 
balket-work, which they cover with fkins. As there 
muft always be great plenty cf hides in fo numerous 
an army, they are eafily made. They are very light 


* We marclied every other day about four cofles only, with 
fiich a train of baggage, as was almoft Impoffible to be kept in 
order; we palled through woods, and over mountain? thick of 
bu(hes, where many camels perKTied ; and many people tired with 
the diificulties of an impaflible way, went away to Agra, and all 
complained. I loft my tents and carts, but by midnight we met 
again. The king refted two days ; for the Lefkars could not in 
lefs time recover their order ; many of the king's women, and 
thoufands of coaches, cairs.and camels, lying in the woody moun- 
tains without meat Or water. He himfelf got through on a fmalt 
Elephant that will climb up rocks, and pafs fuch ftraits, that no 
horfe 01 bsail 1 havefcen, can follow him. 

Sir T. Set's Journal 


and manageable, and yet will carry above fifty horfe, 
and are capable of tranfporting the heavieft artillery. 
It is owing entirely to an ignorance of the man- 
ners of the Afiatics, that many people imagine they 
can never be made foldiers. It may perhaps be 
fhewn that they never will, whilft the fame wretched 
government and abhorrence of innovation lubfifis: 
but thole are greatly miltaken, who attribute their 
dread of fire arms, and particularly of artillery, to a 
daftardly difpofition, and an invincible timidity. 

The true caufe lies in the inexperience of their lead- 
ing men, who never underftood the advantages of 
difcipline, and who have kept their infantry upon loo 
low a footing. Their cavalry (which are, among 
them, very refpedlable, and alfo well paid} though not 
backward to engage with fabres, are extremely unwil- 
ling to bring their horfes within the reach of our guns ; 
fo that they do not decline an engagement Co much 
through fear for their lives, as tor their fortunes, which 
areall laidout in the horfe they rideon. As an inftance 
of the affection they contract for fo (srviceable a crea 
ture, Morarow, the general of the Marattas, having 
had his favourite horfe fhot, mourned for him three 
days, after their manner, that is to fay, was fo long 
witiiout his turban. 

Such of the natives as have been difciplined and 
encouraged bv Europeans, and formed into a regu- 
lar infantry, under officers of their own, and generaliy 
known by the name of Sepoys, have familiarized 
rheinlelves to fire arms, and behaved well behind 
wails ; and when we give them ferjeants to lead 
tliem on, they make no contemptible figure in the 

Nothing is fo ruinous to their military affairs, as 
the falfe notion which is generally entertained among 
them, and chiefly by their commanders, m relatioii 
to artillery. They are terrified with that of the 
enemy, and fooliilily put a confidence in their own ; 
and what is the moft fatal mitlake, they place thei: 
B 2 chief 



chief dcpendance on the largeft pieces, which they 
neither know how to manage nor move. They give 
them pompous and founding names, as the Italians 
do to their guns, and have fome pieces which carry a 
bail of feventy pounds. When we march round 
them with our light field pieces, and make it necef- 
fary to move thole enormous weights, their bullocks, 
which are at beft very untraceable, if a ihot comes 
among them, are quite ungovernable; and at the 
fame time are fo ill harnelfed, that it caufes no 
Imal! delay to free the rePc from any one that fhall 
happen to be unruly or flain. 

in war with the Afiatics alone, we have a much 
greater advantage in their being fo very tenacious of 
their old manners, than in their want of bravery. 
Not only the Prince himfelf, but every Raja, who 
has the command of all the forces he can bring into 
the field, be they more or lefs, always appears among 
them mounted on an Elephant, and is at once the 
General and enfign, or ftandard of that corps, who 
keep their eyes conftantly on him ; and if they lofe 
fight of him tor a moment, conclude that all is loll. 
1 bus \VQ find, Aurengzebe gained two battles by the 
treachery of thofe who defired his two vidtorious bro- 
thers to get down from their Elephants, mount their 
' horfes, and purfue the vanquifhed : their troops mif- 
fing them, immediately difperfed. The fame prac- 
tice, continued to this day, affords our engineers a 
fair opportunity of deciding the fate of a whole de- 
tachment, by one well directed difcharge of a fix 
pounder : and thofe enormous beafls, now feem to 
be brought into the field for no other end but to be 
a maik for our artillery. It is faid, they begin to 
fee the danger of this practice, but furely that might 
have been found long fince ; for before the ufe of 
artillery, the General thus diflinguifhed, was in like 
manner expofed to the arrows of a whole army, and 
yet we always find them in the fame perilous ftation. 
Porus is faid to have been pierced with nine arrows, 



and to have funk from his Elephant with innume- 
rable wounds. It fhould feem probable, that not 
merely their regard for ancient manners, but the ex- 
pediency of keeping their troops together by this fig- 
nal, will induce them to continue the fame method ; 
the necelhiy of which will appear from the conduct 
and fuccefs of Aurengzebe, who, when he found his 
army giving way on every Hde, ordered chains to be 
faftened about the legs of his Elephant, to convince 
them that he would not give the example of flight i 
and that thofe to uhom his life was dear or intereft- 
ing, could preferve it by no other means but firmly 
maintaining their ground It may perhaps be a far- 
ther illuftration of this practice, to ihew the conformi- 
ty of cuftoms among remote and different barbarous 
nations, unfkilled in the military fcience. 

In the hiftories of America, we find Montezuma 
reprefented as performing no part of a general, but 
only fitting in an exalted ftage on men's fhoulders, 
and ferving as a conlpicuous ftandard to his troops. 

To fhew that they themfelves are fenfible of the 
danger of being thus expofed, they will fometimes 
avail themfelves of the only device that can afford 
them any fecunty. For it has been cbferved, that 
feveral Elephants caparifon'd alike, with riders in the 
fame rich and fplendid habits, have appeared in dif- 
ferent parts of the field on the fame day. 

Another great obftacle to their fuccefs in war, is 
their fuperftition, and particularly their ftridl obferv- 
ance of lucky and unlucky days, which often prevents 
them from taking the moll obvious advantages of an 

Being fond of all kinds of beaftsof prey, they keep 
great numbers of them, and often viht them before 
they give battle ; and if they find them heavy and 
dull, they think it a bad omen, and a reafon fulhcient 
to poftpone their intended delign of an action •, and 
on the other hand, the accidental fury of the animal 
is regarded as a happy omen of fuccels. They have 

B q alfa 


alfo a cuflom of matching two wild beaP-?., moft com- 
monly elephants; and having given their own name 
to the one and that of the enemy to the other, they 
bring them together to fight in prefence of their army: 
but in this cuftom, they are not altogether to be con- 
demned for fuperftitious folly, fince they have the policy 
to make it a very iintqual match, and to give their 
own name to the ftrongeft. 

The art of influencing the vulgar to engage in 
any great undtrtaking. by the aid of thefe preju- 
dices, is rare, where the chiefs are themfelves alfb 
fuperftitiou- : but it frequently happens that great 
obftacles are by thefe means thrown in their way and 
many of their defigns made to mifcarry by artful peo- 
ple. In order to give an authentick reprefentation 
of fuch pradices, the following extradtof a letter from 
Colonel Laurence, to the Governor of Fort St. 
George, is here inferted. 

" We made one march nearer the enemy, and in* 
tended to have pofted ourfelves this day on the 
road between Wandewafli and Pondichery, but 
were prevented by the following unforefeen acci- 
dent. For fome days paft, the black people at- 
tending the camp, have been very fickly, and fome 
of them died every day, and that by almoftinftanta- 
neous deaths, owing partly to the feafon of the year, 
and in fome mealure to bad water. A Bramin, 
moft probably employed by the enemy, came into 
our camp, and by pretending infpiratiuns, he ga^ 
thered about him a crowd of Malabar people-, 
thefe he tlireatened with the vengeance of their 
gods if they folLnved the camp, and very artfully 
infinuated, that the prefent reigning ficknefs 
amongft them, was a punifhment inflided on them 
by their god, who was offended at their remaining 
with the Englifh. Upon this, all the* Cooleys 


* Blacks who are hired to carry the baggage, and fometimes 
to draw the guns. 


But what is the greateft obftacle of all, to tlieir be- 
coming a military people, is, that thofe who have once 
had fuch fuccefs in the field, as to obtain the name 
of Fortunate, being thereby confidered as invincible, 
and in confequence unmolelled for a time, are wil- 
ling to fave the needlefs expence of an army. For 
this reafon there are few veterans, and moft of their 
armies confift of an aflemblage of various people has- 
tily brought together from different pans j fo that 
there can be no fuch thing as difcipline, without 
which, numbers are but an impediment, and bravery 

Notwithftanding they have fo feverely fufFered by 
being furprized in the night by the Europeans -, they 
can never be brought to eflablifh either order or vigi- 
lance in their camp : and when they have a6\ed with 
us as allies, the moft earned remonftrances could ne- 
ver prevail with them to be lufficiently upon their 
guard, when in the neighbourhood of the French, or 
to quit their ground in the * morning, to co-operate 
with us in furprizing the enemy. 

At the dole of the evening, every man eats an in- 
conceivable quantity of rice, and many take after it 
fome kind of foporific drugs -, fo that about mid-night, 
the whole army is in a dead fleep : the confequence 
of thv",fe habits is obvious ; and yet it v/ould appear a 
ftrange propofition to an Eaftern Monarch, to endea- 
vour to perfuade him that the fecurity of his throne 
depended upon the regulation of the meals of a com- 
mon foldier : much iefs would he be prevailed on to 
reftrain him in the ufe of that opium, which is to warm 
his blood for adtion, and animate his foul with he- 
roilm. It muft fill the mind of an European foldier 
at once with compaflion and contempt, to fee a heap 
of thefe poor creatures, folely animated by a momen- 
tary intoxication, crowded into a breach, and both 

B 4 in 

• Sec Page. 193 


in their garb and impotent fury, refembling a mob of 
frantic women. 

There is certainly an appearance of effeminacy in 
the Eallern drefs, which has at all times greatly con- 
tributed to leffen their military chara6ler with the 
Ruropean nations, who, from their own habits and 
prejudices, will naturally receive a ftrange imprelhon, 
upon feeing a body of horfe in filk or cotton robes. 
Tbefe laft mentioned particulars are not infifted on 
as any part of the argument ; the foregoing accounts 
will fufficiently demonflrate, that a nation under 
fuch circumftances, can never become a military 

And yet, there is no charaiffer they are fo fond of 
as that of a warrior ; and as they have no bther no- 
tion of government, they have been, from time im- 
memorial continually at war with one another. They 
will ftill talk in a very high flrain of their paffion 
for military glory •, and as the word z/w^, in their 
language, iignifies a foldier, it will appear, by the 
frequency of that termination to moft of the names 
mentioned in the following fheets, how generally they 
affett the honour of that title. 

Upon this occafion, it would be great injuflice to 
our commanders on the coaft of Coromandel, not to 
obferve, that they have always had to contend with a 
fuperior body of Europeans, conducted by leaders of 
experience and rank in the French army. 

Thus far it has been requifite to relate fuch of the 
Aliatic manners, as may give fome light to the ac- 
counts of their military operations ; and it might 
perliaps be not altogether unpleafmg to the reader, 
nor ufelefs dn this occafion, to relate fomc far- 
ther particulars of the Moors, who are the govern- 
ing pe >ple of India, and particularly of the Mogul, 
To enter into a minute delcription of the cuffom 
of the Indians, though they were the original in- 
habitants (behdes that Bernier, Thevenor, Taver- 



nier, and * others, have treated of them at large) 
is not the defign of this work, and more particu- 
larly belongs to the commercial hiftory of thefe coun- 
tries. But for the illuilration of the events of vvar» 
the manners of the f Moors who have ufurped the 
government, are chiefly to be examined into. 

It is extremely difficult to give any recent account 
of thefe princes, as they are by cuftom proud, have 
a contempt for other nations, and admit no one to 
their courts, unlefs it be fuch as by any peculiar ta- 
lent may happen to adminifter to the gratification 
of fome prefent fancy, or to the relief of any difor- 
der they may labour under. They have an implicit 
faith in the abilities of the European phyficians. It 
is owing to this opinion, that Bernier was enabled to 
give fo ample and authentic an account of the life 
and manners of Aurengzebe. He travelled with 
him in his extraordinary journey to Cachemire, of 
which he has given a clear, comprehenlive, and 
moft entertaining journal. As Bernier's whole ac- 
count of the Mogul Empire, is fo full and inflruc- 
tive, it is much more proper to recommend the pe- 
rufal of it to the reader, than to tranfcribe, as is too 
often the pradice, from a book that is in every body's 
hands, and which is, throughout, full of uie arid 

But on the other hand, where there are books 
that, amidft a quantity of ufelefs matter, have (bme 
few curious particulars ; or when any fcarce trad is 
either out of print, or only to be found among large 
coUedtions ; in fuch cafe, it may be allowable to give 
extrads of the moft uieful palfages. The juftnefs 


* There is a very good account by Terry, chaplain to Sir Tho- 
mas Roe's embafly, printed along with the Englilh tranflation of 
Pietro de la Valle's travels to the Malabar coaft. 

-j- It is a great impropriety to call the Mahometan-ufurpers of 
India by the name of Moors : and yet, as the writers of all nations 
have always given them that appellation, it would now be a grc-i^- 
ter impropriety to deviate from that ufage. 


of the foregoing obfervation, will be fhewn, if the 
majority of readers fhall happen to be unacquainted 
with thejournalof fo eminent a perfon as Sir Thomas 
Roe, who was ambalTador from James I. to the Mo- 
gul Jehan Guirc, As no Englilhman has lately had 
the opportunity of fo familiar an intercourfe with thofe 
Monarchs, the accounts given by him of the fplendor 
of the Mogul, fo greatly diminifhed of late years, 
with fome particulars of his private life, may not im- 
properly be here inlerted : and it is to be remark'd, that 
fo flriit is their attachment to antient manners, that 
they never change their modes of life or fafliions ; 
and therefore whoever reads a defcription of them in 
any diftant time, will have a moft exact reprefentation 
of their prefent manners. 

Extrad of a Letter from Sir Thomas Roe, to the 
Archbifhop of Canter bury y dated Adjmcre^ Janu- 
ary 29, 1615. 

* np H E S E people have no Written Laws, the 

* X King's judgment binds ; who lus and gives 

* fentence once a week with much patience, both in 

* civil and criminal caufes, where fometimes he fees 

* the execution done by his Elephants with too much 

* delight in blood. 

' His Governors of provinces rule by his Firmans, 

* which are his letters or commifliors authorizing 

* them, and take life and goods at pleafure. 

' In revenue he doubtlefs exceeds either Turk or 
' Perfian, or any Eaftern Prince, the fums I dare not 

* name : but the reafon, all the lands are his, no 

* man has a foot. He maintains all that are not me- 

* chanics, by revenues beftowed on them, reck- 

* oned by horfes ; and the allowance of many isgrea- 

* ter than the ellates of German Princes. All men 

* rife to greater and greater Lordfhips as they ad- 
' vance in favour, which is got by frequent prefents, 
' rich and rare. The Mogul is heir to all that die, 

* as 


XXV u 

as well thofe that gained it by their induftry, as 
merchants, i£c. as thofe that live by him. He 
takes all their money, only leaving the widow and 
daughters what he pleafes. To the Tons of thofe 
that die worth two or three millions, he gives fbme 
fmall Lordfhip to begin the world anew. The 
King fits out in three feveral places three times of 
the day, except fomething extraordinary hinders 
him ; an hour at noon to fee his elephants fight, 
from four till five to entertain all comers, to befeen 
and worfhipped -, from nine till midnight amidfl his 
principal men in more familiarity, being below 
among them. 

* All the policy of his ftate is to keep the greatefl 
men about him, or to pay them afar off liberally *. 
There is no council, but every officer gives the King 
his opinion apart. He (meaning Jehan Guire, 
Grandfather of Aurengzebe) is of countenance 
cheerful, and not proud in nature, but only by ha- 
bit and cuftom, for at night he is very affable and 
full of gentle converfation. 

' The buildings are all bafe, of mud, one flory 
high. 1 know not by what policy the Kingfeeks 
the ruin of all the antient cities which were nobly 
built, and now lie defolate and in rubbilh. His own 
houfes are of flone, handfome and uniform. His 
great men build not, for want of inheritance, and 
as far as 1 have yet feen, live in tents or houfes worfe 
than our cottages.' 

A Letter of the fame date from Sir Thomas Roe, to 
the Eaft-India Company. 

' \ T my firft audience, the Mogul prevented 
' jf\. me in fpeech, bidding me welcome as to the 
* brother of the King my mafter : and after many 

* com- 

* And whether at home or abroad, to keep a great number of 
fples continually about them. 


* compliments, I delivered his Majefty's letter, with 
' a copy of it in Perfian : then I fhewed my commif- 

* fion, and delivered your prefents, that is, the coach, 
' the virginals, the knives, a fcarf embroidered, and 
' a fword of my own. He, fitting in his fhate, could 
' not well fee the coach, but fent many to view it, 
' and caufed the mufician to play on the virginals, 

* which gave him content. At night, having (laid 
' the coachman and mufician, he came down into a 

* court, got into the coach, and into every corner oi 
' it, caufing it to be drawn about. Then he fent to 

* me, though it was ten o'clock at night, for a fer 

* vant to put on his fcarf and fword after the Englifh 
' fafhion, of which he was fo proud, that he walk- 

* ed up and down fiourilhing it, and has never fince 

* been feen without it. But after the Englifh were 

* come away, he afked the Jefuit, whether the King 
' of England was a great King, that fent prefents of 
' fo fmall value, and that he looked for fomejewels. 

* There is nothing more welcome here, nor did I 

* ever fee men fo fond of drink, as the King and 

* Prince are of red wine, whereof the Governor of 
' Surat fent up fome bottles, and the King has ever 
' fince folicited tor more : I think four or five cafl« 

* of that wine will be more welcome than the richeft 
' jewels in Cheapfide." 

Extrads from Sir Thomas Roe's Journal. 

* np H E King having been far gone over night in 

* X wine, fbme, however accidentally or malici- 

* oufly, fpoke of the lafl merry night, and that many 
' of the nobility drank wine, which none muft do 
' without leave. The King forgetting his order, afl-i- 
' ed who gave it, and anfwer was made the Buckfhee ; 

* for no man dares fay it was the King when he 

* makes a doubt of it. The cuftom is, that when 

* the King drinks, which is alone, fometimes he will 

* command the nobility to drink after him, which if 



they do not, it is looked upon as a crime : and (6 
every man that takes a cup of wine of the officer, 
has his name writ down, and he makes his obei- 
fance, though perhaps the King's eyes are clouded 
The King not remembering his own command, 
called the Buckfhee, and allied whether he gave 
the order, who falfely denied it, for he had it 
from the King, and by name called all that drank 
with the Embaffador. The King then called for the 
lift, and the perfons named in it, and fined fome 
one, fome two, and fome three thoufand roupees ; 
and feme that were nearer his perfon, he caufed to 
be whipped before him, they receiving a hundred 
and thirty ftripes with a terrible inftrument, having 
at the ends of four cords, irons like fpur-rowels, fb 
that every ftroke made four wounds. When they 
lay for dead on the ground, he commanded the 
ftanders-by to fpurn them, and after that, the por- 
ters to break their ftaveson them. Thus moft cru- 
elly mangled and bruifed they were carried out : 
one of them died on the fpot, fome would have 
excufed it by laying it on the Embailador, but the 
King replied he only ordered a cup or two to be giv- 
en him. Drunkennefs is a common vice, and an ex- 
ercife of the King's, yet it is fo ftridly forbidden, 
that no man can enter the Guzelcan when the King 
fits, but the porters fmell his breath, and if he have 
but tafted wine, he is not fuffered to come in, and 
if the reafon of his abfence be but known, it will 
be a difficult matter toefcape the whip ; for if the 
King once takes offence, the father will not fpeak 
for the fon. 

' The fecond of September was the King's birth- 
day, and kept with great folemnity. On this day 
the King is -.veighedagainfl: fome jewels, gold, filver, 
ftuffs of gold, hlver, and f] Iks, butter, rice, fruit, 
and many other things, of every ibrt a little, which 
is all given to the Bramins, 

* He 


' He was fo rich in jewels, that I own in my hfc I 

* never faw fuch ineftimable wealth together. The 
' time was fpent in bringing his greateft elephants be- 

* fore him ; Ibme of which being lord-elephants, had 
' their chains, bells, and furniture of gold and filver, 
' with many gilt banners and flags carried about 

* them, and eight or ten elephants waiting on each of 

* them cloathed in gold, filk, and filver. 

* In this manner about twelve companies paflTed by 
' moft richly adorned, the firft having all the plates 
' on his head and breaft fet with rubies and emeralds, 
' being a beaft of wonderful bulk and beauty. They 

* all bowed down before the King, making their re- 
' verence very handfomely : this was the finefl fhow 

* of beafts I ever law, 

^ I found the iVIogul fitting on his throne, and a 
' beggar at his feet, a poor hlly old man, all ragged 

* and patched. The country abounds in this fort o{ 
*■ profefTed poor holy men -, they are called Fakeers *, 

* and held in great veneration : and in works ofmor- 

* tification and voluntary futFering, they outdo all 

* that ever has been pretended either by Hereticks or 
' Idolaters. This miferable wretch cloathed in rags, 

* crowned with feathers, and covered with afhes, his 
' Majetly talked with about an hour fo familiarly, and 

* There are few books of Voyagesamong the Turks or Indians 
which do not make mention of the Fakeers or Joguies. The for- 
mer is a Turkifii word, and fignifies poor, the latter is the Indian 
name for thcfe extraordinary faints, for fuch they are efteemed, 
and are called Santos at Cairo, and in many other parts It is well 
known that the veneration paid to the numerous body of thefe 
worthlefs and infolent beggars, is owing to the opinion of extra- 
ordinary fanftity which a few of this fe£t acquire by the per- 
formance of certain fingular and fantailical vows. Some have 
made a vow to hold their arms above their head till they contraft 
8 ftifFnefs, and can never be moved : others to keep their hands 
clenched till their nails grow through them : others to fit in chairs 
full of (harp nails, to drag a heavy chain, to carry valt weights about 
their necks, or fire on their heads. Some years ago one of thefe 
made a vow to meafure the length of the whole empire with his own 
body ; and at this time there is a Fakeer who every day rolls him- 
felf round the rock at Trichinopoly, which is a mile in circurofc- 


with fuch feeming kindnefs, that it mud needs ar- 
gue an humility not found eafily among Kings. 
The beggar fat, which the King's Ton dares not do. 
He gave the King a prefent of a cake mixed with 
afhes, burnt on the coals, and made by himfelf of 
coarfe grain, which the King willingly accepted, 
broke a bit -and eat it, which a nice perfon could 
fcarce have done ; then he took the clout that v/rap- 
ped it up, and put it into the poor man's bofom, and 
fen r for an hundred roupees, and with his own 
hand poured them into the poor man's lap, and ga- 
thered up for him what fell befides. When his col- 
lation or banquet, and drink came, whatfoever he 
took to eat he broke and gave the beggar half ; and 
riling, after many humiliations and charities, the 
old wretch not being nimble, he took him up in his 
arms, though no cleanly perfon durft have touched 
him, and embracing him three times, laying his 
hand upon his heart, and calling him father, left 
him and all of us in admiration. 
* While the King appeared at the window, two 
eunuchs flood on two trelfels with long poles, and 
feather-fans at the end of them, tanning him. He 
baftowed many favours, and received prefents. At 
one fide in a window were his two principal wives, 
whofe curiofity made them break little holes in a 
grate of reed that hung before it, to gaze on me : 
1 faw firft their fingers, and then, they laying their 
face clofe, firft: the one and then the other, I could 
fometimes difcern their full proportion. They were 
indifferently white, with black hair fmoothed up : 
but if there had been no other light, their diamonds 
and pearls had fufficed to fhow them. Wh^en I look- 
ed up they retired, and were fo merry, that I fup- 
poted they laughed at me. On a fudden the King 
rofe, we retired to the Durbar, and fat on the car- 
pets, attending his coming out Not long after he 
came and fat about half an hour, till his Ladies at 
their door had mounted their elephants, which were 

' about 


about fifty, all of them richly adorned, but chiefly 
with turrets on their backs, all incloled with grates 
of gold wire to look through, and canopies over 
of cloth of filver. Then the King came down the 
flairs with fuch an acclamation of health to the 
King, as would have out-roared cannon. At the 
foot of the flairs, where I met him, and fhuffled to 
be next, one brought a mighty caip, anodier a difh 
of white ftutf like flarch, into which he put his fin- 
ger, and touched the fifh, and fo rubbed it on his 
forehead : a ceremony ufed prefaging good fortune. 
Then another came and girt on his fword, and hung 
on his buckler, fet all over with diamonds and ru- 
bies, the belts of gold fuitable : another hung on 
his quiver with thirty arrows, and his bow in a cafe, 
being the fame that was prefented by the Perfian 
Embaflador. On his head he wore a rich turbant, 
with a plume of Heron's feathers, not many, but 
long: on the one fide a ruby unfet as big as a walnut, 
on the other fide a diamond as large ; in the mid- 
dle an emerald much bigger. His flafF was wound 
about with a chain of great pearl, rubies and dia- 
monds drilled. About his neck he wore a chain of 
three firings of mod excellent pearl, the largeft I ever 
faw. Above his elbows, armletsfet with diamonds, 
and on his wrifls, three rowsof feveralforts ; his hands 
bare, but almofl on every finger a ring ; his gloves, 
which were Englifh, fluck under his girdle. His 
coat of cloth of gold without fleeves, upon a fine 
femian as thin as lawn. On his feet a pair of bu(- 
kins embroidered with pearl, the toes fharp and tur- 
ning up. Thus armed and accoutred, he went to 
the coach that attended him with his new Englifh 
fervant, who wascloathed as rich as any player, and 
more gaudy, and had broke four horfes, which were 
trapped and harnelTed in gold and velvets. This was 
the firfl coach he ever fat in, made by that fent out 
of England, and fo like, that I knew it not but by 
the cover, which was a Perfian gold velvet. He 

' fat 


fat at the end, and on each fide went two eunuchs, 
who carried fmall maces of gold fet all over with ru- 
bies, with a long bunch of horfe-tail to flap the flies 
away. Before him went drums, bafe trumpets, and 
loud mufick. •, many canopies, umbrellas, and other 
flrange enfigns of majefty, made of cloth of gold, 
fet in many places with rubies. Nine led horfes, the 
furniture all garnifhed, fome with pearls and eme- 
ralds, fome only with ftuds enamelled. The Perfi- 
an Embaflador prefented him a horfe. Next be- 
hind came three palankeens, the carriages and feet 
of one plated with gold, fet at the ends with flones, 
and covered with crimfon velvet, embroidered with 
pearl, and fringes of great pearl, hanging in ropes 
a foot deep, a border about it fet with rubies and 
tmeralds : and a footman carried a footftool of gold 
fet with Hones. The other two palankeens were 
covered and lined only with cloth of gold. Next 
followed theEnglirti coach newly covered and richly 
adorned, which he had given to Queen Nourma- 
hal, who fat in it, After them a third, in which 
fat his youngeft fons. Then followed above twenty 
elephants royal, led for him to mount, fo rich in 
ftones and furniture that they glittered like the fun. 
Every elephant had fundry flags of cloth of filver, 
gilt fattin and taffety. His noblemen he fuffer- 
ed to walk on foot, which I did to the gate, and 
left him. His Wives on their elephants were car- 
ried half a mile behind him, 
' When he came before the door, \yhere was hisel- 
defl: fon kept prifoner, he ftayed the coach, and cal- 
led for him. He came and made reverence, with a 
fword and buckler in his hand, his beard grown to 
his middle, a fign of disfavour. The King com« 
manded him to mount one of the fpare elephants, 
and lb rode next to him, with extraordinary applaule 
and joy of all men, who are now fiilled with new 
hopes. The King gave him one thoufand roupees 
to call to the people. His Jailor, Afaph Chan, and 

C 'all 


aU tbofe monfters, were yet on foot : I took horfe 
to avoid the croud and other inconveniences, and 
crpfled Qu; of the Le(kar before him, waiting till he 
can:ie near his tents. He pafled all the waj' between 
. a guard of elephants, having every' one" a turret 
91(1 his back, and on the four corners of each, four 
'bajiners of yellow taffety, and right before a piece 
of cannon carrying a bullet as big as a tennis-ball, 
the gunner behind it. They were in all about three 
hundred. Other elephants of {late went before, and 
behind, about fix hundred, all of which were co- 
vered Vvith velvet, or cloth of gold, and had two 
"or three gilded banners : feveral footmen ran along 
the way with Ocins of water to lay the duft before 
the living. No horie or man was fufFered to come 
within two furlongs of the coach, except thofe that 
walked by on foot ; Co that I liafled to his tents to 
attend his alighting. They were vyalled in about 
half an Englilh mile in compafs, in form of a fort, 
with feveral angles and bulwarks, and high cur- 
tains of a coarfe, ItutF made like, arras, red on the 
outfide, and within figures in panes, witli a hand- 
fbme gatehoufe ; every poft that bore thefe up was 
headed with brafs. The throng was great : i had 
a mind to go in, but no one was permitted, the 
greatefl in the land fitting at the door ; however I 
made an offer, and they admitted me, but refufed 
the Perfian EmbaiTador. In the midfl of this court 
was a throne of Mother of Pearl, borne on two 
pillars raifed on earth, covered over with a high 
tent, the pole headed with a knob of gold : under , 
that, canopies of cloth of gold, and under-foot 
carpets. When the King entered, every man cried 
joy and good fortune^ and fo we took our places. 
He called for water, wafhed his hands, and depar- 
ted. His women went in fome other way to their 
apartments, and his fon 1 faw not. 

•' Within 


' Within this inclofure where about thirty divifi- 
ons with tents. All the noblemen retired to theirs 
which Vv'ere in excellent forms, Ibme all white, forae 
green, fome mixed, all inclofed as orderly as any 
houfe, in the mofh magnificent manner I ever faw. 
The vale fhowed like a beautiful city, for the bag- 
gage made no confuiion ; I was ill provided with 
carriages, and afhamed of m.y equipage •, for five 
years allowance would not have provided me an in- 
different tent anfwerable to others, and to add to 
the grandeur, every man has two, fo that one 
of them goes before to the next ground and is fet 
up a day before the King riles from the place 
where he is. 

ACircumllance which may appear trifling will 
greatly contribute to compleat the idea which 
'•^ir Thomas Roe has given us of the Moors in 

It happened there was among the prefents, a pic- 
ture of Venus leading a Satyr by the nofe. The 
Mogul when he faw this, fhewed it to his courtiers, 
and bid them remark the action of the woman, the 
blacknefs of the Satyr's Ikin, and other particulars, 
giving them to underftand, he confidered it as a re- 
flettion on the people of Afia, whom he fuppofed to 
be reprefented by the Satyr, as being of their com- 
plexion ; and that the Venus leading him by the nofe 
denoted the great power the women of that country 
have over the men. 

It was indeed too appofite an emblem ; and this, 
will give a juil reprefentadon of the luxurious indo- 
lence in which they pals the greateft part of their 
lives, except v/hen they are at war. As they fit for 
the moft part (when they are not with their wo- 
men) upon their fbfas, Imoaking, and amufing 
themfelves with their jewels, taking coffee or fweet- 
meats, feeing their quails fight, or fuch like paf- 

C 2 times J 


times; nothing farprizes them fo much as to fee ^ 
Europear. walk about a room ; and none but their 
very young people ever ride for amulement or ex- 
ercile only. 

Though Sir Thomas Roe reprefents the pride of 
the Mogul js fcarcely (upportable to an Englilliman, 
yet that Embailador appears to have been favoured in 
a very extraorcir.ary manner. The extreme difre- 
gard which the Ahatic Sovereigns naturally have for 
Europeans, is fully fet forth in the following exrratt 
from M. de Bully's letter publifhed in Mr. Dupleix's 
Memoirs, [t is a juft and moll authentic piclure 
of the haughty demeanor and alfuming arrogance of 
thofe people, and will prove what has been advanced 
of the very little intercourle we could have had with 

Extra5f of a Leiter from M. de BulTy. 

POUR bien apprecier I'etat prefent de la nation 
Francoife dans i'lnde, il faut fe rapeller ces terns 
d' humiliations oii les Francois etoient forces pour le 
bien de leur commerce, d'aller timidiment porter leurs 
prefens'& leurs homraagesa de petits chefs de Bourga- 
des que nous n'admetons aujourd'hui a nos Dorbards, 
que lorique nos interhs I'txigent •, Je ne parle pas 
d'un terns bien eloigne, il n'y a que fix ans que ce 
change m.^nt a commence; alors le Nabob d' Arcate 
tout perit Seigneur qu'il etoir, compare au Souba du 
Dekam dont il n'cto:t que le Fermier, traiter avec 
nous comme un Souverain avec fes fiijets. II prenoit, 
en ecrivant a nos Gouverneurs, un ton d'autorite 
bien humiliant pour la nation Francoife. Nous ne 
paroillions qu*en fupplians, & toiyours charges de 
prelens qu'il cxigeoit comme un tnbut. Quelqu'un 
de fes bas-pfficiers approchoit il de Pondichery, on en- 
voyoit par deputation le recevoir au loin, avec de 
grandes marques de confideration. En un mot, qui- 
conque fe difoit envoye de la part, etoit alTure d'etre 



crai'nt, refpede, charge de prefens de la notre. II fal- 
I'oit, difoit on, tout mettre en ufage pour ne point ir^ 
riter ces petits tyrans, dont le relTentiment pouvoit 
porter un prejudice confiderable au commerce. II 
etoit inoui alors qu'un Souba du Dekam abaiffat fa 
fiertejufqu' a ecrire a im Commandant General des 
FraiiCois. Qyand Nifam Elmoiilouk^ pere du Nabob 
regnant, vint dans la province d' Arcate pour repren- 
dre fur les Marattes la ville de ! ri'chenapoly toutcs 
les nations Europeennes s'emprefTerent a lui donner 
des marques de leur foumiliion & mirent tout en 
ii{age pour gngner fa bienveillance. Daigna-t'il ecrire 
a auciin de ceux qui les reprefentoient ? Non fans 
doute ; il ne daigna pas meme honorer d'un de fes 
regards les riches prefens qu'on jettoit refpedlueufe- 
ment a fes pieds, comme un hommage de depen- 
dance. Quelles etoient les bornes des ettablilTements 
de la compagnie avant I'expedition qui m'occupe de- 
puis quatre ans ? Pondicherv, Carikal, Chandernagor 
en compofoient a peu pres toute I'etendue. Pouroit- 
on franchir ces bornes fans faire des balTefies & des 
prefens, pour en obtenir la permiflion des FaulTedars 
oil Fermiers du pays ? 

A Tranilatiori of the foregoing. 

t r-|-« O'form a true judgment of the advantageous 

* A change in the affairs of the French in India, 

* we muft go back to thofe timics when they were 

* obliged, for the intereft of their commerce, in a 

* ferviie manner to carry their prefenls, and pay their 

* homage to thofe petty chiefs whom we do not at 

* prefent deign to admit to our Durbar,' except 

* when fome particular intereft requires it. I fpeak 
' not of diftant times, this change is within thefe 

* fix years. It was no longer ago that the Nabob of 
' Arcot, inconfiderable as he is in regard to the Sou- 

* ba of the Deckan, for he is but a farmer of his re- 
' Venues, behaved to us as a iovereign to his fub* 

C 3 jed^s. 


je(f\s. His letter to our Governours ran in a ftraiii 
of authority opprobrious to the French nation. 
We never appeared before him but as fuppliants 
carrying prelents, which he continually exaded 
from us. If any even of his inferior officers came 
towards Pondi chery, formal deputations were fent 
out to meet them with the greateft marks of re- 
fpefl. The utmofl: care was taken to avoid giving 
offence t;o thofe petty tyrants, whofe refentment 
might have prejudiced our commerce. 
' For a Souba ot the Deckan to condefcend to write 
to the Commandant General of the French, was 
a thing unheard of, and not to beexpefted. When 
Nizam al Mulk, father of the reigning Souba, came 
into the province of Arcot to retake Trichinopoly 
from the Marattas, the European nations ftrove 
who fhould give him the ftrongeft marks of their 
fubmillion, and omitted no means of gaining his 
favour : yet he deigned not to write to any of the 
Governors who reprefented thofe nations, and 
hardly honoured with a look the rich prefents, laid 
with all imaginable refped at his feet, as a token 
of their homage and dependence. 
* What were the bounds of the Company's eftab- 
lifhments before the expedition which has taken me 
up thefe four years .? Pondichery, Carical, and Chan- 
dernagore, where the whole of their extent : thofe 
bounds could not be paffed without fubmillion and 
pre(ents, to obtain leave from the farmers of the 

IT is evident from this lettei*^ how few Europeans 
have of late been acquainted with the interior 
parrs of the country. But M. de Bufly, by accompany- 
ing Salabatzing in all his motions, and fome of our 
own countryn-.en, from their intimate and familiar in- 
tercourfe with the governing people in * Bengal, have 


* When they were at Patna, they had conftant advices from Delii, 


had all advantages of information ; and it was 
from a certain knowledge, that the moft ample and 
iinftruftive materials for this purpole had been pro- 
vided in the country, and were now adually in Eng- 
land, that I defilled from the defign I had once en- 
tertained of entering on the affairs of Bengal. Be- 
fides, I had not engaged m any part of this work 
many weeks, before there appeared fome Memoirs 
of the Revolutions in Bengal, publifhed by a perfon 
principally concerned in them, which anticipated my 
purpofe of giving a flight view of thofe affairs : And 
whenever the publick fhali be favoured by thofe 
who are fo capable and fo well prepared thoroughly 
to explain not only the fecret fprings of the great 
events and revolutions, but alfo the civil, commercial, 
and natural hiftory of Bengal, it will appear how 
much more properly the hiilory of that province is 
left to thofe who had a perfonal Ihare in the tranfac- 
tions, and had themfelves feen and confidered the 
ftate of the country. If, contrary to my apprehenfi- 
on, the fame reafoning ought to have deterred me 
from attempting the relation of the war in the other 
parts of India, it will give me great pleafure to fee 
the hiftory of the Coafc of Coromandel alfo laid be- 
fore the publick in a manner more worthy their at- 




O N T H E 


From the Beginning of the Troubles to the Year 


H E authority of the Nabob Mahomet 
Allee Cawn having been difputed by 
the French, was the firft caufe of the 
war. I (hall endeavour to fhew how he 
founded his right, and with what jufticc 
the French fupported his competitors. I 
(hall trace it from the year 1730, as the different ap- 
pointments, made fince that time by the viceroys of 
the Deckan, have a necellary connedion with many 
parts of this narrative, and lead to a knowledge of 
the perfons principally concerned in this fcene of 

The viceroy of the Deckan, in the year 1730, 
was called Nizam Almuluck. According to his right 


4a- N A R R A T I V E OF the W A R 17.3S-, 

of nominating a Governor of the Carnatick, now 
more generally known by the name of the Nabob of 
Arcot, he appointed Sacc:t Allee Cawn, who was fuc- 
ceeded by his nephew Deull Alee Cawn, who gover- 
ned in the year 1740. 

Chunda Saib, a man of no family or riches, but 
endowed by nature with talents, and a capacity that 
made ample amends for what fortune had denied him, 
had the command of a fmall diftrid of country, and 
could bring about an hundred horle into the field. He 
ferved under Deuft Allee Cawn, to whom his genius 
foon made him known, and fo ufeful, that he advanced 
him, and married him to one of his daughters. 

The kingdom of Trichinopoly was then under the 
Gentou government. The king dying, left no chil- 
dren, and appointed his biother'is fon to flicceed. Tte'. 
dowager queen, fupporfed by her two brothers, put 
in a claim to the regency, till her eldefl: brother's fon 
was of a fit age to reign. There was a third party 
formed, by a relation of the deceafed.king, who de.- 
manded the throne as his rio;ht, and t>r6c2;ht a lar^r^ 
army to fupport his pretentions *. The king's party 
was foon thrown out of the competition, and the dil- 
pure continued between the queen and the king's re- 
lations. The queen applied to the Nabob of Arcot^- 
and he came to her afliftance, and with him Chunda 
Saib, as his general, who managed affairs fo well, 
that, having weaken'd both, he formed a ilronger 
party for himfelf, and waited wkh patience till his 
Icheme was ripe for execution. Under pretence of a 
vilit to the queen, he introduced himfelf and fome 
troops into the town, got poffellion of it,.piit to death 
all the different competitors, plundered and imprifon- 
ed the queen, who, finding no refource left, poifoned 
lierfelf ; firfl burning the alcoran on whicli Chu::da- 
Saib had fworn that his only vi'ew^ in this vifit Were 


* The Gentou queen's name was MenacKiafna. Hercorapetr^ 
tor, the king's relation, Tfinjcianaik. 

1738. ON THE COAST OF C O R O M A N D E L. 43 

to fhew marks of refped and regard. Thus the go- 
vernment of the kingdom of Trichinopoly was chang-^ 
ed in 1738, and llill continues under the Nabob of 
Arcot ; and is commonly given to one of his neareft 

In the year 1740, the Marattas invaded Arcot; 
and overthrew Deuft Allee Cawn in a battle which coft 
him his life. His fon, Subter Allee Cawn, on his 
father's death, fled to Madrafs, and there obtained 
the prote(5lion of Mr. Benyon, then governor. Soon 
after he received a grant from Nizam Almuluck, ap- 
pointing him Nabob of Arcot •, but, in the year 1744, 
he was treacheroufly murdered, at a feaft made by 
his brother-in law IVIoot is Allee Cawn, at Velloure, 
a ftrong fort, twelve miles from Arcot. 

Coza Abd ALLAH Cawn fucceeded him, and was 
himfelf, fhortly after, fucceeded by Anaverdy Cawn, 
our prefent Nabob's father, who was appointed, by 
the viceroy of the Deckan, nabob of Arcot, in the 
year i745- ' 

Chunda Saib remained at Trichinopoly till the year 
1 741, when the Marattas came a fecond time into the 
country, befieged the town, got poffeiiion of it, and 
took him prifoner. He was carried to Sattarali, the 
Marattas' capital, and there confined till 1748, the 
year in which Nizam Almuluck died. 

Nizam Almuluck left four fons, Gauzedy Cawn, 
Nazerzing, Salabatzing, and Nizam Allee. 

Though the fuccellion in this country is not heredi- 
tary, yet it commonly runs in the fame family, efpe- 
cially when the furvivors have power to make good 
their pretenfions, and money to fecure the Mogul's 
appointment. Gauzedy Cawn, the eldell fon, was 
then Bucfhee, or pay-matfer-general to the N^ogul, 
the fecond man in power, next to die Vizier, in this 
mighty empire. He having perhaps more ambitious 
views, refuied the viceroyaky of the Deckan, but 
made over his interelt to the fecond fon Nazerzing, 
who was appointed by the Mogul Shaw Hamet. 


44 N ARR AT I VE OF THE W A R 1749. 

Nizam Almiiluck had alfo a nephew, Eradmoodin 
Cawn, commonly called Muzapherzing, who, un hi.<? 
uncle's death, laidclaim to theCarnatick, founded, as 
he (aid, onapromife from his uncle. But Nazirzing 
refufed his confenr, and confirmed Anaverdy Cawn^ 
agreeable to his father's appointment. On thisrefufal 
Muzapherzing declared he would lupport his preten- 
ilons by open force. His firfi Hep was to go to Sat- 
tarah, and apply to Eallazerow, chief of the Marat- 
tas, for alfiflance. There he faw Chunda Saib, who 
flill remained prifoner. Muzapherzing engaged to 
get him releafed, and Chunda Saib, on his fide, pro- 
mifed to go to Pondichery, and influence Mr. Du- 
pleix to aflifl and fupport him in his caufe. The Ma- 
ratta chief confented to every thing, and promifed his 
afliftaiice. He kept his word in regard to the relea- 
fing of Chunda Saib, but fent no troops. Chunda 
Saib fet out for Pondichery, in 1748, and Muzapher- 
zing prepared to raife an army. 

Chunda Saib fucceeded, made fome prefents, and 
promifed much more •, and, when Muzapherzing 
was ready, they were joined by fix hundred French, 
and a train of artillery. In July 1749, they marched 
for Arcot, and there encountered Anaverdy Cawn^ 
who loft the vitlory and his life. His eideft fon^ 
Mauphus Cawn, was taken prifoner, and his fecond 
fbn, Mahom.ed Allee Cawn, the prefent Nabob, made 
the beft of his way to his government of Trichinopoly, 
waiting there for an opportunity to revenge his fa- 
ther's death. The vidorious army purfued the blow, 
took Arcot, and over-ran the whole province. They 
afterwards returned to Pondichery, where Muza- 
pherzing appointed Chunda Saib Nabob of Arcot, 

They remained quiet at Pondichery, till Admiral 
Bofcawen failed for Europe, not daring to move till 
he was out oi fight. The day after Odlober 21, i 749, 
they took the field, and raifed contributions all over 
the country. The king of Tanjore, having refufed 
to acknowledge Muzapherzing, or Chunda Saib, 
they marched and laid liege to his capital. The 



French were commanded by Mr. Law, nephew of 
the famous Milfifippi Law. They foon made a 
breach, but the troops within feeming determined 
to defend it, they were afraid to venture an aflauh. 
By protratfting the fiege, the people in the town were 
reduced to their laft barrel of powder ; but, how- 
ever, they fayed the place, by compounding for fome 
lacks of * roupees in ready money, and a bill for le- 
venty-five lacks more. The enemy railed the fiege, 
but, after one day's march, the French army return- 
ed, and infilled on a ftjm of money for themfelves, 
alledging that they had not received any part of what 
was paid. However, it was to no purpole, for the 
king of Tanjore, having received in that time a rein- 
forcement of Sepoys and gunners, and a large quan- 
tity of powder from Trichinopoly, refufed to give any 
more. Still the breach remained open, which the 
French would not attack. In the mean time, certain 
accounts came of Nazerzing's march from Aurenga- 
bad towards Arcot, in order to punilli Muzapherzing, 
and Chunda Saib, for their rebellion. This obliged 
them to raife the fiege a fecond time in good earned, 
and retiirn to Pondichery. This pafled in January 

Ever fince Anaverdy Cawn's defeat, his fon, Ma- 
homed Allee Cawn, had defired our alliflance It 
was neceifary to put a ftop to the progrefs of the 
French, whether in juflice to alfift the lawful prince 
againft rebels, or as an a6t of felf-defence, and to 
prevent an increafe of power in an opprelTive neigh- 
hour, that muft at laft, have proved our ruin. This 
determined us to protect the Nabob Mahomet Allee 
Cawn, till we could know Nazirzing's determination : 
captain Cope was therefore lent with a detachment to 

Nazirzing had given orders to the Nabob tojoin 
him on his march, in obedience to which hef^t out 
from Trichinopoly, at the head of a large army of 

* Alack of roupees is about 42000 I. (lerling. 

46 N A RR ATI VE OF THE W AR 1750. 

liorfe, and the Englifh detachment commanded by 
Captain Cope, and joined Nazirzing at* Waldore, in 
February 1750. As it isculloraary amongft all Eastern 
princes to make prefents on the ririt vilit, when the 
Nabob waited on Nazirzing, he afked him what he 
had brought : the Nabob took Captain Cope by the 
liand, ana, prefenting him, faid he had brought that 
gentleman and the aillfiance of the Englifh nation, 
N zirzing was pleafed with the anfvver, conferred 
fome honours on Captain Cope, and, a few days after, 
appointed Mahomed AlleeCawn to fucceed his father, 
is Nabob of Arcctand Trichinopoly. 

JVIuzapherzing and Chunda Saib marched out of 
Pondichery with their army, and two thoufand Euro- 
peans commanded by Mr. Dauteuil, with a large 
train of artillery, and a numerous body of Sepoys. 
They took polt within a few miles of Nazirzing, at 
whole earneit and repeated requeli, I marched with 
fix hundred men, accompanied with Mr. Weftcott, 
one of ihe council, with a commilllon to treat with 
Nazirzing, in which we were aihiled by Captain Dal- 

We joined him at ^ illanure, and were very graci- 
oufiy received, fui table to the dignity of an Eaftern 
prince, at the head of three hundred thouiand men, 
of which he declared me Ceneralifiimo. He propo- 
fcd to me to attack the enemy immediately ; I told 
him, in the Eaftern ftile, that he muft be fure of vic- 
tory v/herever he fought, yet the attack might be at- 
tended with fome difficulty, and coft him the lives of 
many brave men, as the enemy were ftrongly pofted-f, 


* A fort fome miles weft of Pondichery. 
■\- The French were en r:nched, and hnd 20 pieces of cannon. 
Nazarzing had 800 ; but his principal officer of artillery was an 
Irishman, for the natives, in general, think every European an En- 
gineer. I happened to find fault wiih this gentleman's difpofition 
of his artillery, which v/as in a hoilov/. where his cannon were 
hid. He gravely replitd, "What, did ' 'hink him mad, or foolifh 
" epough, to evpofc his excellency's cannon, by placing it on a 
*' rifing ground r" 

1750. ON TiiE COAST OF CO ROM A.N DEL. 47 

and had with them a large train of artillery. But that, 
if he plealed to march between them and Pondiche- 
ry, he might, by cutting off their communication, 
oblige them to fight at a greater difadvantage. 

However jufl my propofal might be, his anfwer 
was as follows : What ! ftiall the great Nazirzing, the 
fon of Nizam al Mulk, even for an advantage, feem 
to retreat before fo defpicable an enemy ? no, he would 
march and attack them in front. 1 told him he might 
do as he pleafed, I was ready to fupport him. 

The two armies were fo near, that the next day 
we cannonaded, and were drawn out to engage. 

In this fituation, a melTenger came to me from Mr. 
Dauteuil, to acquaint me, " That although v/e were 
'' engaged in different caufes, yet it was not his de- 
** fign nor inclination, that any European blood fhould 
^' be fpilt : but as he did not know our poll, fhould 
'* any of his fhot come that way, and hurt the Eng- 
" lifh, he could not be blamed." I fent him for 
anfwer, " That 1 had the honour of carrying the 
" Engliili colours on my flag gun, which if he plea- 
*' fed to look out for, he mig'it know from thence 
*' where the Englifh were potted ;" and I afTured 
him, I fliou'd alio be very loth to fpiii European 
blood •, but, if any fliot came that way, he might be 
afTured I would return them. 

To know, I fuppofe, vi^hether I was in earnefi:, a 
fhot was fired from their battery over our heads : I 
ordered three guns to anfwer to it, and faw them well 
pointed, Mr. Dauteuil feeing us refolved not to look 
tamely on, and probably fearing the fucce/^^ of an ac- 
tion, thought it more prudent to retreat in the night. 
Left his heavy artillery fhould retard him, he, for 
the greater expedinon, left eleven pieces behind ; and 
what was worfe, part of his artillery-men tv'ith them, 
the better to conceal his defign ; for he gave out, he 
was only going to alarm our camp in the night, and 
would be back in the morning. 



Nazirzing having immediate notice of his retreat, 
foon routed Muzapherzing's and Chunda's Saib's 
forces; fell in with the unfortunate French gunners 
left behind as a facrifice, and cut moft of them to 
pieces. We faved 3s many as we could, taking them 
by force out of the hands of the Moors, got their 
wounds drelTed by our furgeons, and took all the care 
of them that humanity required of us. In return, 
Mr. Duf)leix wrote a long proteft againft me, for 
making French fubjeds prifoners in time of peace ; 
but the poor fellows, more fenfible of the obligations 
they were under to us, very gratefully acknowledged 
our tender ufage, and confefled it was entirely owing 
to us that they were faved, 

The fame night a large detachment of Marattas 
from Nazirzing's camp, commanded by Morarow *, 
v/ere fent in purfuit of Mr. Dauteuil. They came up 
with him the next day. Mr. Dauteuil formed his 
men into a fquare. Morarow attacked and broke it 
with only fifteen men, imagining his whole party in 
his rear ; but feeing his danger, he with that handful, 
when furrounded, boldly pufhed for it ; and breaking 
through the oppofite fide, cleared his way with fix 
men, having loft nine in the attack. 

On the retreat of the French and their army being 
difperfed, Muzapherzing fuhmitted to, and im- 
plored the mercy of his uncle, who received, 
him into his camp, and detained him as a ftatc 
prifoner ; but Chunda Saib, whofe fole depen- 
dance was on Mr Dupleix, continued obftinate, and 
retreated with the French to Pondichery. Muza- 
pherzing's fubmiflion, as will rhordy appear, was on- 

• Morarow, whofe name often occurs in this narrative, is a Ma- 
ratta, who by fupporting the divifions in the country, has made 
bimfcif confiderable from a fmall beginning; he fides with no 
party but as he finds his advantage in it, and as eafiiy changes fides i^ 
i)e commands about 3000 very good horfe. When he is not em- 
ployed or paii by any prince, he fcours the country for himfelf, 
and raifes contributions where he can get moit, and with leaft 
rifque. His real mafter i? the Nanah Shaw Raja ; but he obeys 
disorders juil as they are conducive to his own intereih 

1750- ON THE Coast OF COROM ANDEL. 49 

ly politic, and, that he might be nearer at hand, to 
concert a fcheme, which in a few months was put 
in execution, at the expence of his uncle's life. The 
coniequence of the victory was the retaking of Arcot, 
which again acknowledged its lawful mailer. 

Mr. Dupleix, after this dilgrace, ^rote; a. long let- 
ter to Nazirzing^ which he would not open or read 
but in our prcience. Though he pretended fubmilli- 
on to the viceroy, he had ftill the prcfumption to dic- 
tate to him, and infiR, that none of the*family of 
Anaverdy Cawn fhould ever govern the province of 
Arcot. AmbafTadors came alio to treat publickly for 
an accommodation, but their real bufmefs was pri- 
vately to concert meafures with Shanavas Cawn, Na- 
zirzing's prime minifter and the * chiefs of the con- 
fpiracy, which was firfh laid in Fondichery by Chunda 
Saib and Mr. Dupleix, who promifed to aififl: them 
to theutmofl of his power, as it plainly appeared af- 
terwards. Though this was carried on with great fe- 
crecy, I had information that fome defign was on foot 
againft Nazirzing, and that Shanavas Cawn was prin- 
cipally concerned in it. I therefore defircd my inter- 
preter to acquaint Nazirzing with what I had heard^ 
and in particiilar what concerned his prime minifter. 
But fo great were the apprehenhons of the perfon we 
employed as linguift, that he did not dare to fay what 
I diretted him, nor accufe a perfon in fuch high fa- 
vour and power as Shanavas Cawn, who was prefent^ 
f ) much did he dread his refentment, which I plainly 
difcovered from the anfwers I received from Nazir- 
zing, and the confufion of the interpreter.. 

D Part 

* The two princlpnls of which were the Nabobs of CadapaK 
and Condanore. Thefe NaboSs are under the viceroy of the 
Deckan ; their country is in the Subalhip of Golconda ; they h^.\'e 
in their pay numbers of Patans, who are reckoned the beH: ibldi'^rs 
amongll thefe ealtern moors : as the policy of this ill ruled empire 
requires frequent afi'iiiinations, thefe Patans are efteeined very 
ufeful in that kind of villamv. 


Part of our inftrudions to Nazirzing were, to ob- 
tain an enlargement of our bounds round MadralSj 
which he frequently promifed, and certainly intend- 
ed to perform, had not his minifter, who was in an 
oppoilte intereft, contrived todifappoint us, by delay- 
ing and putting us off from time to time. Seeing 
ourfelves only amufed, we prefTed our demands with 
more earnefhiefs, and Nazirzing promifed we fhould 
be immediately fatisfied ; but defired we would 
march with him to Arcot, a propofal we could by no 
means, as it would have left our fettle- 
raenis and frontier bounds expofed to the infults of 
2000 French, and Chunda Saib, who at this time 
was raifmg another army. We alfb endeavoured to 
make him fenfible, that his march to Arcot removed 
him too far from his enemies, who were only wait- 
ing for a favourable opportunity to renew the troubles. 
That it was eafy for him, by ftaying where he was, 
to finifh the bufinefs efFe(5\ually, and to diftrefs his 
enemies, by cutting off their communication with the 
country, and thereby oblige them to accept of what- 
ever terms he would pleale to offer them. But the 
more we urged againft his march to Arcot the more 
his favourite prefl'ed him to it. Our removal from 
him was the great object of the party, that had re- 
folved his ruin. 

Finding all our endeavours were of no weight 
againfl a determined Icheme, we marched to our fet- 
tlements, and Nazirzing to Arcot, where, lulled inta 
a I'ecurity, by what he was willing to look upon as 
a victory, he gave himfelf up entirely to the pleafures 
he was fondefl of, women and hunting. Nothing 
was omitted by the faction to amufe him, and take 
off his attention from bufinefs, or whatever might 
lead to a difcovery of the defigns which were carrying 
on againft him. 

The detachment commanded by Morarow, fent in 
purfuit of the French, when they retreated from Na- 
zirzing encamped near Fondichery, with their ufual 



eareleffnefs. The French attacked them in the night, 
when they httle expected, and were as little prepared 
for an enemy, and eafily put them td the rout, killed a 
great many, and got pofTefrion of their camp and 
baggage. This fllccefs animated the French, and 
they once more took the field with Chunda Saib, and 
marched for Trivtdy, a fortified pagoda, fituated 
about fixteen rriiles weft of fort St. David, which being 
garrifon'd only by country troops, they foon got pol- 
leifion of it. 

The Nabob, Mahorriet-Allee Cawn, who had at- 
tended Nazirzing to Arcot, and was conftantly prel^ 
fmg him to return to the charge, defired a party fronl 
the army, to oppofe and punifh the French, and 
Ghunda Saib : and at the fame time applied to the 
Englilh for a body of Europeans, and a train of artil- 
lery. Captain Cope therefore, with 400 of the mili- 
tary, and a body of fepoys, marched td his affiftance ; 
and in coniundion they moved towards the enemy. 
I Ihould at that time have taken the field myfelf, but 
the chair becoming vacant by the removal of Mr. 
Floyer, I was obliged to take the government till Mr. 
Saunders, who was appointed to fucceed, could comd 
from Vizagapatam, and foon after his arrival, I em-» 
barked for England. 

The Nabob had agreed to pay the whole expence 
of our troops in the field ; but a large prefent to Na- 
zarzing for his commiiTion having exhaufted his trea- 
fiiry, inftead of money, we got only trifling excufes> 
with which he put us off from day today, till at laft 
the expences falling entire upon us, and the Nabob, for 
want of magazines and money, being unable td 
rharch his arriiy between the French and Pondichery, 
Captain Cope had oiders to return. 

The very next night after, the French and Chunda 
Saib attacked the Nabob in his camp. It could not 
be called a battle, but a rout ; the troops, inftead 
of fighting? running away in fmail parties, every 
thing fell into the victor's hands ; even the Nabob,- 

D 2, with 

52 NARR A TI VEoF THE WAR 1750. 

with difficulty made his efcape, almoft fingiy, and un- 
attended, to Nazirzing. 

The enemy did not remain idle, but followed the 
blow ; and partly by threats, partly fair promifes, got 
pofTeflion of Gingce, a place exceeding ftrong by 
nature, and not ill fortified, according to the eallern 
manner. They took care to fecure tlieir new con- 
queft by a ftrong garrifon, fupporting it well with ar- 
tillery and ammunition. 

Nazirzing, rouzed from his lethargy by the lofs of 
Gingee, and refle<f\ing on its confequences, immedi- 
ately marched frcm Arcot to retake that important 
place, declaring he would facceed or never return, 
^•luzapherzing and his faction now thought it a pro- 
per time to put their Ichemes in execution -, Nazirzing 
with his army furrounded Gingee ; the French, and 
Chunda Saib were encamped under the walls. 

Nothing now was wanting but to ftrike the blow, 
which was concerted in the following manner. The 
French were to attack that part of the camp which 
the Nabobs of Cadapah and Condanore occupied, and 
their troops had inftrucl:ions to make no reiiftance. 
The Nabobs had engaged on their part to alTaffinate 
Nazirzing at his firft appearance, on the alarm. The 
attack was no fooner begun, but the two Nabobs made 
diredly for Nazirzing's tent, and meeting him as he 
came out, ihey intreated him to mount his elephant 
and punilli the rebels. The unfortunate prince was 
difpofing himleh to follow their advice, when the 
ftroke was given, the one ftabbing him with a poniard, 
while the other iTiot him with a piftol. His head 
was fevered from his body, fixed on a fpear, and 
brought to his nephew Muzapherzing, who being im- 
mediately rekafed, and mounted on his late uncle's 
elephant, was proclaim'd through the camp Viceroy 
of the Deckan. Little or no refiflance was made any 
where; fo general was the conlternation, that every 
body thought of faving themfelves, not knowing who 
were friends or enemies, nor how to oppofe a fuc- 



cedion they fo little expef^ed. The French pufhed 
their way to Nazirzing's tents, where was found an 
immenfe treafure, in money and jewels, by which many 
made their fortunes, but none fo largely as Mr.Dupleix, 
a fortune, by all accounts, not to be equalled at that 
rirne, by any fubjecl in Europe. 

To perpetuate the memory of this famous vidory, 
which the French had boafted of as fuperior to any 
thing of the kind recorded in hiflory, Mr. Dupleix, 
near the place where the maflacre was committed, 
caufed a town to be built, called Dupleix * Fateabat, 
and to record the fhare the French had in it, a pillar 
now lies at Pondichery, defigned to be ereded in the 
market place, with a pompous Latin infcription, giv- 
ing an account of the engagement, and the French 
valour. Unluckily future ages will not be the wifer 
for it ; for captain Clive, a year after, in retaking 
the Arcot country, burnt the town, and deftroyed the 
monument on which the Pillar was to have been 

The vidcrious army returned to Pondichery in Ja 
fiuary 1 75 1 , with a moft fumptuous train of the princes 
of the Deckan, and divided the fpoil. Muzapherzing 
declared Chunda Saib Nabob of Arcot, and all its de- 
pendencies, and alTociated Mr. Dupleix in the go- 
vernment v/ith him.felf On this Mr. Dupleix adum- 
ed the ftate and formalities of an eaftern prince. He 
held his Durbar 'in the palace at Pondichery, and fuf- 
lered neither the natives, nor his own countrymen to 
approach him without a prefent after the eaftern man- 
ner, he mounted his elephant, and was proclaimed 
Nabob. Mahomed Allee Cawn efcaping with the 
utmoft difficulty, and without attendants, made the 
beft of his way to Trichinopoly, notwithftanding the 
great fearch made to feize his perfon. 

It was agreed at Pondichery, that Chunda Saib 
Ihould raife an army, and aflifted by. the French,, 
endeavour to make good his appointment to the go- 
D 3 vernment 

* The place of viflory. 


vernment of Arcot under Mr. Diipleix : that Muza* 
pherzing lliould march with the late Nazirzing's 
army to Aurengabad, the uliial refidence of the prin- 
pes of the Deckan ; accompanied by Mr. BuiTy, at 
the head of 600 French, 3000 fepoys, and a large 
train of artillery. They began their march the be- 
ginning of 1751, and on the road the two Nabobs 
of Cadapah and Condanore, jealous of Muzapher- 
zing and the power of the French, and not think- 
ing themfelves fiifficienily rewarded, upon various 
pretexts fomented a quarrel, till at length they pro- 
ceeded to farther outrages, which produced an en- 
gagement. The Patans advanced to attack the 
French, but were unable to ftand the cannonade. 
After they were obliged to retire, they fell upon Mur 
zapherzing's flank, routed his troops, and in fome 
meafure revenged Nazirzing, in the death of his ne-r 
phew, the chief of the confpirators. A great many 
of the Patans were killed, and arnong the reft the 
Nabob of Condanore. 

The n=xt day, the chiefs of the army proclaimed 
Sallabatzing, brother to Nazirzing viceroy of th^ 
Deckan, thoi]gh there was a ftrong party for the fon 
of Muzapherzing. At this time the troubles at the 
court of Delly, prevented the Mogul from fetding; 
the affairs of the Deckan ; he only made an ap- 
pointment of Gawzedy Cawn to the government, and 
refolved to fu pport him with an army, when the ftate 
of his affairs would permit. The new prince * fent 
Saneds to Mahomed Allee Cawn in the month of 
March, confirming him Nabob of Arcot. 

Upon the death of Nazirzing, captain Cope was 
again fent in January 1751, with a flrong detachment, 
to fuppo'rt the Nabob in Trichinopoly, after an offer 
made to Chunda Saib and his allies, of the quiet pof^ 
felhon of the whole province, except that fort and 
its dependencies. 


^ Saneds are ccmn-iiflipns or grants for particular countries. 


Chunda Saib and the French treated this propofal 
with the higheft contempt, and immediately raifed 
troops and took the field. We colledted about five 
hundred men from all our garrifons, and fent them 
under the command of captain De Gingins to obferve 
their motions, who finding their intentions were for 
Trichinopoly, moved that way alfo ; and at the fame 
time, a party from that garrifon, of about j 10 men, 
marched to meet captain De Gingins, followed by 
what troops the Nabob could raife, commanded by 
his brother Abdiel Vahob Cawn. The firfl party 
met captain De Gingins at Verdachilum, and from 
thence the army moved in conjundion to Volconda, 
where they were alfo joined by the Nabob's forces, 
amounting in the whole to about 2000 horfe, 3000 
fepoys and 600 Europeans, 

Volconda is a confiderable town about 45 miles 
from Trichinopoly, in the road to Arcot. The go- 
vernor at firft feemjng in our intereft, amufed us for 
two days, with promifes to deliver up the fort ; but 
foon after Chunda Saib and the French appearing, 
he threw off the mafk, and declared againft us. The 
next night we attacked the fort without fuccefs, and 
the army, after fome lofs, was obliged to retreat to 
Outatour, 1 7 miles from Trichinopoly. 

The enemy's army, ccnfifting of about 6000 horfe, 
4000 fepoys, and 600 Europeans, followed our army 
to Outatour, and encouraged by the fuccels of an am- 
bufcade, in which fome of our men fell, by following 
too clofely a party of Chunda Saib's horfe, they at- 
tacked our camp, but were repulfed : however, not 
thinking our po/l tenable, fhould the enemy repeat 
their attack, we retreated to the banks of the Cole- 
roon, facing Trichinopoly. Chunda Saib's army in- 
creafing daily, our people thought themfelves obliged 
lalfo to quit that poft, and to crofs the river to the 
ifland oppofite Trichinopoly. The enemy ftill fol- 
Jowing, we abandoned that poft, and palling the 

D 4 river 

56 N ARR ATI VE OF THE W AR 1751. 

liver Cauvery the 17th of July» we encamped under 
the walls of Trichinopoly. 

Chunda Saib and the French immediately took pof- 
fellioii of our poll, and raifed fome batteries againft 
the town, from acrofs the river j but finding the dif- 
tance too great, even for a fhot at almolt its greateft 
range, they left a party to fecure Seringam Pagodas 
and croliing the river, encamped on the plain on the 
eaft iide or the town, at the French Rock, and there 
contented themfelves with cannonading and throwing 
in fome fhells. 

1 he Nabob beginning then to be in want of men 
and money, applied to the King of Maillbre, who 
fupplicd him indeed with both, but in fmall parties, 
and fmaller fams at a time, the com.mon way of do- 
ing bufmefs in this country. 'Thus remained af- 
fairs at Trichinopoly, the enemy contenting them- 
f.lves v,'ith a ufelels cannonade, which however they 
adorned with all the terms of the moft regular fiege ; 
and we waiting for our promifed reinforcement, en- 
camped under the walls of the fort, to keep our com- 
munication as open as poiTible. 

The French bringing almoft their whole force into 
the field with Chunda Saib, and leaving Arcot but 
poorly dbfended. a fcheme was laid to reduce part of 
that country to the Nabob's obedience. Captain 
Clive comm.anded the party. This expedition was 
attended v/ith uncommon fuccefs, which fome people 
were pleafed to term fortunate, and lucky i but, in 
niy opinion, from the knowledge 1 have of the gen- 
tleman, he deierved, and might expe(!:1 from his con- 
dud every thing as it fell out. A man of an undaunt- 
ed refolution, of a cool temper, and a prefence of 
mind, which never left hjm in the greateft danger. 
Born a foldier,for without^ military education of any 
fort, or much converfing with any of the profeffion, 
from his judgment and good fenfe, he led an army 
like an experienced officer, and a brave foldier,- with 
a prudence that certainly warranted fuccefs. This 



young man's early genius furprifed and engaged my 
attention, as well before as at the fiege of Davecottah, 
where he behaved with courage and judgment, much 
beyond what could be expeded from his years, and 
his fucceis afterwards confirmed what I had faid to 
many people concerning him. 

Captain Clive, in the month of Auguft, having 
joined a detachment of our army at Trichmopoly, was 
loon recalled for the intended expedition ; and being 
arrived at Madrafs, he marched with 300 Europeans, 
and about 500 fepoys. His officers were chiefly 
Writers, or other fervants of the company, never 
before employed in a military capacity ; and yet, v/ith 
this force, he furprifed and took Arcot, the capital of 
the province, on the lirft of September. The French 
truly fenfible of this difgrace, and knowing the impor- 
tance of the place, concerted meafures to retake it, 
and collected all the men they could fpare under Raja 
Saib, fon to Chunda Saib, who, with a large detach- 
ment from his father's army, marched and invefted 
Arcot the twenty third of September. During the 
fiege, which lafted two months, they difmounted two 
eighteeii-pounders, upon which Mr. Clive, wrote the 
governor of Madrals word that he was m.ounting the 
laft eighteen-pounder he had left, but that he had flill 
three months provifions, and thought himfelf able to 
defend a breach whenever the enemy fhould make 
an affault. A party was detached from the army at 
Trichinopoly to fupport him., on notice of whofe ap- 
proach, the enemy refolved to make their laft effort ; 
they attacked the breach, and the fort in three diffe- 
rent places; at every attack they were beat off v/ith 
confiderable lofs, and captain Clive taking advantage 
of their confufion fallied out, and following the blow, 
took all their cannon, levelled their trenches, and re- 
turned to the fort. 

The party by this time came up, as alfo a detach- 
ment of Maratta's commanded by Budgerow a bro- 
ther of Morarow, which enabled captain Clive to 


5S N A R R A T I V E OF THE W A R 1751. 

take the field He marched out of Arcot in fearch 
of the French and Chunda's Saib's fon, nev^er giving 
them time to reft, but p/urfuing his good fortune, he 
took the forts of Timery, Cauvery-pauk, Aranie and 
Conjeveram, and compleated it by a total defeat of 
the enemy at Cauvery-pauk in the month of March 
1752. Their army was entirely deflroyed. and Raja 
Saib obliged to take rtielter in Pondichery, where M, 
Dupleix refufed to fee him. By this vidory, a large 
part of the Arcot country was recovered for the 

Before we enter on the affairs of Trichinopoly 
the chief fcene of our military operations, it will be 
requifite that the reader fhould be well informed of 
the fmgular circumftances of the Plain in which it is 
fituated. By comparing the following defcription with 
the accurate map annexe; the importance of the pofls 
and other objeds contended for, will be readily con- 
ceived and underftoocj. 

Trichinopoly is fituated on a plain which once was 
crowded with rich villages and plantations of trees, 
but fince the war, hardly a trace of either is left. 
The towi is in form of an obfong fquare, the longeft 
fides of which are Eaft and Weft. On the North 
runs 'the river Cauvery, lefs than half ^-mile from 
the fort. The town was formerly no more than a 
wall round the foot of a rock, in circumference a- 
bout twelve hundred yards. As the inhabitants in- 
creafed, the town was augmented to half of the pre- 
fent oblong, with a crofs wall, the traces of which flill 
remain ; the third augmentation was made to the 
fouthward, and inclofes the town as it now flands. 
It is at prefent near four miles in circumference, with 
a double enceinte of walls with round towers at 
equal diflances according to the Eaflern method of 
fortifying. The ditch is near thirty feet wide but 
not half fo deep ; and at different feafons it is more 
or lefs fupplied with water, but never quite dry. 
The outward wall is built of a grayilh Hone, eacji 



{lone from four to five feet long and all laid endr 
ways. It is about eighteen feet high, and four or 
five thick, without parapet or rampe, nothing but a 
fingle ftru-^ure of Hone, and is very properly called a 
v/all : the other is more properly a rampart. The 
diftance betwen them is about twenty-five feet, the 
height of the rampart thirty. The rampe is equal in 
thicknefs at bottom with the height 
1 I of the rampart, 30 feet, decreafing 
I I in thicknefs like the profile in the 
j j margin. The terreplein of the pa- 

rapet is about ten feet, and the pa- 
rapet is for the mofl: part, feven or 
eight feet high, covering the men 
( j entirelvj with loop-holes to fire 

thorough. Some baf"ions have been 
conftru6led by us, as regular and good, as the ground 
would admit of, built on the foundations of the round 
towers. They are moftly on the angles of the fquare 
and on the Weft face, about the middle of the curtain 
called Dalton's battery, even with the outward wall. 
The town is very well fupply'd from the river, by 
water courfes which dired the water into large fquare 
ponds or tanks that have communication by aqueduds. 
A moft extraordinary rock ftands in the middle of 
the old town, and is about 30Q feet high -, on the 
top of it is a pagoda which was of fmgular ufe 
to us the whole war ; its height commanding even 
as far as Tanjore which is forty miles. Here was 
conftantly ftationed a man with a telefcope who gave 
US by fignals and writing an account of all the 
enemy's motions. The buildings on this rock and 
thofe which are cut out on the fides of it are very fur* 
prifing works in a country where they have fo few 
tools to facilitate their labour. 

The foil on the Eaft and Weft fides for two 
miles round, and on the North fide as far as the river 
is rich and good, but does not run deep. After dig- 
ging a foot or two you find it rockey, £|nd to the 


6o N ARR ATI VE OF TH^ W AR 1751. 

fouth face, there is (o little mould that it will not admit 
of cultivation •, but every other part, in time of peace, 
J)roduces rice in great plenty. The plain runs in 
length from eaft to well about 19 miles; from the 
boundaries of the Tanjore kingdom, to the head of 
the ifland wefterly. its bread;h is unequal, from 7 
to 12 miles On the north it is bounded by the river 
Cauvery, and on the fouth by Tondeman's woods. 

The different rocks, v/hofe fituation and diflance 
are defcribed on the map, afford very good polls for 
an army, either as advanced ones, or to cover a Bank. 
The plain, though feemingly level, is full of hollow 
ways, fufficient to cbnceal or cover troops ; and gives 
a perfon who is thoroughly acquainted with the ground, 
great advantages. Water is always to be had on tiie 
plain, by fmking wells, and in fome places it is col- 
le(!:ted in batons, either formed by nature or art. This 
element is fo great and ufc^ful a blcfiing in this coun- 
tr)', that no pains are ipared in faving and keeping all 
that falls. However, the water on the plain is very 
unwholefome, as (landing v/aters generally are ; be- 
fides, it is fo impregnated with faltpttre, with which 
the earth abounds, that in fome places it is toobrack- 
ifh to be drank, and mofl commonly occafions 
bilious diforders. 

The ifland of Seringam is formed about 6 miles 
north-weft of Tricbinopoly, by the river Cauvery, 
Uhich divides itfelf into two branches. That to the 
northward takes die name of the Coleroon, that to 
the fouthward preferves its old name the Cauvery. 
Each of thefe ri\ ers, after a courfe of about 90 miles, 
empty themfelves into the fea. The Coleroon at 
Davecotah, the »^auvery near Tranquebar, at about 
20 miles diftance from each other. 

This ifland 15 miles eaft of Tricbinopoly, is fo 
narrov/, that both the rivers would rejoin in the fanie 
channel, were they not prevented by a high bank, 
which keeps them afunder. This bank was made at 
a great expence, and is conftantly kept in repair by 


1751. ON THE COAST OF C O R O M A N D E L. 6i 

the kinos of Tanjore. The ufe of it is to direct the 
courfe of the river Cauvery through that kingdom, 
by the means of water courfes and canals, which dif* 
tribute it into proper channels all over the country, 
and are the (cDurce of riches and fertility. The liver, 
by its natural courfe, waters the north fide of the 
kingdom, and by a large channel which they have 
made near the bank, the fouthern fide receives alfo a 
fufiicient quantity of that ufeful element, without 
which, in this part of the world there can be no ferti- 

The bank is about feven feet v/ide at top -, it rifes 
from the foundation with a Hope on each fide. This 
bank is as ftrong as wood, ftone, earth, and flraw 
can make it, and fufHcient to fjpport, and confine 
the currents on each fide. Its height from the com- 
mon level of the water is near 20 feet, to which the 
river can never rife •, (o that there is no danger ot an 
innundation. It is about a mile in length ; afterwards 
the land naturally widening, there need no niore pre- 
cautions to prevent the rivers from joining. A number 
of people are confiantly employed, to lee that the 
water makes no encroachments, and if it does, to ap- 
ply a remedy immediately. The repairs each vear 
are paid by a general tax on the country, which 
amounts to about 20000 pounds annually. The 
bank forms on the ifland, what I have called, in my 
narrative, the Pafs ; and by its pohtion and lituation 
it will appear how capable it is of defence, with a 
fmall number of men, even againfh an army. Above 
a mile diftant from it, to the eaft, was a fort called 
Koiladdy, which being built for the prefervation of 
the bank, was deflroyed by the enemy, about the 
time vy-e laft marched to 1 anjore. The enemy had 
often threatened to cut the bank if the king would 
not comply with their meafures ; at lafh they carried 
their threats into execution in the year 1 754 ; but 
luckily at a feafon when it was lead detrimental, for 
in three months, with our afliltance, it was repaired. 


Si N AR R AT I V E OF THE WAR 1751. 

However the damage in that little fpaceof time, and 
the coft of repairing it, amounted to fifty thoufand 
pounds j from whence may be ften how eafily the 
m afters of that bank may give law to the king of 
Tanjore ; and how much it is his interefl to be 3, 
friend to the Nabob of Trichinopoly, to vvhom he is 
obliged to pay tribute for the bank, three lack of 
rupees yearly. In this ifland, facing Trichinopoly, 
ftand the famoiiS Pagodas of Seringam ; fortie oth "rs, 
but not fo remarkable, called Jembikifhna, are at 
half a mile diftance to the eaft. Seringam is little 
more than a mile diftant from Trichinopoly. The, 
Pagodas are furrounded by feven fquare walls of 
flone ; each wall has a gateway in the middle of each 
fide of the fquare, pointing to one of the four cardi- 
nal points. The gateways are ornamented in the 
manner of that country, wrth crouded emblematical 
figures of their divinities. The principal gateway in 
the outward wall, which faces Trichinopoly, is si 
curious piece of arehitedture, though yet unfinifhed.- 
It is formed by pillars 32 ^cet high in the lliaft, with 
capitals. Four of thefe pillars are of one fhone each, 
but the largefl flones are thofe which are laid acrofs 
the top of the gateway ; they meafttrc ^^ feet long, 
and five and an half one way, and four feet ten inches 
the other. The fpace between the outward and fe- 
cond walls meafures 310 feet,- and fo proportionably 
between the reft. No Europeans are admitted into 
the laft fquare, it being the Sandum Sandorum, and 
few have gone farther than the third. 

Seringam was the pod occupied by the enemy all 
the war ; once indeed they fuffered by' taking fhelter 
there, but that was owing to our having the Marattas 
on our fide, and a fufficient number of troops to cut 
off their communication, and for want of provifions, 
obliging them to furrender. We never fmce had the 
fortune to be equal to them, much lefs fuperior, and 
by that meaps it has proved a fure refuge to them oii 
many occafions, and we have never had it in our 



power to difpoflefs them, fince the Maifforeans took 
poflelfion, in confequence of their agreement with 
the Nabob. It is an excellent poll for an army that 
can keep their communication open. The ground 
about it is fo full of difficulties, by hollow ways, and 
water courfes, that a befieging army muft run the 
hazard of lofing a great many men before they can 
carry their point. Jembikifhna has but a fingle 
enciente of wall, and nothing remarkable but its 
magnitude and vicinity to Seringam. 

Adjoining to Trichinopoly is the kingdom of Tan- 
jore, bounded on the north by the Coleroon, on the 
eafl by the fea, on the fouth by two countries which 
belong to two powerful Poligars, the one called Mar- 
ravar, the other Tondeman, and on the weft by 
Trichinopoly. The boundaries commence at 14 
miles diftance from the fort laft mentioned. Near 
the mouth of the Coleroon, we have a fort called Da^ 
vecotah, which once belonged to the kmgdom of 
Tanjore, but was taken by us while I commanded in 
the year 1749. The polTeffion of this has enabled us 
to fupport the Nabob and king of Tanjore, who is 
well pleafed with its being in our hands, and has 
therefore granted it to the company, with fome terri- 
tory annexed. The next fettlement on the coaft, 
given alfo by the king of Tanjore, belongs to the 
Danes, and is called Tranquebar. Next to that, the 
French have one called Carrical ; and to the fouth- 
ward of it the Datch have another, called Negapa- 
tam. Thirty miles from thence is a place called 
Adriapatam, which finifhes the territories of the king 
of Tanjore along the fea coaft. The diftance of the 
fir ft, Davecotah, from the laft is about 90 miles^ 
which is the broadeft part of his kingdom. It de- 
creafeth by degrees in breadth, and near Trichinopoly 
is 30 or at moft 40 miles wide. Its length from the 
weft to the lea is about 100 miles. The revenues of 
this fmall kingdom, well managed, may produce 
near a million yearly. The king was a friend to us 



and the Nabob the whole war •, that is, he found it 
his interelT: to be fo, becaufe he knew well the French 
and Maiflbreans wanted nothing iefs ilian his country, 
and we found it much our intercfl to keep him 
our friend, tlis country was the only communicati- 
on we had left with the coaflj for fmce the Maifib- 
reans and Marattas had joined the French, they were 
mailers on the north lide of the Coleroon. What 
confirmed him the more in our intereil, was the juft 
fear he had, that if the Maiflbreans were once mailers 
of Trichinopoly, they would willingly extend their 
dominions to the fea, and his kingdom was too eafy 
and beneficial a conqueft to remain long unattempt- 
ed : befides, he hated the French fince their fetting up 
Chunda Saib, and laying fiege to his capital. 

At Trichinopoly we were in daily expedlation of 
the king of MaifTore's troops, who marched out of 
Seringapatam, the capital of the MaifTore kingdom, 
to a place called Carroor, about 50 miles from Tri- 
chinopoly. The king of MaifTore, befides his own 
proper forces, had aUo engaged Morarow and his Ma- 
rattas to come to our alfillance. Twelve hundred of 
thefe joined us in November, and another party, as I 
have already faid, were with captain Clive in the 
Arcot province. The Nabob's brother and a party 
of Europeans marched to haflen thejundion of the 
Maiilbreans. Thus ended the year 1751. 

In January we were joined by another party of 
Marattas, and 4000 MaifTore horfe, befides 3000 irre- 
gular troops called * Colleries, who live on plunder, 
and are notorious thieves, particularly for ftealing of 
horfes, in the practice of which they are both daring 
and expert. They creep along the woods with a 
fpear, 18 or 20 feet long, trailing on the ground, 
which they manage on occadon with great dexterity. 


* The Colleries are Inhabitants of the wooJs, under the go- 
vernment of the Polygars, another name for theGentou governors. 
The greaieft in power are the Rajahs,, the leaft the Polygars. 

1752. ON THE Coast OF COROMANDEL. 65 

They are troublelbme in the field by giving frequent 
alarms, and in their woody country it is dangerous to 
attack them. 

The Maiffore general (commonly called the Dola- 
way- * Nanderauze, had not yet joined us with the 
remainder of the army. The enemy had fent a par- 
ty on his road, who took poll in a village, by which 
he was obliged to pafs. We fent another party to 
diOodge them, commanded by captain Cope. Our 
firft Attack was unfiiccefsful, pardy owing to captain 
Cope being mortally wounded in the beginning of the 
engagement, and our having been mifinformcd as to 
the enemy's ftrength and number. However, the 
party being reinforced, we carried our point. Nan- 
derauze and Morarow, with about 2000 horfe, 
joined us the 26th of the month, and our party re- 
turned the 2 8th"with the reft of the army. 

The king of Tanjore after many folicitations, (ent 
alfo his troops, under the command of his general 
Monagee j and Tondeman came likewife in to our 

In this fituation were affairs when I landed from 
England the 15th of March •, captain Clive was then 
jull ready wi^j a party to march to Frichinopoly. 
On the i7tn I joined him, and took the command. 
The party confifted of 400 Europeans, and 1 1 oo 
• fepoys. 

The fituation of our affairs made it highly requifite 
to haften the march with all expedition ; fatal fpirit of 
divifion having unhappily crept in amongll our officers, 
fo that many opportunities and advantages were loft, 
v/hich gave the country alliance but an indifferent 
opinion of our condu(ft. 

On the 27th of the fame month, being arrived 
within 18 miles of Trichinopoly, I was met by the 

E command- 

* The king of MaifToie was a minor ; the kingdom was then 
governed for him by his two uncles, the one, calied Nanderauze, 
com.Tianded the army, the other ruled in the cabinet. 

66 N A R R A T I V E OF the W A R 1752. 

commanding officer of artillery, who brought me in- 
telligence, that the enemy had pofled a ftrong party 
at Koyladdy, within cannot- (hot of the road 1 was to 
pais the next day. 

In order to join the army as foon as poffible, I dis- 
patched my guides to find out another road, Judging 
it of confee^ucnce to avoid the enemy's poft, efpccially 
as J had a very large quantity of aitimunition and ftores, 
part of which I laid up in Tricatapolly, a fort be- 
long'ng to the king of Tanjore, that it might not re- 
tard my march the next day. 

By fome miftake of my guide, we were led withiq 
reach of the very poft I wanted to avoid. To 
draw off" the fire of their battery from my party, I 
ordered feme guns from my rear divifion to anfwer 
theirs, and leaving a guard to fupport them, the main 
body were diredted to move on flowly, inclining to 
the left, which, with a fmall lofs, brought us out of 
reach of their guns : upon which we halted till the 
party and guns came up. We then continued our 
march without interruption, and incamped that night 
within ten miles of Trichinopoly. 

The next morning we were joined on our march 
by the troops, and about 200 foldiers, commanded 
by the captains Clarke and Dalton, within four miles 
of Trichinopoly. Captain De Gingins lent his adju- 
tant to inform me, that the whole of the enemy was 
in motion towards me. Their right was at their in- 
campment of Chucklepollam, a village on the banks 
of the river Cauvery, and facing the pafs : Their left 
extended almofl to the French Rock, a ftrong poft in 
their poiTellion. Their cavalry was on the left of 
their infantry, extending all the way to Elmiferam, 
another very ftrong poft on an inaccelTible rock, on 
which they had mounted fome large cannon. As I 
had no intention to engage, till my entire jundion 
was made, and till I had lodged my ftores in the fort, 
I marched round Elmiferam, purpofing to come in by 
the Sugar-loaf Rock. Our baggage on the left flank 



was fecured by the march of the army, which kept 
moving, ready to form, with their front to the 

The enemy advanced and began to cannonade. 
We immediately halted behind a large bank, which 
covered our party from their guns, bur which was 
cafily got over, if they Ihould advance and appear 
determined to attack. 

The artillery was pofted on the top of the bank, 
which was high and commanded all round. Their 
cavalry came on near enough (or grape-fhot to do ex- 
ecution. They ftood for fome time, till Allum Cawn, 
the ot^cer who commanded them, was killed, and 
above 200 more ; on which they retreated. I'he reft 
of the army chofe to follow their example ; the 
French bringing up their rear, moved back to their 
camp, atid left us to finifli our march to Trichino- 

I waited the next day on the Nabob, the Maiflbre 
general, and the reft of the alliance, in order to fettle 
the plan of operations for the enfuing campaign *. 
There it was agreed to attack the enemy in their 
camp ; and in cafe they chofe rather to retreat to the 
ifland than ftand an engagement, to take fuch mea- 
fures as entirely to cut off their communication with 
the country ; which we effeCled foon after, and obli- 
ged them to furrender for want of provifions. 

Ready and refolute as thefe country people appear 
in councils, they are ever dilatory and flow in execu- 
tion, fuperftitioully ti?d down to f.:fl;s and feafts, 
lucky and unlucky days : nothing fpurs them on to 
adt, till thofe ridiculous cuftoms are complied with, 
which feldom happens before the opportunity is loft. 
Thus three or four days were thrown away in thele 
,. E 2 trifling 

* The army confided of ! 200 Europeans, and TopafTes in bat- 
talion ;,fepoy3 in our pay 2000. The Nabob's Maiflbre Marrar- 
tas and Tanjore forces above 1500 horfe. Their infantry of al! 
forts 10,000, 

68 N ARR ATI VE or THE WAR 1752. 

trifling delays; and the enemy apprifed of our de- 
llgn, prudently as we then thought, deternnined to 
retreat to the ifland for their greater fecurity, burning 
and deftroying a large magazine of provifions, inten- 
ded for the fiege of Trichinopoly. By this fudden 
and unexpected retreat, we had a morecompleat vido- 
rv, vvhich made lome amends for what 1 before was" 
concerned at, the not having it in my power, to at- 
tack them as we propofed. 

This retreat to the ifland was on the 3d of April. 
The army under Mr. Law corififted of 600 Euro- 
peans, Topalies, and Coffrees, 1 800 French fepoys, 
and about 15,000 black cavalry and infantry; Mr. 
Dupleix's account fiys 20,000 in all. 

VVe now endeavoured to cut off their fupplies, 
which they mol'dy received from the other fide of 
the Coleroon, their communication being open that way 
quite to Pondichery. Promihng myfelf great fucceis 
from the activity and vigilance of captain Give, I de- 
tached him with 400 of my befl Europeans, 1200 
lepoys, and 4000 horfe, to take poft on the other 
fide. He crolled the two rivers, about fcvcn miles 
below Srringam, at a pafs near Dolaways Choultry. 

I alio fent captain Dalton to take the pofl of El- 
miferam where the enemy had cannon. 1 he place 
furrendred after a faint refinance. Captain Clive 
having acquainted me that he had taken poft at a 
village and a Pagoda, called Samiaveram, about ten 
miles from Seringam, and on the high road to Arcoi 
and Pondichery, through which their convoys muft 
pafs, I paid him a vifit the 8th of April, after Elmi- 
leram was reduced, to concert what further meafures 
were proper to be purfiied. We agreed that he 
Ihould make an attack on Pitchunda, a place which 
they had fortified, fuuated on the bank of che Cole- 
roon, oppofite to Seringam, and commanding the 
pafs of that river. But it was firft neceffary to ftorm 
1 .algoody, a mud f )rt, where the enemy had a large 
nagazine of grain, and this captain Clive executed 


175^. ON THE COAST OF C O R O M A N D E L. 6g 

three days after, while the necefTary difpofitions were 
making for the liege of Pitchunda. Having received 
intelligence that a party of the enemy were at Outa- 
toor, 15 miles from Samiaveram, with a large convoy 
of ftores, captain Clive marched the ipth of April to 
intercept them, leaving only a fmall party to fecure 
his poft till his return. The French being advifed of 
his march, thought fo good an opportunity of re- 
taking a poll of that confequence ought not to be ne- 
gleded. They therefore formed a detachment from 
their army, who had orders to march after dark, that 
their attack might be made at day-light, on the party 
which were left in the Pagoda. 

On captain Clive's arrival at Outatoor, he found 
no enemy nor convoy, and fufpediing the report to 
have been a fineffe of the enemy, in order to draw 
him from Samiaveram, he reiblved, after refrefhing 
his people, to return immediately to his former poft. 
He arrived near the Pagjoda about eleven at nitrht, 
his men, fatigued with fo long a march, went to reft, 
and captain Clive retired to his pallankeen *. - 

The French, ignorant of captain Clive's return, 
began their march in the night from their army, and 
arrived about four in the morning at Semiaveram, 
where they found every thing as quiet as they could 
wifh : their guides led them diredly to the Pngoda. 
On their approach, the i6th of April, the party left 
there in the morning challenged, and were anfwered 
Friends, by (bme deferters from us. This contented 
our people, who imagining them fome of captain 
Clive's returning party, were not convinced of their 
miftake till the fepoys began to fire. 

E 3 Captain 

* A pallankeen is a bed fupported by a wooden or ivory frame, 
of fix feet long, and near three feet broad, fattened at each end 
with crofs fticks to a bamboo arched in the middle, i ; feet long 
which forms an arch over the palankeen orbed, and iscoveietl wiiii 
a canopy of cloth lined with lilk, and ftilfened with ribs of the co- 
conut tree. 

70 N AR R A T I VE OF THE WAR 175a. 

Captain Clive awaked, and alarmed at the firing, 
ran immediately towards it, by which means he join- 
ed the French fepoys, who were pufhing into the 
Pagoda, and imagining them his own troops, who 
endeavoured to icreen themfelves from an attack, be- 
gan to reprimand them in the country language, 
angrily demanding, what they were firing at. The 
fepoys in this confulion paid little regard to him, till 
one of their officers fufpeding him to be an Englifh- 
man, drew his fword and cut at him, which he par- 
ried, by advancing forwards and receiving the blow 
from near the hilt ; another officer of our fepoys acci- 
dentally coming to his afliftance, cut the fellow down, 
and difengaged captain Clive, who by this time per- 
ceiving his mifhake, and by great good fortune getting 
out of their hands, went in fearch of his detachment, 
which he found under arms ; but in the mean while 
his own party in the Pagoda was dillodged, and the 
French were in pofleflion of the poft. 

He therefore inftantly formed his detachment, and 
marched to the Pagoda, and finding the enemy in 
pofTeflion, he immediately ordered the gate to be 
ftorm>ed. The officer who attempted it was received 
by a platoon of the enemy, who killed him on the 
fpot, and many of his people. 

On this it was thought neceflary that our cannon 
fliould be fent for, and a fummons was made to the 
French commanding officer, fignifying, that as it was 
impolTible to efcape, it was mofl prudent for him to 
furrender. The French officer bravely endeavoured 
to dileng<?ge himfelf, by iallying out of the Pagoda -, 
but being killed in the attempt, with fome of his 
foremoil people, the reft furrendered at difcretion. 
The French fepoys without the Pagoda feeing it fur- 
rendered, endeavoured to Ileal off; but the day be- 
ginning to dawn, they were perceived and purliied 
by the Maratta cavalry, who riding in amongft them, 
inhumanly cut them all to pieces. 



Monagee with the Tanjore troops undertook to re- 
take Koiladdy. He fucceeded April 21ft, and the 
Nabob gave the king of Tanjore a grant of it, as it 
guarded the bank, which conveyed the river Can very 
into his country. 

As nothing now remained to obftrudt our defigns 
on Pitchunda, I took poft on the ifland to cover the 
cannon and ammunition necefTary for the attack of it. 
The garrifon confifted of 72 Europeans, 49 * Topaf- 
fes, and fome fepoys ; and an the defences were 
mounted three pieces of cannon and two mortars. 

Receiving intelligence that the enemy had a party 
at Outatoor, I fent captain Dalton with 150 Euro- 
peans, 400 fepoys, and 1000 horfe todiflodge them ; 
he came up and had fome fkirmifhes with them, but 
expecting to renew the fight the next day, the 2d of 
May, he found the place abandoned. 

Monf. D'Auteuil and his party marched off in the 
night, left the greateft part of their convoy of ftores, 
with which captain Dalton returned to captain Clive, 
who by this time had laid fit-ge to Pitchunda. I 
therefore ordered him to continue with Mr. Clive j 
and a battery being opened on the 8th, on the loth 
the garrifon furrendered prifoners of war, and were 
fent to the Nabob at Trichinopoly. Thus their com- 
munication was entirely cut off from the other fide 
the Coleroon, Monagee having taken Koiladdy, I 
detatched our Coffrees 'V with two guns, to fecure the 
pafs on the ifland, who threw up an intrenchment, 
which might alone have defended them againft the 
whole body of the enemy's army ; fo inaccellible is 

E 4 is 

* Topaffes are the defcendants of the Portuguese who firft fet- 
tled in India, and married with the natives. They differ 'very 
little in colour from the Indians themfelves. They have the 
name of Topafles given them from their wearing hats. 

•f- Coffrees (by the French called Cafres) is now become the eene- 
ral name for all negroes who are brotight to India from the Cape, 
thecoaltof Guinea, or any other parts of Africa, and chiefly from 
Madagafcar. They are brave and fteady in the field. 


this pafs, any where but. in front, and there it does 
not admit of more than two men abreaft. 1 then en- 
camped at Chuckleypollam, facing the pa{s of the 

The Maiflbreans and Marattaa on our right exten- 
ded to Warriore Pagodas, and from thence a chain of 
cavalry to the extremity of the ifland, to prevent any 
fupplies flipf)ing through, Monagee and the Tanjore 
troops on our left, the main body at Dolaways Choul- 
try, to defend that fj'afs between them and us, all 
Tondeman's and the other Polygar's Colleries. Such 
was our fituation. The enemy who encamped till 
then on the ifland, flruck their tents the ibth of 
May, and took fhelter under cover of the walls of 
Seringham, giving out that they would receive us 
there. To diftrei's tliem the more, we pafTed the 
Cauvery to the ifland, and encamped on the eaft fide 
of Jembikiflina, where fome days after we threw up 
an entrenchment quite acrofs from river to river, in- 
tending to wait there till we could get up fbme heavy 
cannon from Davecotah ; having but one 18 and one 
1 2 pounder, artillery not fufficient to make a breach. 
Monagee took polTelfion of my pofl at Chuckleypol- 
lam. Wc were in this fituation when intelligence 
cam.e that Mr. D'Auteuil, who was lately driven out 
of Outatoor by captain Dalton, was then at Volconda, 
with a large quantity of ftores. Captain Clive, on the 
firft notice, formed a party, and marched the 27th. 
He returned the twenty ninth with Mr. D'Auteuil and 
his whole party prifoners. They confided of three 
officers and fifty men, 300 fepoys and as many 

At this time the enemy were fo reduced for want of 
proviflons, that the Indian army, on pardon and pro- 
tection prornikd by the Nabc-b, came over to us in 
great numbers ; one of their generals in particular, 
named Coop Saib, joined us, with a thoufand horfe, 
a large body cf fepoys, and 14 elephants. 



Chunda Saib difpirited and reduced to the greatell 
extremity, and without money to pay his troops, wil- 
hng to -try if he had a friend in Monagee the Tanjore 
general, demanding leave to pafs through his camp 
to Tanjore, which was very readily granted ; and, as 
is too much the cuftom in like cafes, the moment he 
was in the power of his enemy he was made a prifo- 
ner. He might, no doubt, have elcaped to Pondi- 
chery, but in thefe circum fiances he dreaded Mr. 

Next day, June ift, the Nabob, the Maiifore and 
Maratta generals, Monagee and myfelf, being affem- 
bled, it was debated how to difpofe of him. I was 
filent on this occafion, and they were of different 
opinions. The Nabob and Monagee judged it very 
dangerous to let out of their hands a man who had 
already given them fo much trouble. The MaiiTore 
general and Morarow were for having him in their 
poaefiion. Finding they could not agree, I propofcd 
that we fhould have the care of him, and keep him 
confined in one of our own fettlements ; this was by 
no means approved, and we parted without coming 
to any refolution ; but fome of Monagee's people put 
an end to the difpute by cutting off his head, which 
was done the 3d of June* 

Thus did Chunda Saib pay the jufl price of his 
ambition and prefumption. In private life he is faid 
to be a man of great benevolence, humanity, and 
generofity : w ith regard to his public character ; in 
this country, ambition being a venial fault, every 
man who fucceeds is a great man ; if he fails he is 
only reckoned unfortunate. 

Mr. D'Auteuil was brought prifoner to Trichinopo- 
ly, and on giving his parole not to ferve againft the 
Nabob, was releafed. The enemy became fo much 


* Mr. Dupleix, in his Memoire, falfely afferts, that Col. Lau- 
rence himfelf ordered the death of Chunda Saib, notwithltanding 
that caludny had been clearl/ refuted in the country. 


flraitened for want of provifions, that they could hold 
out no longer. Mr. Law therefore thought in earneft 
of furrendering, and to that end defired our mediation 
with the Nabob. We met in confequence, and ex- 
plained to him the Nabob's terms, which were in 
general ; 

That the Pagodas of Jembikifhna and Seringam 
fhould be delivered to the Nabob, with all the guns, 
(lores, and ammunition. That the Europeans, 
Topalfes, and Coffrees, (hould be prifoners of war. 
That the officers fhould give their parole not to ferve 
againft Mahomed Allee Cawn and his allies, and the 
deferters be pardoned. 

Thefe articles being figned by Mr. Law on the 3d 
of June, captain Dalton took poflellion of Seringam, 
and the French marched out, being about 600 Eu- 
ropeans and 300 fepoys. The reft of their allies ac- 
cepting of the Nabob's cowle or protedlion, feparated 
and dil'perfed. In Seringam we found thirty pieces 
of cannon, ten of which were 18 and 12 pounders, 
the reft field-pieces, two large mortars, a number of 
cohorns, and a great quantity of ammunition, and all 
kind of millitary ftores. 

Captain Campbell with a party efcorted the prifo- 
ners to fort St. David. The Pagodas being thus fecu- 
red, and every thing fo happily finirtied to the fouth- 
ward, I imagined we had only to put the Nabob in 
quiet polTeilion ot his territories to the northward, 
where many places ftill remained with the French, 
but Gingee was the only fort of confequence which 
could give us any trouble. 

On my reprefenting the ill confequence of our de- 
lays, and prefling the Nabob to march with his allies, 
and reduce the reft of the province, -I perceived in 
him much unwillingnefs and unaccountable back- 
wardnefs -, but this myftery was at length explained. 
The Maiiforeans refufed to march till the Nabob had 
deliyered up Trichinopoly, which they demanded, as 
they faid, according to agreement ; infifting, that as 



they had performed their part of the treaty, it was 
but juft the Nabob Ihould fulfil his alfo. 

The "Nabob juftly objected, that it was neither their 
agreement, nor reaibnable, that the fortreis of Tri- 
chinopoly (hoiild be the price of its relief, but that 
when the king of Mailfore had fettled him in quiet 
pofleflion of all his other dominions, he fhould then 
be ready and willing, according to his real intention 
and meaning, to give up that place. 

The Maiilbreans feeming fatisfied, promifed to 
march and remove this objection. In confidence that 
they would follow, we marched with our Europeans 
to Outatoor the 16th of June, but not finding our 
allies or the Nabob follow us, we returned the i Kth 
of June, hearing that Morarow with his Marattas 
intended to put a ftop to the Nabob's march. 

I endeavoured to reconcile the chiefs ; but I found 
Morarow wanted no lefs than Trichinopoly for him- 
felf ; an agreement therefore between the two con- 
tending parties never could procure it him, wherefore 
he feparately adviied both not to give up their preten- 
fions ; hoping a breach would give him an opportuni- 
ty to efFed what he faw was not to be obtained by 
any other method. 

The Nabob, by giving up Trichinopoly and its de- 
pendancies, without being in poflellion of the reft of 
the Arcot countries, quitted for ever that part which 
alone, of all his pretenfions he was adually in poffef- 
fion of. The king of MailTore's friendlhip and alli- 
ance was of great confequence, but it alfo might be 
purchafed too dear ; for however he might promiie to 
ailifl the Nabob in the recovery of his other countries, 
when he was once in pofleflion of the place, if he fliould 
refufe to fulfil this part of the engagement, who could 
force him ? Other compenfations were propofed, and 
the Nabob even offered to give him a promife under 
his hand, to deliver Trichinopoly in two months, if 
he would but march with and alhft him. 



Nanderauze promifed he would follow, and join the 
Nabob with his troops, in order to march towards our 
fettlements. The Maiflbreans and Morarow remain- 
ed encamped under the walls of Trichinopoly, feem- 
ingly friends, and every day talked of following the 
Nabob. Monagee with the king of Tanjore's troops 
returned home, and Tonderaan followed them. The 
Tanjoreans could never be brought to confent to the 
giving Trichinopoly to the Maillbreans, 

On the 28th we marched from Outatoor through 
Volcondah and Verdachilum, and arrived before 
Trivedy on the 7th of July. The enemy had left 
there a fmall party, which, on the Nabob's fummons, 
furrendered There I left the army, under the com- 
mand of captain De Gingins, being in fo bad a Itate 
of health that I could not keep the field. 

It will not be imiproper to fhew what the French 
were doing at Pondichery. To give Dupleix his 
due, he was not eafily cafl: down ; his pride fupported 
him, and at the fame time his mind was full of re- 
fources; the injuftice of his caufe never diflurbed 
him •, and, provided he could gain his ends, the 
means never gave him any concern. His council 
was chiefly compofed of his own creatures, who ne- 
ver difputed what he propofed. He was married to a 
woman endowed with as much fpirit, art and pride, 
as himfelf ; born in the country, miftrefs of all the 
low cunning peculiar to the natives, and well Ikilled in 
their language. 

The furrender of Mr. Law happened at that feafbn 
of the year, when the fhips arrived from Europe, 
and brought a large reinforcement, to which Mr. Du- 
pleix added all the failors from the company's fhips, 
fending Lafcars on board to navigate them to China. 
Thus he colleded new troops j and not to want a 
pretender to the government of Arcot, on Chunda 
Saib*s death, he proclaimed Raja Saib his fon. Nabob 
of the province •, but afterwards, that he might feem 
to have an undoubted right of appointing whom he 



pleafed, he gave out that the Mogul had fent him 
Saneds or commiflions, declaring him governor of all 
this part of the Carnateck, from the river Kriftnah to 
the fea." Thefe Saneds were proved to be a forgery, 
and the whole contrivance detefted in the moft public 
manner, as will appear. 

The fuppofed meflenger from Delly was received 
with all the honour and ceremony ufually paid to an 
ambadador from the Mogul ; and that nothing might 
be wanting to compleat the farce, Mr. Dupleix him- 
felf, in the country manner, with mufick and dancing- 
girls before him, mounted on an elephant, received 
v/ith due reverence from the hands of the pretended 
ambaflador, his commiffion from the Mogul, and in 
confequence of his appointment, gave out all orders 
from that time as fuch ; he even kept his Durbar or 
court, fat on a fofa, and received prefents from his 
council as well as the natives, like a Prince of the 
country ; and thus endeavoured to fupport the charac- 
ter of Subah of the Deckan. 

Mr. Dupleix, to return to my fubjed, finding that 
Chunda Saib's Ton would be of little ufe to him, by 
his intereft in the country, or his money, offered the 
Naboblhip of Arcot to the governor of Velloure, 
Mootis Ailee Cawn, a man every way fit for his pur- 
pofe, and befides, very rich. Mootis Allee Cawn 
was to find money, and Dupleix Europeans. Under 
different pretences, and at different times, he got 
from him about three lack of roupees ; but the titular 
Prince finding he was only amufed, demurred till Du- 
pleix would give him better proofs of making good 
his promifes. As there was no moie money to be got, 
Dupleix had no further occafion for him, and left 
him where he found him, only lomething tht; 

As I have faid before, there was flill a good deal of 
the Arcot province in the hands of the French, and 
CiiUnda Saib's friends, which we Ihould have endea- 


voured to recover. Our fcjrces were not very confi- 
derable •, we had loft a great many men ; there was a 
ftrong garrifon left in Trichinopoly, and we had but 
few recruits that year. The French had many more, 
befides prelling the Teamen into their fervice. How- 
ever, enough might have been fpared to go with the 
Nabob and gather his rents, and to recover the great- 
eft part of the country. Inftead of beginning by de- 
grees, which at that time was all our ftrength would 
admit of, the governor of Madrafs refolved to attack 

Gingee is fituated to the weft of Pondichery. It is 
furrounded with mountains, and the roads, or more 
properly pafTes, leading to it, begin between thofe 
mountains, at about ten miles diftance. An army 
within thole paflTes may be eafily blocked up, unlefs 
they can afford to fecure themfelves, and keep their 
communication open with the country. It confifts of 
two towns, called the Great and little Gingee. The 
firft to the fouthward, the other to the northward. 
They are both furrounded by one wall, three miles in 
circumference, which inclofes the two towns, and five 
mountains of ragged rock, on the fummits of which 
are built five ftrong forts. The two towns are divided 
from eaft to weft by a wall lined with cannon, which 
one of thole five rocks defends as a citadel. The 
place is inaccellible, except from the eaft and fouth- 
eaft. Four roads lead to it, by the one our army 
marched, the other faces towards Arcot, the third 
to Wandewafh, and the fourth to Pondichery. The 
place was well fupplied with all manner of ftores, and 
garrifoned by 150 Europeans, and iepoys and black 
people in great numbers. Such was the Itate of Gin- 
gee when we refolved to befiege it. Ill as I was, at 
that time, with the fever, I fet out from Fort St. Da- 
vid for Madrafs, to fee the governor, and try if I 
could diiluade him from the attempt. 

I repre- 


I reprefented the fituation and ftrengthof the place, 
compared to the force we could (end, and even 
allowing that we could have marched our whole force, 
the number would not be fufficient for the attack, 
and at the fame time to provide for our fecurity, by 
keeping the pafles open, and protecting our convoys 
of provifions, which mull come from Fort St. David, 
as no fuppiy could be expected from a country dif- 
affeded by its neighbourhood to Pondichery, Be- 
fides, we had alfo an enemy at our back, with a force 
fufficient, at leaft, to ftop our convoys. I reprefent- 
ted to him that the Nabob's affairs alfo required our 
fettling other places firft, where we were fure of fuc- 
cefs ; and we ought to confider what an impreffion 
the leaft check would make on the minds ot thefe 
fluduating, and yet unfettled people. 

Thefe, with leveral other realons determined me 
to diffuade the governor from the attempt ; but he 
declared to me, that he had ordered a party, and it 
muft go. 

Major Kinneer was fent with a detachment, from 
the army at Trivedy, of 200 Europeans ; the Nabob 
ahb fent his troops, about 600 horfe, and 1 500 Se- 

They marched the 23d of July, and arrived before 
the place the 26th. A fummons was fent, which 
the French anfwered very civilly, by faying, they 
kept it for the King of France, and were refolved to 
defend it. Soon after, intelligence was brought that 
a party marched from Pondichery of 200 Europeans^ 
and 1500 Sepoys. Two pieces of battering cannon, 
ammunition, &c. were ordered out, under an elcort 
of 150 Europeans, The French pofted themfelves 
on the road our convoys were obliged to pafs, upon 
which Major Kinneer Judged it better to leave Gin- 
gee, again ft which he had no profpeCt of fuccefs, and 
meet the French ; finding it of moft confequence to 
keep his communication open. 



The French had made choice of a good poft, with 
a river and the village of Vickarivandy in their front, 
and feven pieces of cannon well difpofed. Our men 
attacked, but were very warmly received, and galled 
by a brifk fire from behind walls. A blundering 
commander of our artillery, (a Frenchman who had 
deferted and was taken into our fervice) contrived to 
poll our cannon lb, that they could not favour the at- 
tack ; which Major Kinneer endeavouring himfelf to 
re(^tify, was wounded in the leg, and miany of the 
men and officers killed ; which obliged him in the end 
to retreat, but in very good order. Thus ended the 
expedition againft Gingee. Poor Major Kinneer was 
almoft recovered of his wound, but fretting at his dif- 
appointment, was feized with a fever and flux- which 
carried him ofFfome time after. 

The French, animated as uiual upon the leafl fuc- 
cefs, joined this party with all the force they could 
bring into the field. The marched clofe to the bounds 
of Fort St. David. I was flill at Madrafs, but hav- 
ing received an account of their motion, orders were 
fent to our troops in St. David's, to march out and 
encamp. Captain Schaub's company of Swifs was 
alfo fent by fea fi'om Madrafs. The party went in 
boats, though I defired they might be fent in a Ihip 
which was in the road, as well for the fafety and eate 
of the troops, ris a fecurity againft any attempts of 
Mr. Dupleix, who, I very well knew, was capa- 
ble of doing any thing to anfwer his prefent purpo- 

Mr, Dupleix, on notice of the embarkation, fent 
a (hip out of Pbndichery road, and took captain 
Schaub and his whole company, and carried them in- 
to Pondichery, and there detained them prilbners of 
war. An action againft the law uf nations, and an 
open violation of the peace then fubfifting between 
us and the French •, facred here, as well as in Europe, 
though we were allies in different caufes. Immedi- 

1752. ON THE Coast of COROMANDEL. 8t 

arely on news of this, ill as I lliil continued, I em- 
barked wi:h captain Gaupp'sSwifs company, on board 
the Bjinbay Caftle, the iliip I had afked for the other 

I arrived at St. David's the i6th of Aiigufl, and the 
t7th took the field with 400 Europ?an-s 1700 SepoySj 
and 4000 of the Nabob's troops, and nine pieces of 
cannon. I found the enemy encamped within fight of 
us, and after reconnoitring their fitaation, 1 refol- 
ved to attack them the next morning; which 
they either got information of, or fufpeded, fof 
rhey marched off that night to Bahoor. I f !low- 
ed them the next day, for they fiill retreated, till they 
came very near their own bounds, with the village 
of Villanour in their front, three miles from Pondi* 

Mr. de Kerjean, a nephew of Mr. Duplei>f, com- 
manded this army. By his uncle's order, he proteft- 
ed in a long letter, againft our entering their boundsy 
forbidding us to follow the Prince of the country even 
in his own territories. The abfnrdity of thefe pro- 
tefts, to which we had too long paid fom.e regard, was 
greatly increafed fince Mr Dupleix had thrown off the 
mafk, by taking captain Schaub and his party priib- 

I was encamped at a Pagoda called Trichanky, 
from whence I had a view of their camp, confifting 
ot 400 Europeans. 1530 Sepoys, and 500 cavalry. 
In hopes o: bringing them to an engagement, 1 at- 
tacked their advanced poft at Villenour ; but as they 
would not fupport it, 1 could do no more than drive 
out that party, my orders not permitting me to follo>¥ 
them into their bounds. 

Finding it impoiiible to bring on an engagement, I 
marched back and incamped at Bahoor, two miles 
from Fort St. David, to fee if my retreat would en- 
Courage l>e Kerjean to follow us. As no people are 
naturally more elated with trifles, (I mean when they 

F have 

82 N ARR A TI VE OF THE W AR 1752. 

have not at their head a man of folidity, experience 
and judgment) I had hopes this fcheme might take. 
•The event more than anfv/ered my expectation. Mr. 
Dupleix ordered De Kerjean to follow lu-, conjuring 
him to improve the minute, and make the proper ufe 
of our fears. De Kerjean, fufpeding it might be other- 
wife, reprefented his thoughts of our retreat, which 
only procured him a more peremptory order, to march 
after us immediately ; for Mr. Dupleix told him, he 
was convinced we would not fight •, that he expedcd 
the * Prince every hour with Mr. De la Touche, who 
fliould inftantly fuperfede him. He was therefore 
obliged to obey, and accordingly encamped next day, 
within two miles of us, and 1 made adifpolition tor 
attacking him the morning after. 

On the 26th of Auguft, at two in the morning, 
our little army was under arms ; our Sepoys in front 
in one line, our battalion formed a (econd, with the 
artillery divided on our flanks. A high bank on our 
left flank, extended to the French camp, and behind 
it were pofted the cavalry, with orders to march as 
we did i and if they faw the enemy in any confufion 
on our attack, they were immediately to make the 
proper advantage of their diforder. The ground per- 
mitting us, we marched in that order, and came up 
in time to begin our attack, a little before dawn of 
day. Our Sepoys were challenged by the enemies ad- 
vanced poft, and not anfwering, received their fire 
and returned it, fliill marching on. The Europeans 
followed in good order, and kept (houldered whiie our 
Sepoys were engaged with theirs. The day jufl: then 
beginning to break, we faw the French battalion drawn 
out a little upon our left. On their right was the bank I 
mentioned before, and on their left a tank or pond of 


* The Prince was a very large French company's (hip, with 700 
ipen, and prelents from the French king for the Mogul, Salabat- 
zing and Chunda Saib : Ihe was burnt in her palTage to India, and 
fcarce a man faved. 


v/ater, which obliged us to incline, to make our frone 
equal to theirs. We then advanced, while they con" 
tinned "all the time a very brills: fire from their cannon. 
The Imail arms foon began : our men advanced firing j 
and the French flood their ground, till our bayonets 
met. 7 he violence of the attack was made by our 
grenadiers and two platoons, who threw the enemy 
intodiforder, and foon after their whole line was broke* 
They then threw down their arms, and ran for it. 
Every moment our cavalry was expeded to charge ; 
but they, inftead of pur''uing, employed themfelves 
in plundering the camp, which gave time to many 
of the French to retreat to Areacopong. The adi- 
on, however, ended greatly in our favour. Mr. Ker- 
jegn, fifteen officers, and loo private men were made 
prifoners, and many more were wounded, or fell in 
the engagement. Their artillery, confifting of eighc 
pieces of cannon, with all their ammunition, tumbrils, 
and ftores, fell into our hands. We had one officer 
killed, three or four wounded, and feventy eight men 
killed and wounded. The Nabob, highly delighted 
at our fuccefs, though difpleafed at the behaviour of 
his own people, returned with me to Fort St. David, 
where we received accounts that three thoufand Ma- 
rattas were on their m.arch from Trichinopoly to join 
the Nabob ; but we had reafon to fufpedt their intv^nti^ 
ons ; tliey were to havejoined the French, if our fuc- 
cefs had not prevented them. Nanderauze, the Maif- 
fore general, flill remained before Trichinopoly, with 
Morarow, outwardly our friend, but ready to feize 
the firfl opportunity to get pofleffion of the town : they 
therefore kept captain Dalton continually on the 
watch, the more fo as it was necedary to fee'm as if we 
did not fufpedt them, or know any thingof their treat- 
ing with the French, Mr. Dupleix did not lofe fb fair 
an opportunity of endeavouring to bring the Maillo- 
reans to his intereft. He therefore promiled Nande- 
rauze not only Trichinopoly, but gave him hopes that 
the kingdom of Tanjore might alio be added to it. 

F 2 On 

84 NARRATIVE OF the WAR 1752. 

On the news of our vidory, 3000 Marattas joined 
us, commanded by Innis Cawn, the next in rank to 
Morarow, who, according to cuiiom, fwore fidelity to 
the Nabob, and we marched to Trivedy the jyth of 

To improve the remaining part of the feafon, the 
monfoon * coming on, captain CTive was fent with 
afmall detachment to take Covelong, a fort fixteen 
miles to the fouthward of Madrafs, and Chengalaput, 
about forty. The lall mentioned fort was exceeding 
ftrong, being almoft encompafled by a morafs, and 
furrounded with two walls, the ramparts of which 
are fixteen feet thick, a wet ditch faced with ftone 
fixty feet wide, quite round the outward fort, and 
another half round the inner. Chengalaput capitula- 
ted the i ft of Odober. It fhould be remarked, that 
the officer who commanded was then prifoner on pa- 

Having performed this fervice, and the monfoon 
now approaching, I propofed returning to winter 
quarters, at Fort St. David, to give our men, who 
who were fufficiently harrafled, the fmall refrefhment 
of two months reft, and good quarters, during the 
rains, which fall heavily in this country; but I had 
orders to canton the troops at Trivedy : the Nabob 
did the fame. 

Notwithftanding thefe feeming advantages to the 
northward, our luuation in general was very dilcou- 
raging. The Nabob's money at this time began to 
fail, and what is a natural confequence, his troops left 
him. Befides, they had never been ufed to keep the 
field at this feafon of the year ; Morarow, on a pre- 
tended difpute widi the MaifToreans for want of pay, 
marched off to Pondichery, and declared for the 
French j Innis Cawn decamped alfo at the fame 


* A feafon of heavy rains and (lorms which begin about this 
month, and generally continue to December. 

1752. ON THE Coast OF COROMANDEL. 85 

All this was a fcheme concerted by Nanderauze, to 
fee if he could not gain Trichinopoly. He would 
not break openly with the Nabob, for then all his 
hopes were gone ; but if he could create us fuch a 
number of enemies, he concluded neither the Nabob 
nor the Englifh could poflibly fupport the war. He 
thought therefore, in fuch diftrefs, he might make 
his own terms for the afliftance we fhould want, and 
which he alone could give us. This, in reality, was 
the intention of his pretended quarrel with Mora-^ 

The MaiiTorean, to fave appearances, and adt 
with feme fhow of juftice, faid he would return to his 
own country, if the Nabob would pay him his ex- 
pences in ready money. The fum he afked was as im- 
polTible for the Nabob to raife, as for us to advance, 
which he very well knew. Countries were offered as 
fecurities ; but nothing lefs than ready money would 
fatisfy, or what he chofe rather, the being put in pof- 
felfion of Trichinopoly, which he had attempted to 
furprife in the following manner. 

A Neapolitan named Clement Poverio, who had 
been a long time in India, and knew the country lan- 
guage very well, had taken fervice with the Nabob, 
and commanded a company of Topaffes. This man 
ferved as interpreter between captain Dalton and Nan- 
derauze, who thinking it not difficult to bribe fuch a 
perfon, offered him a confiderable fum of money, if 
he would be inftrumental in lending him affiflance to 
get poffeffion of the town. The man defired fome 
time to confider of it, and on his return honeftly dif- 
covered the whole to captain Dalton, who, after re- 
turning him thanks for his fidelity, and promifmg a 
reward, ordered him to carry on the^ fcheme with 
Nanderauze, and on his next vifit to affure him 
he was ready to obey his orders. The fellow return- 
ed with his lelTon, and aded his part naturally, fo as 
to avoid the appearance of double dealing. The 
F 3 fcheme 

86 NARRATIVE or THE WAR 1752. 

fcheme concerted between Nanderauze and Morarovv 
was, that Poverio, with part of his Topafs company, 
fhould fecure a gate for the entrance of the troops. 
The French prifoners that we had taken at Samiave- 
ram and Volconda, were to be armed, and fet at li- 
berty, by the remainder of his company, who were 
to attack the guard over them. Six re(blute fellows 
undertook to difpatch captain Dakon on his firft ap- 
pearance, afrer the alarm given. Every thing, in 
iliort, was fettled, and the night appointed for the 
execution. Captain Dakon apprifed of this, to fcreen 
Poverio from fufpicion, made the necedary difpofitions 
for his defence, with the greatefl: fecrecy, till the 
evening came, on which the plot was to take place. 
He then informed the Nabob's brother in-law, the go- 
vernor of Trichincpoly, of their defigns, and the 
plan lie had laid to defeat them. Terrified at the 
thoughts of an attempt, and con faking nothing but 
his fears, to prevent all rifque, the governor fent a 
mefTenger to Nanderauze, informing him of the dif- 
covery of the v^hole plot, and our having taken pro- 
per meafurcs to prevent its execution ; adding to it all 
the circumftances that Dalton had told him, that the 
MaiiTorean might not doubt in the lead, the truth of 
the difcovery. When he had done this, he acquaint- 
ed captain Dalton with it, not a little pleafed with 
himfelf, and thinking he had ad\ed with uncommon 
difcretion in the affair to prevent the MaiiTorean's de- 
figns by fuch a prudent ftep. Nanderauze wifely de- 
filted from the attempt, but offered large fums for Po- 
verio, dead or alive. It was on the difcovery of this, 
that I propofed Dalton fhould feize on the Maifforean 
and Morarow, which he miglit eafily have done, by 
a furpriie, as he often had conferences with them ; 
^nd 1 muft own, I thought in juftice it would have 
been right to have done it : but the Prefidency were 
of another opinion. Before we clofe tlie year 1752, it 
will be nicefiary to fay what was doing by Salabarzing 
and Mr. Bufly to the northward. 



At the end of the year 1751, we left the French 
with the Viceroy of their own appointing, Salabat- 
zing marching to Aurengabad : they were foon after 
difturbed by Ballazerow the chief of the Marattas, 
who came dow n with a large army againft them. 

The v^ar continued till October 1752, when Gaw- 
zedy Cawn, the elder brother of Salabatzing, whom 
the Mogul had appointed Prince of the Deckan, 
marched to take polfeflion of his government ; but 
he died in fourteen days after his arrival at Aurenga- 
bad, poifoned by his own fifter. After his death, Sa- 
labatzing concluded a treaty at Hydrabad with Balla- 
zerow ; but the Mogul, on the death of Gawzedy 
Cawn, appointed his Ton Shaw Abadin Cawn to fuc- 
ceed. He accordingly informed the Nabob, Mr. 
Saunders, and Mr. Dupleix of the Mogul's appoint- 
ment, and raifed a large army to come and take poP 
fellion : but he was foon obliged to drop that defign, 
the Mogul's affairs requiring his prefence with the ar- 
my at Delly. Salabatzing now left at large, at the 
earneft folicitation of Mr. Dupleix, gave all our fettle- 
ments to the northward to the French, who, how- 
ever, for the prefent, did not attempt to take polTefli- 
on, except of Divi Ifland. Mr. BufTy frequently 
quarrelled with Salabatzing, and as often again allifted 
him with his Europeans in collecling his revenues-, 
by which condudt he fometimes promoted the intereft 
of the company, always his own, and is thereby be- 
come one of the richeft fub)e6ls in Europe. 

Before the beginning of the new year the Maiflb- 
reanshad declared againft us, and being in pofTellion 
of Seringam Pagodas, captain Dalton beat up their 
camp in the night, and killed fome people. 

Two days after this, the Mailloreans recovering 
themlelves, attacked his advanced poft, on the other 
fide the Cauvery, within cannon-fhot of the fort. It 
was defended by a redoubt, in which he had pofted 
fixty Europeans, and fome Sepoys. The enemy came 

F 4 on 

8g N ARR ATI VE OF THE W AR 175a; 

on with extraordinary refolution, through the fire of 
our mufquetry to the very parapet. A panick feized 
our people, andinfteadof trufling to thesredoubt, an4 
V/aiting for a reinforcement from the town they aban- 
doned the pod, and attempted to crols the rjver. The 
eavalry feeing tlieir conkifion, followed thfem into the 
Cauvery, 'and there cut every man to pieces. Thi? 
obliged captain Dalton to keep within his garrifon, 
which was ftill very fufficient ; and as we apprehend- 
ed no fcarcity of provifions, we v/ere not concerned 
on his account, being dete: mined our efforts fhould 
flill be exerted in this part of the province. 

In con.equence of our refolution, and hearing the 
French vvere marched with Morarow from * Wal- 
dore, towards Trivedy ; we fetout from Fort St. Da- 
vid the 6th of January, with .^50 Europeans, 700 Se- 
poys, and joined the Nabob and our other forces at 
Trivedy. Our army confiHed of about 700 Euro- 
peans, 2000 Sepoys, lo. o of the Nabob's cavalry, 
and oiir own little troop of twenty. The Nabob 
had neither money nor allies, except the King of 
Tanjore, who promifed very fairlv, but never fent 
any afliflance. The French, confiiling of 500 Eu' 
ropeans, 2000 fepoys, a troop of horfe commanded 
by Mr. Maillin, and 4000 Maratta-, intrenched 
themfelves on the banks of the river Paniar in fight 
of Trivedy. Morarow, widi his Maratta horfe, ra- 
vaged and deftroyed the country, attacking our con- 
voys, and obliging us to march our whole force, to 
bring our provifions and ftores from Fort St. Da- 

On the ninth of January in the morning, the Ma- 
rattas who had a train of artillery, and two compa- 
nies of TopaiTes, broiight down three pieces of can- 
non, and begi;n to cannonade the village of T.ivedy. 
I ordered the grenadiers and fome fepoys to attack 


* A fort 1 2 miles weft of Pondichery. 


their battery, and followed with our whole body to 
fiipport them. The party bufhed on brifl-cly, and got 
poiferiion of their artillery before they had time to fire 
a fecond round. As the cavalry ftill kept their diA 
tance but within cannon fliot, we foUov/ed them with 
fome field-pieces about two miles, and were prepa- 
ring to return when they furrounded and attacked us 
on every fide. Our cannon did great execution with 
grape-fhot, and our men kept their fire admirably 
well. Finding they could not fucceed, they left us to 
purfue our march to camp, with the three pieces of 
cannon our grenadiers had taken in the morning. 

The King of Tanjore having prom/ifed us a body 
of cavalry, I fent a party of infantry, with two pieces 
of cannon to favour their jundion. They came on 
fome part of the way, but thinking us in a bad con- 
dition, and fearing the Marattas, they amufed us only 
with promifes, and obliged our party to return to the 
army without them. 

The enemy were fo fuperior to us in cavalry, that 
we were obliged often to march our whole body to 
efcort {lores and provifions from St. David's to our 
camp ; always haraiTed more or lefs by the Marattas. 
On the lil of April in particular, returning from St. 
David's, they attacked us in fmall parties the whole 
day, till within three miles ot Trivedy, and there a 
large body attacked our front with great brifknefs, btit 
they were repulied with the fame fpirit. We then 
perceived the whole body of the enemy on the right 
of the road, within a mile of Trivedv. Our convoy 
very luckily marched on the left flank, near the bed 
of a river. The enemy advancing, we came pre- 
fently near enough for cannon, and kept advancing, 
and firing, with a Teeming refolution on both fides ta 
come to an adion. They had a hollow way in their 
front, which they imagined we could not pafs ; but 
as foon as we came to a proper diftance to make a 
pufh, I ordered my fepoys and artillery to halt, and 


90 N ARR ATI VE OF THE W A R 1753. 

keep the cavalry clear of my convoy. Then march- 
ing on bnn<ly with the main body of Europeans, we 
croHed the hollow way, fo much to the furprize of 
the French, that they gave us only one lire, and ran 
av\ay. We were too well fatisfied with our viclory to 
puilue, as we had the convoy to take care of : our 
men, befides. were almoft exbaufted with fatigue, 
having been under arms from ^ o'clock in the morn- 
ing, and the day Ilo excefiively hct, that fome of our 
Europeans dropt down dead on the march, with the 
heat and want of water. The Marattas hovered 
about us till the clofe of day. We killed a great 
many of them, and in particular Budgerow, Mora- 
row's brother. 

The fame day, on our march, we were joined by 
captain Poller, and his company of Swifs. With this 
reinforcement I determined to try if it M'as poflible or 
warraiitable to attack the enemy, who could not be 
brought out of their entrenchments to an engage- 
ment. In confequence of this refoiution, I made a 
march nearer them. 

in the front of their camp was a village where lay 
an advanced party. C)ur grenadiers and 100 of the 
battal on were ordered to attack it ; they fucceeded,' 
and drove the enemy out, who returned to their 
main body. A little beyond this village, within 70a 
yards of their camip, was a convenient and fafe poft 
to make a battery. We had brought with us two 24 
pounders, which we mounted, and b^ gan to canno- 
nade thjir camp, which was furrounded with a para- 
pet cannon proof, and with redoubts at proper d'\C- 
tancts, mounted with 30 pieces of cannon, and a very ' 
broad and deep ditch, with a good glacis. We con- 
tinned cannonading for fome time ; but to fo little 
purpofe, that we thought proper to defift ; bcfides, 
our march from Trivedy increafed our difficulties 
widi regard to provifions. The Marattas were inde- , 
fatigable, who being joined by a fmall party from 



Pondichery, fiirprized a fort called Bonnagery, from 
whence- we drew our fupplies of grain. Finding I 
could not bring them to an engagement, and that an 
aflTault was impradicable, from their numbers, which 
in Europeans were almoft equal to our little armyj 
we returned to Trivedy, and captain Killpatrick 
marched with a detachment to retake Bonnagery, 
which the enemy abandoned in the night. 

Captain Dalton, ever fince the lofs of his party, 
had been fhiit up in the fort. The main body of the 
enemy was at Seringam, and their cavalry continu- 
ally fcouring the plain, prevented any provifions 
from coming in. The inhabitants and garrilbn were 
fupphed from the magazines which were under the 
care of the Nabob's brother, v/ho had always declared 
there was fufficient for a long time. Though there 
was no appearance of fcarcity, captain Dalton thought 
it neceilary to know the real quantity in ftore ; and 
making an examination, to his great furprize, it ap- 
peared there was only fufiicient for three weeks, and 
no hope of a fupply from the country, a party lately 
fent into Tondeman's dift/ids not being able to get 
any, or even to return. He immediately difpatched 
a meffenger with an account of his fituation, who 
reached me late at night, the 20th of April at Tri- 
vedy. Adonifned at this intelligence, we faw the ne- 
cellity of an immediate march to Trichinopoly, which 
we begun the 22d; inftant in the morning, leaving 
captain Chafe with 150 Europeans and 500 fepoys 
for the defence of Trivedy ; and as I intended paf- 
fing through the Tanjore country, letters were dif- 
patched by the Nabob and me to the King, acquaint- 
ing him with our march, and inviting him to join us 
on our approach, to his capital. Though we pro- 
ceeded as expeditioufly as pollible, we were obliged 
to hall every third or fourth day, on account of the 
hot winds, which were lo pov/erful at this feafon, 
that notv/ithftanding all our care, our httle army was 


92 N AR R ATI VE OF THE WAR 1753. 

greatly diminifhed. We marched by Chillambrum, 
a ftrong ragoda, in which we had a ferjeant, and a 
few gunners, A place of fo much confequence for 
prefervnng our communication by land between St. 
David's and rhe Tanjore country, fhould have been 
rein orced ; inflead of that, our mtn were with- 
drawn, and it fell into the enemy's hands foon after 
our departure. On our entering the Tanjore coun- 
try, tjie King (mt his prime minifler Succogee, to 
compliment the Nabob and his allies. He received 
our force, and prcmifed very tairly on the part of his 
mailer, to whom he foon returned. We purfued our 
march to Condore the 3d of May. On our arrival, 
the King defired to meet the Nabob and me half-way. 
I (et out the 4th, in company with the Nabob and 
Mr. Palk, who had been with me from my leaving 
Madrafs. The King us at the place appointed, 
attended by his whole court, who on the occafion 
made a very magnificent and fplendid appearance. 
He was efcorted bv 3000 horfe, well mounted, and a 
great many elephants in filver trappings. After ce- 
remonioufly palling each other in our Palankeens, 
we were conduded to a pleafant garden, and there 
received by the King, under a pavilion, fupported by 
pillars of filver, elegantly covered, and furnifhed. 
There we renewed our affurances of friendfhip and 
protection, and ail our former engagements ; and it 
was determined that the King fhould ilipport the Na- 
bob, and join him the next day with 3000 horfe, and 
a like number of fepoys. After a refrefliment of 
fruits, a fhower of rofe-water, and being anointed 
with otter of rofes, we v/ere difmilTed with prefents 
of elephants, horfes and * firphas, and efcorted to 
our camp by a brilliant party of the Rajah's cavalry. 
On the 5th, the horfe and fepoys joined us, accord- 
ing to agreement i but, as we foon after experienced, 


* A rich drefsof that country. 


only to make a parade, for they left us the fame day. 
We remonftratcd, and very warmly prefled their 
jundion, But they excufed themfelves with promiles 
of returning. Unwilling therefore to loie time, and 
fufpecftmg that they wanted only to amufe the Na- 
bob and us, we marched, and arrived the 6th of May 
at Trichinopoly, much decreafed in numbers through 
fatigue ; and notwithllanding we frequently fent the 
fick back to our fettlements, the hofpitals were filled 
at our arrival. We had even left our tents behind, 
and took only with us what baggage was abfolutely 
neceffary, that nothing might retard our relieving 
Trichinopoly, which indeed was of fo great confe- 
quence, that every thing was to be rifqued for it. 
The enemy made a fhow of oppofition when we ap- 
proached the fort. The whole plain was covered 
with their cavalry and fepoys, but a few fhot from 
our field-pieces foon determined them to retreat to 
Seringam. As we fent lOO men to the hofpital up- 
on our arrival at Trichinopoly, the remainder of 
my force, with what the garrifon could fpare, whea 
muftered, amounted to no more than 500 men in 
battalion, and 2000 fepoys. Nanderauze was on the 
illand, and had with him 10,000 cavalry, 6000 Black 
infantry, and about 100 Europeans, with a good train 
of artillery. After giving the men two days refrefh- 
ment, I croiTed the Cauvery to the ifland together 
with the Nabob, intending to attack the enemy if v/e 
found a favourable opportunity ; but their fuperiority, 
and the advantage of their fituation, made it imprac- 
ticable. It was as much as we could do, by a very 
brilk fire of our artillery, to keep our fianks clear 
from the cavalry that furrounded us, and at every 
motion we made were ready to charge. Nor were 
the enemy's cannon filent ; lb that after a very fa- 
tiguing day, I was obliged at night to retreat, and re- 
pafs the river. In this attempt we had two officers 



killtd, and three wounded, and bur very few men in 
proportion j the enemy's cavalry iuffered greatly. 

We then encamped on the plain, about four miles 
fouth-weft of the fort, at a place called the Fakeers's 
Tope, to keep cur communication open with Tonde- 
man's country. This Polygar ftill remained a friend 
to the Nabob. He fometimes fent his troops, and 
all our provifions came from his country. Befides 
v/hat was necefiary for our daily confumption, our 
defign v/as, if poliible, to lay up a year's ftock of 
grain in Trichinopoly •, as without this fupply our mi- 
litary operations mull entirely be confined to this 
fpot •, but all our endeavours to this purpofe were in- 
effedual. The King of Tanjore, or Tondeman, 
could eafdy havefupplied us wiih the quantity wanted, 
if they had been wilbng ; but they were apprehenfive, 
that if once Trichinopoly was well (upplied, we might 
think an army needlels there, and march towards the 
coaft, and by that means leave their country expofed 
to the infults of the enemy. In vain were all our 
promifes, that the fafety of their countries lliould be 
our firft care : In vain did the Nabob and I repre- 
fent to them the advantage it would be for the com- 
mon caufe to have an army at liberty to move where 
we pleafed, which was not pofiible, while the maga- 
zines remained unfurnifhed with grain. All thefe rea- 
fons were to very little purpofe •, they judged of the 
Englifh by themfelves, apprehending that if once we 
could carry a point, promifes made to gain it would 
be no longer in force. By thefe means ue were kept 
in Trichinopoly above a year, never able to get three 
months provifions into the fort ; I mean for the gar- 
rifon only without confidering the inhabitants, who 
were now obliged to leave their dwellings and fettle 
in Tanjore, and other places: by this means the 
town, lately fo populous, became almoll uninhabited. 
About this time I was commiilioned with Mr. Palk to 
treat with the King of MaifTore. We accordingly 




wrote to him, and defired an interview, which his 
French allies would not permit him to give us. He 
only recapitulated in a letter, fix feet long, the agree- 
ment between the Nabob and him, the many injuries 
he had received from us by being kept out of the 
fort, and infifted on Trichinopoly or his expences. 

The day we left Trivedy the enemy came out of 
their entrenchments, and encamped near the fort. 
A part of the garrifon made a fally, and, flufhed with 
their fir ft fuccefs, tiiey imprudently purfued too far : 
the enemy getting between them and the town, cut 
oIt their retreat •, and after fome refiftance, the whole 
party, which confifted of two officers, 60 Europeans, 
and two companies of fepoys, was either put to the 
fword, or made pri Toners of war. 

The French now erected a battery, and began to 
cannonade the place. The garrifon was ftill fuffici- 
ent to make a good defence, had not a mutiny arofe, 
in which the men got poilelTion of the Arrack in the 
garrifon, and, mad with liquor, obliged the command- 
ing officer to capitulate, by which means he and all 
the reft of the garrifon were made prifoners of war. 
This gallant young man, whofe lenity, in not putting 
a ftop to the firft appearance of the mutiny, had been 
attended with fuch bad confequences, was fo fenfibly 
affeded with his misfortune, that it threw him inta 
a fever, of which he died foon after at Pondichery. 

Chillambrum and Trivedy being reduced, the 
Marattas, French, and IVIailToreans all joined at 
Seringam, and being alio reinforced from other 
parts, their battalion outnumbeied curs. With this 
luperiority they crofTed the Cauvery, and encamped 
to the weftward of us, on the plain. 

I was obliged, a little before that, to go into the 
fort on account of my health -, and by a miftake of 
the gentleman who commanded, and to whom I had 
given diredlions for fecuring a poft in his front at the 
Five Rocks, which he negleded, the enemy pofted 


96 N ARR A TI V^ or T«E W AR 1753. 

themfelves between us and Tondeman's country. 
That our communication might not be quite cut off, 
I lent orders to fccure the Golden Rock, which was 
accordingly done by two companies of fepoys. The 
enemy relolving to gain that poll alio, fent a party 
early in the morning, June a'jth, to attack it, and 
had almoft begun their attack before we perceived 
their motion, it being fcarce day-light. As loon as 
ever we difcovered the fire, I came out of the town, 
having difpatched a meflenger firll with (orders to the 
commanding officer to detach the picquet, and en- 
deavour to fupport the fepoys. The enemy mo- 
ved at the fame time, but before either had got half-^ 
way, the party which had attacked our fepoys in the 
morning had carried their pointy and drove them 
from their pcfl. It was expedient immediately to at- 
tempt regaining it ; we therefore moved our whole 
body : the enemy did the fame. Being com.e near 
enough, as I imagined, to make my pufh, I ordered 
the Hrft divifion of the grenadiers, and the picquet 
lent in the morning, (who had halted for my coming 
up) to march on bnfl<ly, and attack the party on the 
Rock, while I followed llowly with the remainder to 
fupport them. . The enemy had fent a reinforcement 
to ihofe on the Rock, and with their remainder were 
drawn up on the right of it. As foon as our firll di- 
vifion was engaged, I advanced, and attacked their 
battalion -, the firft divifion had gained their point al- 
moft inflantly, fo that the enemy found themfelves 
between two fires -, in which fituation they did not 
long remain, but retreated, or rather ran away as fall 
as they could, leaving us mailers of the poll, and 
three pieces of cannon. 

While we were purfuing our fuccefs, the whole 
body of Maraitas and Maiflbreans rode in between us 
and them, fo that our attention was afterwards fuf- 
ficiently taken up in fecuring our return to camp, 
which we efteded without difhculty, though they made 


1753- ON THE Coast OF COROM ANDEL. 97 

two or three briik attacks; but our men had been 
long accuftomed to preferve their fire : and as our 
cannon were well ferved, the cavalry thought proper 
to retire. Their lofs on this occafion was not incon- 
fiderabie : amongft the rejft a nephew of Morarow, 
called Ballapa, was killed. He commanded the Ma- 
-ratta-^, as their ^hief was yet in the Arcot province. 
I had known this young man when he was on our fide, 
a yourh of great Ipirit and courage, and an excellent 
horfeman. His body being found in the field, was 
fent back in my pallankeen to his friends : a rerpe(fl 
I thought juftly due to fo gallant an officer ; and they 
were very thankful for the favour. He was fhot by 
one of our grenadiers, being advanced fo near us that 
he cut one of our men in the ranks, tho' accompanied 
by only four horfemen. Had all the reft behaved 
with the like relblution, we fhould have found much 
more difficulty in our return to camp. Thus was 
this great objed of the war again faved by our fuccefs, 
but the numbers of the enemy were fo great, that a 
vidory or two more would have left all my men on 
the plains of Trichinopoly. I therefore thought in 
earneft of a reinforcement, efpecially as the neigh- 
bourhood of the enemy, with their large body of ca- 
valry, began to make my ftay on the plain very incon- 
venient, without horfe to oppofe them. The Nabob 
and I determined to move towards Tanjore, to try 
what our pretence would do with the King, and if 
poffible perfuade him to fend the troops he fo often 
promiled, to our affiflance. We marched the 2d 
of July and encamped at a place called Conander- 
coile, half-way between Trichinopoly and Tanjore. 
I chofe this road rather for fecurity, than fhortnels; 
it being moft of the way through thick woods, and 
fafe from the cavalry. There we halted till we receiv- 
ed intelligence from Mr. Park, that he had prevailed 
on the King to fend out Monagee his general at the 

G head 

98 N A R R A T I V E OF THE W A R 1753. 

head of 3000 horfe, and 2000 fepoys, to join us, 
which was compleated in ten days. 

Some of our fhips at this time being arrived on the 
coaft from England with recruits, a detachment of 
170 men, and fome fepoys were ordered to march 
and reinforce us, under the command of lieutenant 
Repington, who joined us on the 3d of Augull, and 
on the fifth we fet out for Trichinopoly in company 
with the King's horfe, commanded by Monagee. The 
enemy at this time alfo received a reinforcement, and 
were in battalion fuperior -, however, as Trichinopoly 
was ill fupplied and diftrefled, we were obliged to 
march. On the 7th we arrived atDolaways * Choul- 
try, about ten miles eaft of the town. A heavy rain 
falling kept us there the next day ; but the ninth, in 
the morning, we began our m.arch, with a convoy of 
fome thoufands of bullocks, laden with provifions. 
By the fignals made from the Obfervatory, on the 
top of the rock of Trichinopoly, we were given to un- 
derftand that the enemy feemed determined to op- 
pofe us ; and by the fame fignals we were enabled 
to judge of their difpofition, which we loon di ("cover- 
ed more plainly as we advanced. They had ex- 
tended themfelves from the French Rock to the Gol- 
den Rock ; at each of which fome of their infantry 
was ported. At the Sugar Loaf, as between both, 
and readied to oppofe us, if we attempted to pafs, 
was their battalion, with the artillery planted to ad- 
vantage. All the cavalry was between thefe rocks, 
and in different parties, forming a chain, and waiting 
our motions. In confequence of this difpofition of 
the enemy, I ordered our march. Our provifions and 
baggage on the left flank with the Nabob, Monagee, 


* An open houfe for all travellers, the fame as a Turkifii Ca- 
ravanferai. A Bramin refides always in, or near it, who keeps it 
clean, and provides water. He is maintained by an endowment 
from the founder of the charity. On moll publick roads there 
is a Choultry every five or fix miles. 


and the Tanjore troops. Half our fepoys in front, 
and after them, a party of Europeans, and an ad- 
vanced guard to the fiift divjfion of artillery. After 
them followed the battalion, and in their rear my fe- 
cond divifion of guns, fiipported by a piquet ; the 
other half of our fepoys brought up the rear of the 

As my intention was to avoid an engagement, if 
polTible, having fo large a convoy under my care, I 
diretled the march fo as to be out of the reach of their 
guns, intending to go round by the Golden Rock. 
This put their whole body in motion ; they detached 
a party of their battalion to reinforce that poft, where 
they had a great many fepoys, their main body alfo 
made a motion to fupport them, and attack us as we 
came round. Finding it impoliible to avoid an acfti- 
on, I refolved to prevent that party's reinforcing the 
other on the Pock ; and fince we were obliged to en- 
gage, I refolved to difpoilefs the enemy, as the gaining 
of that poft would give me an advantage. I therefore 
ordered the grenadiers, the picquet, and our advan- 
ced fepoys to pu(h for it ; their party did the fame to 
fupport it, but not with the fame vigour or fpirit, for 
we out-marched them, and drove oft the party which 
were in pofleliion. On this, their advanced party hal- 
ted, and prefently after the whole body, which had 
moved but a little wav from the Sugar- Loaf Rock to 
fupport them. When our whole force had reached 
the Golden Rock, I ordered our baggage in the rear 
of it, unwilling to expofe them to the cannonade, and 
our cavalry to ftay by, and fecure it j being determin- 
ed to attack the enemy, and if poffible, to drive 
them out of the field, for without it we could not 
finifli our march. As I have faid before, the firfl par- 
ty of the enemy had halted between the two rocks, 
but imprudently, nearer to us a good deal than to their 
own body. So favourable an opportunity was not to 
be loft. I'he picquet, grenadiers, and four platoons 

G 2 were 

100 N A RR ATI VE OF THE WAR 1753. 

were immediately ordered to attack them, and ac- 
cording to their fuccefs, I was ready to move with 
the remainder, either to fupport, if repulfed, or to 
join, and pufh the advantage to their main body, by 
driving on them their beaten party. Our artillery was 
pofted clear of the flanks of the party, as they 
marched, to keep the cavalry at a diflance. The 
officer who was ordered for the attack, inrtead of fol- 
lowing my orders, fent me word, he could not execute 
them without cannon, and that he was halted, wait- 
ing for it. The leafl delay was fufficientfor the ene- 
my to fee their blunder, and in confequence to repair 
it, by moving up to their party, which would oblige 
me to do the fame ; and by this means, the affair 
might become more equal, and indeed with more ad- 
vantage on their fide, as they were fuperior. On this 
melTage I left the main body, and galloped to the 
head of the party, and there ordered him back to the 
pod I had left, defiring him to leave this with me. 
Captain Kirk, at the head of the grenadiers, captain 
Killpatrick with the picquet, and myfelf at the head 
of four platoons, marched on, the line keeping in 
admirable order, in fpiteof a very fmart fire from the 
enemy's artillery, which coll; us fome men, and in 
particular captain Kirk, who was killed at the head of 
his favourite grenadiers. The brave fellov/s, by 
whom he was much beloved, could not fee his death 
without fome emotion. Captain Killpatrick, who 
faw him fall, and his men at a ftand, immediately 
put himfelf at their head, and defired them, if they 
Ibved their captain, to follow him, and revenge his 
death. Thefe things on the fpot have generally a ve- 
ry great efFeCl, when delivered from a perfon, whofe 
fpirit and courage is known 1 the fellows, roufed in an 
iiiflant, fwore after their manner, they would follow 
him to ; and in that difpofition attacked the ene- 
my, who were unable to ftand the fhock. The main 
body feeing our fuccefs, (according to the diredions T 


1-753- °^ ^^^ COAST OF COROMANDEL. lor 

had left) marched to fupport us, and purfned the 
blow.- The enemy at lafl moved to the afliflance of 
their party ; but too late. The bril'knefs of the at- 
tack, gave no time for rallying, but on the contrary, 
the pannick fpreading through the whole, the batalli- 
on did not even ftay to give or receive a fire, but ran 
off in great confulion, round the Golden Rock, and 
away to the Five Rocks. To increafe their diflrefs, 
our rear divifion of guns which we had left at that 
pod, with mofl of our fepoys, and cavalry, to fecure 
our baggage and provifions, cannonaded them fevere- 
ly in their retreat ; and had the Tanjore horfe done 
their duty, few could have efcaped. The Tanjore 
chief alledged that he was afraid to leave the convoy, 
expofed to their large body of cavalry, which remain- 
ed in good order, and conflantly near us ; but 
this was but a bad excufe, for orders had been 
fent him, on the enemy's retreat, to purfue, and 
we were marching back to fecure the convoy. The 
enemy, who were encamped almoft in the order in 
which they drew up to oppofe my march, ftruck their 
tents at the beginning of the attack, and left us little 
elfe on the field of battle befides their killed and 
wounded, with three pieces of cannon. We had not 
more than 40 men killed and wounded ; the enemy 
above an hundred. 

I cannot help mentioning one particular circum- 
ftance in this affair, to fhew the extraordinary behavi- 
our of the French; the boys with my palankeen had 
ftraggled a little out of the hne of march, and were 
picked up by the Marattas. It was the fame in v/hich 
I had fent back the body of Morarow's nephew : I 
therefore defi red the Maratta chief to return it, and I 
would pay the price to the horfemen who had taken 
it ; but the French had got it out of their hands, and 
would not fuffer them to fend it back, but carried it to 
Pondichery, where, by Mr. Dupleix's order, it was 
carried about the town in triumph. At the fame time 
G 3 it 

102 N ARR A TI VE OF THE W AR 1753. 

it was reported that I was killed, and that we had 
loft the victory, of which the palankeen was a tro- 

The enemy retreated to AUetore, very near the 
head of the ifland. The two next days were employ- 
ed in putting provifions into the fort •, when that was 
done, we marched and encamped at the Five Rocks, 
which was in their rear-, upon which they retreated 
to * Moutehillenour, and in fo great a hurry, that they 
left behind them a nine pounder, and fome ammuni- 
tion. Elmiferam furrendered the i ith to Monagee. 
The ftrength of the ground they occupied, made it 
impnfiible for us to attack them ; befides, they re- 
ceived in the mean time a reinforcement of Europeans 
from Pondichery -, and Morarow returned to them 
witli all the reft of his cavalry. We then marched to 
cover our convoys from Tanjore, which their fuperi- 
or numbers of cavalry made it difficult to bring in. 
Several of our parties were attacked ; in particular 
one on the 28 th, by a large _body of Marattas, and 
MaifTore horfe. They came fo near the picquet, 
which was fent to the fupport of the convoy, that the 
foldiers in the front rank vvounded fome of the horfe 
with their bayonets, and yet, by not parting with 
their fire, brought in the convoy fafe. 

A number of our men falling Tick, by the badnefs 
of the water, we moved our camp to the French Rock 
the I ft of September, The enemy made a motion 
alio upon thi.s and encamped with the Sugar-Loaf en 
their right, and the Golden Rock on their left. . We 
were joined in this camp by another reinforcement 
from the fettlement, commanded by captain Ridge, 
wiih fome men and officers from Europe, about 150 
Europeans, and 300 fepoys. This gave us great fpi- 
rits, and determined us to attack the enemy. Our 
neceflities indeed obliged us to it. We had a fcarcity 
of every thing in camp, not above three days provifi- 

* Sifuated upon the river, about kven or eight miles from 


ons, and no convoys could come without the rifque of 
an engagement. I thought it more advifeable, there- 
fore, by attacking them, to engage while I could be 
raafter of my own difpofition. Having refrefhed the 
troops with two or three days reft, we moved nearer 
the enemy •, and in order that they might imagine the 
motion v/as made only to try if they would decamp 
on my approach, I fent to Trichinopoly for an eigh- 
teen pounder, and with it cannonaded their camp, as 
if \A/e meant no more than to make them uneafy. 

The following was the enemy's difpofition, and my 
order of attack for the next morning. As I have faid 
before, they were encamped with the Sugar-Loaf 
Rock on their right, having thrown up intrenchments 
in their front and rear, but none on the left, where 
were pofted the Maiflbreans and Marattas, extending 
almoft to the Golden Rock, on which they had a par- 
ty of 1500 fepoys, 100 Europeans, and two gun^. 
Our battalion of 600 rank and file was ordered into 
three divifions ; to march in the rear of each other, 
juft at a proper diftanceto form the line when neceir 
fary. Our fepoys followed in the rear, to the right 
and left of the divifions, and the Nabob and Mona- 
gee with the cavalry brought up the whole, our can- 
non being divided on our flanks. 

September 21ft at four in the morning, we march- 
ed dire<5tly forward to the Golden Rock. Our front 
divifion, which was according- to cuftom, compofed 
of the grenadiers, picquet, and two platoons were or- 
dered to attack it briikly. The enemy were fo much 
furprized, that even they forgot to fire their two pieces 
of cannon, which were loaded with grape ; and their 
infantry, fg great was their pannick, fired without any 
order, little to our prejudice. We got pofTeffion of 
the rock in an inftant. No time was loft to increale 
the confufion thefe runaways muft create. After dif- 
mounting the two pieces of cannon, and our front di- 
vifion again being formed, we marched on in the fame 
order for the French battalion. A,s I wifhed and ex- 
G 4 pected. 


pected, the beaten party carried their conriiTion to the 
black troops in camp, who in crowds ran for fafety to- 
wards the French, and increafed their diforder. The 
enemy foon perceived by the runaways -where they 
might expec\ our attack, and in conlequence alfo 
found out that their intrehchments were of no ufe, 
wiiich obliged them to form oppofite to where we were 
marching. In this fituation we palled the Black camp 
eafily, and were with the French in lefs than half an 
hour. The day then began to dawn : Their cannon 
fired very brilkly, as we approached -, but, I fuppofe, 
in the hurry, they forgot to point them, fo little da- 
mage did we receive. We found them drawn up ra- 
ther on our right, and ftill inclining that way, 
with an intention, I luppofed, to fall on the flanks ot 
our divifions. As a large body of their fepoys were 
pofted on their left, I fent orders to ours on the right 
in my rear, to move up equal with the right of my 
firft divifion to oppofe theirs, and fecure that flank. 
We formed our line as we marched, and attacked as 
we formed. Our right foon drove their left, and our 
center and rear divifions, the right and center of their 
line. Another body of their fepoys, in poiTeflion of 
the Sugar-Loaf Rock were routed by our divifion of 
fepoys, on the left of my laft divifion. In fhort the 
afl'air was foon decided every where : they attempted 
to rally, and make a (land again, near a little breaft- 
work, but were quickly obliged to abandon it, leav- 
ing behind them their camp ftanding, all their artille- 
ry, (eleven pieces of cannon, with their commandant 
Mr. Aftruc) and nine officers prifoners, and about 100 
men killed and wounded on the field of battle, and al- 
moft as many prifoners. In this adion we had 70 men 
and fix officers killed and wounded. I received a 
Ihght wound in my arm, and captain Killpatrick a 
flioc through his body ; concluding it mufl be mortal, 
he would not permit any of his people to flay by 
him, but fent them on to join their company in the 
purfuit of the enemy. Some flraggling Maratta horfe 



came up in the mean time, according to cuftom, 
cut him with their fabres as they paffed, which would 
have been repeated by others, but the furgeon by ac- 
cident feeing him in that danger, ftaid and proteded 
him, till the fuccefs of the day cleared the field of 
the enemy. The garrifon made a fally, and picked 
up feveral prifoners, who were making their eicape 
over the river to the ifland, where they at laft colletSled 
their fcattered army, leaving us mafters of the plain, 
and an open communication. The Nabob's cavalry 
were few ; but had our Tanjore horfe behaved as 
they ought, we muft have deftroyed many more of 
the French battalion. Nor had they now any excufe 
as formerly, the enemy's horfe having kept their di- 
ftance on our firfh attack in the morning ; but the 
Tanjoreans were too bufy in plundering the camp to 
think of a purfuit. We had not fufficient force to 
follow the blow on the ifland, but were obliged to reft 
contented with our fuccefs, and endeavour to perfuade 
the Kmg of Tanjore and Tondeman, to make ufe 
of this favourable opportunity to throw in provifi- 

The enemy had left a party at Weyaconda, winch 
we were obliged to attack, and batter in breach. The 
breach was fcarce pradicable, when our (epoys per- 
ceiving the enemy (iealing off by another gate, clam- 
bered up as well as they could, and cut the garrifon 
to pieces ; it confifted of two hundred Black infantry. 
Upon this we marched and encamped at the French 
Rock, and difpatched an officer to the King of Tan- 
jore, to haften the important article of provifions, 
who fucceeded in part, and we got ftores for three 
months into the place. 

The monfoon feafon coming on, it was high time 
to think of cantoning our troops. The Nabob and I 
therefore fixed upon Koiladdy, about fifteen miles eaft 
of Trichinopoly, as it commands the pafs on the 
ifland. We fliould have remained nearer Trichino- 
poly, or perhaps in the town itfelf, but that would 


io6 N ARR ATI VE OF THE W AR 1754, 

have occafioned a very great confumption of provifi- 
ons. Therefore after leaving a fufficient garrifon in 
Trichinopoly and the fort of Ehniferam, we marched 
for Koiladdy, and provided againft the fevere rains 
which generally fall about this lealbn of the year. In 
our cantonments we were very ficklv •, we loft fix of- 
ficers in (>s many weeks, and a great many foldiers. 
The Nabob continued with us, but iMonagee and the 
Tanjore troops returned home. Being pretty well ac- 
quainted with the nature of the people, notwithftand- 
mg their promifes of coming back •, I v/rote to the 
prehdency, to fend Mr, Palk, who had before fo well 
managed for us, to keep that court firm in our irite- 
refl, I was the more foUicitous becaufe I knew the 
king's prime minifter was our enemy, and conflantly 
endeavouring to keep his mafter neuter or rather a 
feeming friend to both, and if at any time we were un- 
fuccefsful, Succojee was fure to be in the intereft of 
the enemy, Nanderauze fent an ambailador to the 
king of Tanj' re making large promifes if he woui'd 
leave us. and threatening on the contrary, if he did 
not, that the Marattas fhould ravage and lay wafte his 
country, and punilli him with fire and fword, and that 
the Nabob governor, meaning Dupleix, fliould alio 
bring down Salabatzing againft us. Succojee the 
miniiter had been brought over to the French caufe by 
a large bribe, and by his intrigues removed iVlonagee 
from his mafter's favour. 

The enemy remained feemingly very quiet on the 
ifland, and had received fome reinforcements from 
Pondichery, but none came to us from Madrafs, to 
put on an equality. Mr. Dupleix generally obliged the 
inhabitants of Pondichery to mount guard and do the 
duty of the garrifon, but we could not in like man- 
ner truft Fort St. George without regular troops. On 
the 28 th in the morning, our out-guards reported that 
in the night they had heard a great firing towards 
Trichinopoly. We remained in fuipence till the even- 
ing, when the following account came from captain 



KiJlpatrick, v/ho fucceeded captain Dalton in that 

The enemy's whole army under Mr. Maiilin eroded 
the river the 27ih at night. Their forces were diftri- 
buted agreeable to the different falfe attacks they were 
to make. The real one was to be made by the French 
battallion, on that battery, which is in the center of 
the Weft face ; and as 1 obferved before was called 
Dalton's battery. They had 800 men, 600 were to 
efcalade, and Mr. Maillin with 200 more and a body 
of fepoys to wait the event, prepared to fecond, and 
join the firft party, when they had got over the wall. 
At three in the morning they paffed the ditch which 
was almofl dry. They placed their ladders, and moun- 
ted to the Number of 600 on the battery, without in- 
terruption, or the leaft alarm in the garrifon. The 
guard appointed for the battery was of 50 fepoys, with 
their officers and two European gunners. The rounds 
had gone at twelve o'clock, and found them prefent, 
and alert. However when the French came they were 
moftly abfent or with the two European gunners 
afleep. By this time, two or three fhot were fired, 
v/hich alarmed our piquet. The French, perfuaded 
that firing alone would frighten the garrifon, turned 
two of our twelve pounders on the battery, againft 
the town, and difcharged them with a volly of fmall 
arms, their drums beating, and the foldiers crying 
out. Five le Roy. 

Captain Killpatrick was then ill of his wounds. 
The next officer in command came to him for his or- 
ders. He bid him march inflandy with the picquet, 
referve, and what fepoys were not pofted, to the place 
where the attack was made, and to order every man 
alfo to their refpedive Alarm Pofls, and not toftir 
from them on pain of death. The French after their 
difcharge, came down from the battery ; and were 
between the two walls. There was a flight gate in 
the inner wall, which led into the town. The man 


io8 N ARR ATI VE OF THE W AR 1753. 

who was their guide knew where it was, they had two 
petards ready to clap to it, and at the fame time to a- 
rnufe us, another party was to efcalade the inner wall. 
The icheme was well laid, and had not the French 
petulance, made them too foon difcover themfelve&j 
they perhaps might have had time to execute their 
dehgns, and have entered the town. When our offi- 
cer came to the place attacked, it was not eafy for 
him todiicover the iituation of the enemy : but how- 
ever in the hurry and confufion, he did not forget the 
gate, on the flanks of which he pofted a number 
of men, with plenty of ammunition, to fire from 
thence incelTantly, whether they heard or 'faw any 
thing of the enemy or not. And luckily he did, for 
the guide and petardier were found killed within ten 
yards of the g-^te. The efcaladers had fo far fucceed- 
ed in their defign as to have fixed ladders againft the 
inner wall, and began to mount. The commanding 
officer of this party, preceeded by his drummer were the 
firft perfons who attempted to enter, in which the lat- 
ter loft lire life, and the officer receiving a lliot and cut 
at the fame time, was pulled within the town. The 
frequent flallies of fire, occafioned by the brifknefs of 
the attack and defence, were the only guide our artil- 
lery officer had to direct the pointing of his guns ^ 
with which he fo well fucceeded, having loaded them 
with grape, as to fhatter the ladders, kill a number 
of men and entirely difappoint their well concerted 
fcheme. They now only thought of making their 
efcape, or fcreening themlelves from our fire. This 
firft was impraifticable, their ladders being moftly dc- 
ftroyed, and they within the firft wall : yet fome at- 
tempted leaping off the battery, into the ditch, but 
the greater number lay hid under the parapet. The 
long wiflied for day at laft came and dilcovered 
where the enemy were, who made ufe alio of the light 
to beg for quarter, which was granted them. They 



loft in that affair * 364 Europeans taken prifoners, 65 
of which were wounded. Eight officers alfo prifoners, 
and moft of them wounded, befides forty private, and 
one officer killed, and they acknowledged themfelves 
that many more were wounded, or lamed, who were 
carried off to the ifland. We found two petards, one 
as I faid before, with the petardier within ten yards 
of the gate, the other at a little diftance from it. 

I gave orders for marching the next day, but firfl 
fent a reinforcement to captain Killpatrick, as the 
number of his prifoners was much greater than his 
European garrifon, and the enemy threatened the 
place with another general affault. We arrived at 
the French Rock without oppofition, the enemy keep- 
ing clofe to the ifland. 

The king of Tanjore after a great many difficulties, 
fent out Ibme of his troops to Tricatapoly ; eighteen 
miles from Trichinopoly, and made no fmall merit of 
what he had done, for the Nabob. But the truth was, 
he had certain intelligence, that the enemy were for- 
ming a party of Marattas, to enter his country, and 
he therefore prepared to oppofe them. Succogee had 
fo effectually irritated the king againft Monagee, that 
the command of the troops was given to Gauderow, 
an officer of no fkill or judgment, but a creature of 
Succogee's, and uncle to the king. W'e defired that 
Monagee might be fent, well knowing his merit as a 
foldier, and his ftrong attachments to the common 
caufe, which he always thought his matter's intereft. 
On our writing preffingly for him. Succogee repreiented 
to the king that Monagee was too much in our intereft 
not to be fufpeded, and that it was poffible, with our 
afliftance, he might endeavour to make himfelf too 


* It may ferve as a fpeclmen of Mr. Dupleix's manner of rela- 
ting thele affairs, both in his Memoire and the little Hiftory which 
he caufed to be publifhed in the year 1757, to cite the following 
words from the Memoire, where fpeaking of this lofs of fo large a 
party of Europeans, he fays, Jl fallut done fe rctirer et meme ai'tc 

no N ARR AT I VE OF THE WAR 1754. 

povverfu!. Being acquainted with this, I was oblie,ed 
to defift even from mentioning Monagee's name, or 
the confequcnce might have been fatal to him. Not 
to drive things therefore to extremities, I wrote to the 
king that he might (end whom he pleafed to com- 
mand his troops^ I was latisfied. 

Thus ended the year J 753, in which had we been 
able to purfue our fortune, our advantages would have 
been real : but inftead of it our fucceffes were only a 
refpite, and v/e foon had the fame to go over again, 
having, however, the confolation to think we had 
done all v?e could againft fo great a fuperiority. A 
fuperiority indeed which I am often afhamed to men- 
tion, for fear my veracity fliould be called in quefti- 

Mr Bufiy with his army was ftill attending and fup- 
porting Salabatzing to the northward. Shaw Abadin 
Cawn the fon of Gauzedy Cawn, who had been ap- 
pointed by the Mogul prince of the Deckan, had too 
much employment on his hands, as chief BuclTieeof 
the empire, to think at that time of m^aking good his 

The latter end of this year the Mogul Shaw Hamet 
was depofed, and fucceeded by Allum Geer. This • 
change was occafioned by the foUowii^i^ event The 
Mogul fent Shaw Abadin Cawn, the BucQiee, at the 
head of 90000 horie, to fupprels an irruption of the 
Rafhpoots, who are reckoned the beft foldiers in Indo- 
ftan. hi this expedition he fucceeded, bat on his re- 
turn to Delly, an uncle of his taking the advantage of 
hisabfence, perfua'ded the Mogul that he had always 
been his enemy, and intended making ufeofhis army 
to dethrone him. The Mogul was the eafier perfuad- 
ed, as the Bucfhee had obtained the poft he enjoyed, 
more through power than favour, and had ever fpoke 
freely of the Mogul's diflblute way of life, which was 
generally fpent in debauchery. It was therefore agreed, 
that Shaw Abadin Cawn fhould be put to death, but 
as they rightly judged it could not be done openly, the 


1753. ON 'THE Coast of CORO M ANDE L. hi 
following fcheme was laid for the execution of their de- 


The Mogul went out of Delly, at the head of 
25000 horfe, in order as he faid to do honour to Shaw 
Abadia Cawn, and reward him for his iervices. At 
their meeting, the blow was to have been ftruck. The 
Bucfhee having intelligence of all that pafled, came 
readily to meet the Mogul, but brought with him 
30000 Marattas ; v/ho in cafe of any attempt were to 
protect him. The Mogul's party hearing that fuch 
precautions were taken, not knowing what might be 
the confequence, and afraid to offend a man fo pow- 
erfully fupported, difbanded and returned to Delly, 
leaving their fovereign almoft without attendants : who 
therefore immediately followed his troops. Whether 
Shaw Abadin Cawn thought this a favourable oppor- 
tunity to dethrone a man who was a fcandal to the 
dignity of the throne ; or whether it was the refult of 
a premeditated defign, he followed the Mogul, enter- 
ed Delly, and went immediately to the palace, where 
after making his obeifance, and fitting down a little 
while at the Durbar with the Mogul, he ordered his 
people to feize on and imprifon him ; he then.affem- 
bled the Omrahs *, placed on the throne, Allum 
Geer a near relation to the late Mogul. The depofed 
Prince, according to the cruel policy of their govern- 
ment was immediately deprived of his fight. 

The Marattas as they had threatened, flipped by 
Gauderow, who was encamped on the frontiers, en- 
tered the Tanjore country, and began according to 
culom to plunder and burn the villages, cut the grain, 
and drive off the catde. The king prelTed by necef- 
fity, found at laft, that nobody but Monagee, could 
puta flop to the mifchief. He applied alfo to me, but 


* Privy counfellors, men of the firft dignity and family in the 
empire. They are under the Vizir, but are molliy concerned in all 
the revolutions of the ftate : and commonly their interell eleds and 
depofcs the Moguls. 

112 NARR A TI VE OF THE WAR 1754. 

the violent rains had fo fwelled the rivers between us, 
and the roads were fo bad that it was impoflible tor 
us to move. Monagee came out of Tanjore, with 
what troops he could raife, and Gauderow had orders 
to join him, and give up the command. Monagee 
came up wnth the Marattas on the 4th of January, 
dr€w them into an ambufcade, took from them 800 
horfc, and made a great many prifoners, and cut to 
pieces the remainder of the party. I flattered my- 
lelf fuch a piece of fervice, might reinflate our friend 
Monagee, and reftore him to favour, and that after 
fo much fuccefs, perhaps he would join me, but I was 
grearly miftaken. On his return to Tanjore, he was 
very gracioufly received, but told at the fame time, 
that the^nemy being now fubdued, there was no fur- 
ther occafion for his fervice ; and coniequently the 
troops were difbanded. All this was the effc(5l of Suc- 
cogce's envy, which increafed in proportion with the 
other's merit. He perfuaded the king, that keeping 
up troops was too heavy an expence ; that the Englifh 
would do the reft, that it was our bufinefs to fight 
and not his, who hadjuft gained a glorious vidory, 
v.ith which he might ht down in fafety and con- 

During this time the two governors, . Mr. Saunders 
and Dupleix were endeavouring to negociate. After 
many altercations, and a tedious correfpondence, it 
was agreed on between them to fend commiffaries 
from each nation, and hold a congrefs at Sadrafs *, 
at which place matters might more eafily be adjufled. 
Accordingly commiifaries were appointed. Thofe on 
our fide were Mr. Palk and Mr. Vanfittart ; on theirs 
the father L'Avaur, fuperior general of the Jefuits in 
India, and Mellieurs De Kerjean and De Bauffet, who 
aflembled at Sadrafs in January. 


* A Dutch feulement fituated between Madrafs and Pondlche- 

1754- ON THE COAST OF C O R O M A N D E L. 113 

We propofed for the bafis of the treaty, the Nabob 
being acknowledged, and the king of Tanjore to re- 
main in peaceable poffeflion of his country. But their 
propofals in anfwer to ours were as follows : 

ift, The reflitutionof the French prifoners. 

2dly, That Madrafs, which ufed to pay to the 
Duan of Arcot, 4000 pagodas yearly, fhould be in- 
dependent, and all our arrears forgiven. 

gdly, That the company fhould be lawfully entitled 
to Ponamalley and all its dependencies. 

4thly, That the Nabob fhould have feme eftablifh- 
ment elfewhere, if the preliminaries were recei- 
ved, and that his differences with the MaifToreans, 
with regard to Trichinopoly, fhould be reconcil- 

5thly, That the Englifli fhould evacuate all the 
places taken from the French, to whom they belong- 
ed, whether by grant or conquefl:, as well as all the 
places in the Carnatick, without oppofmg the difpofiti- 
on and arrangement of Salabatzing, who had an un- 
doubted right, and who had aflociated the Marquis 
Dupleix in the government of the Deckan. Such 
were Mr Dupleix's propofals. 

It has been before faid, that Mr. Dupleix would 
willingly make the world believe he had received 
grants from the Mogul and Salabatzing appointing him 
governor from the river Kriftna to Cape Comorin, 
and as fuch he was proclaimed in the ufual form. In 
confequence of this pretended authority, thefc articles 
were made. But an unlucky miflake proved it all to 
be a forgery. The French commifl'aries came equip- 
ped with what they called Des pieces authentiques 

H from 

114 N AR R ATI VE OF THE W AR 1754, 

fi'om the Mogul, and other officers under him, con- 
ftituting and appointing Mr. Dupleix governor ge- 
neral from the river Kriftna to the lea, and the 
French commilTaries agreed (left our gentlemen 
fnould doubt it) they (liould examine, and take co- 
pies of thefe grants. 

A Perfian interpreter was fent for, from whom they 
learned tiiat the (even firft faneds or grants were only 
copies, though produced as originals : to which the 
In'ench commilTaiies anlwered, that Mr. Dupleix kept 
the originals at Pondichery, and if required, they 
fhould be fent for ; but that thefe papers, attefted by 
a Caudy *, were of equal validity, Thiscaufed fome 
difpute, but our gentlemen dropt it; and on further 
examination it appeared to Mr. Vanfittart (who un- 
derftood enough of the Perfian language) to be a falle 
feal fixed to the faned, called the Mogul's, the firfc 
having no date i". On that the French immediately 
objeded to our proceeding any further ; for unlefs we 
could produce Nazirzing's faneds to the Nabob, they 
could not admit of thteirs being copied. We told them, 
that Nazirzing fupporting him, was a fufficient faned 
in his favour. That it was their firil propofal, as well 
as Mr. Dupleix' s, all along to Mr. Saunders, to begin 
with an exammation of their own faneds, and we 
could not help being furprized at their declining it, 
after fome copies had been taken. That pieces of (b 
publick a nature, we apprehended, might be expofed 
to all the world. But we could not help remarking, 
that the firft of thofe faneds was without date ; and 
the only original they produced, et le plus authentique, 
as it is termed, was a manifcft forgery ; for it had no 
t chop of the Mogul or his Vizier ; it had no fign 


* Caudv a perfon who adminifters juftice, and by whom copies 
of all public papers are attelled. 

f Mr. Dupleix is filent on this Aibjed in his Memoire. 

:{: A fmaller Teal on which is engraved the name of the Mogol. 
Every grant is generally authenticated, not only wiih this feal of 
the Mogul, but alfo that of his Vizleis. 

1754- ON THE Coast of COROMANDEL. ir^ 

manual, and from other manifefl: tokens, it was evi- 
dent that it had been borrowed from fome old faned, 
efpeciallyas the number 3 is annexed to it, which was 
the third year o'^ the reign of the laft Mogul. 

I have dwelt fo long on this affair, only to give an 
idea of what fhuffling condud Mr. Dupleix was capa- 
ble, in order to carry a point, and Ihew a real caufe 
why the congrefs came to nothing. The commiflaries 
were recalled on each fide, and the war as likely to 
continue as ever. 

We remained near Trichinopoly, and the enemy 
on the ifland, but they were well fituated, having a 
large body of cavalry, and the river fordable every 
where to incommode us very much. All the country 
round, after being the (eat of war for fo many years, 
was ruined ; our provifions coming mollly from Tan- 
jore, we were obliged to fend large parties to efcort 
them, for the merchants with grain would not come 
within eighteen miles of us without a party to protecfl 
them. We were obliged aUo to fend five or fix miles 
for firewood, while the enemy's cavalry were conti- 
nually in motion on every fide. At that time we had 
troops enough on the coafl", which might havejoined 
lis, with whofe affiflance we fhould hav^e been able, at 
leaf!:, to have proteded our convoys with lefs fatigue 
and rifque, as the event too fatally (hewed. 

In the month of February we fenta party for prc- 
vifions and ftores, and for fear the enemy might at 
laft be tempted to attack them, I made it ftronger 
than any I before had fent. It confided of two cap- 
tains, fix officers, and 180 men rank and file, four 
pieces of cannon, and 800 fepoys. The command- 
ing officer had orders, if he (aw or heard any of the 
enemy coming to attack him, to take poft immedi- 
ately and defend himfelf, till we could come to his af- 
fiflance. * It will be needlefs to enter on the panicu- 

H 2 lars 

• They were attacked on their march from KiUycottah, and 


ii6 N ARR ATI VE OF THE W AR 1754 

larsof this affair, as one can hardly do it without 
blaming, at leaft pitying the commanding officer, who 
is llnce dead, and who certainly, from his mifcondud, 
lofl his party ; and what dill added to the misfortune, 
our brave company of grenadiers, who had ever beha- 
ved well, and luccefsfully, were amongft rhem. They 
were either taken, or cut to pieces, and both their of- 
ficers killed. In this unhappy affair, 134 men were 
prifoners, 100 of which were wounded. Of the eight 
officers four were killed, and three wounded, one only 
efcaping ; our four pieces of cannon, and about 7000I. 
in money, with a large convoy of provifions fell into 
the hands of the enemy. The party was attacked by 
120 French infantry, two companies of deferters about 
the fame number, the French troop of about 80, 
6000 fepoys, all the Maiffore cavalry, and the Marat- 
tas, who came in at the latter end of the fray, in all 
about 1 0000, and feven pieces of cannon. 

We began our march to their relief, but too late, 
as they had not followed the propofed difpofition, and 
particulai ly had not taken poll agreeable to their or- 
ders, but endeavoured to march on, covering their 
convoys vvith their force ib divided and feparated, 
that they were not able to fupport each other, fo that 
the cavalry, who faw their confufion, had an eafy 
conqueft, and not much more than the buhnefs of a 
minute to cut them to pieces, which was the fate of 
every man, except rhofe whom the French troops fa- 
ved, and even of thefe there were few who did not 
bear marks of their defeat. This was a moft heavy 
ffrokeupon our little handful of men, above a third, 
and I cannot help repeating it, our bell troops, for fo 
with realbn I reckoned our grenadiers, who had al- 
ways behavtd fo well on every occahon where bravery 
and refolittion were to be fhewn. Soon 

within a mile of that place. There was a viilage bcfove them cal- 
Jed Coutapara, a little below Elmiferam. The men who were at 
that polt on the attack, fecuied the village tor our people with 
fome fepoys; and had they been in a body, and piiflied for it, 
agreeable to their orders, the enemy could not have hint them. 


Soon after this misfortune we received intelligence, 
that one of the Nabob's brothers, Mauphus Cawn, 
was in the Arcot province, and marching to our alli- 
ftance with 2000 horfe, which determined me to try 
every method to maintain my ground fome time lon- 
ger, and to leave a party of 180 men, which was at 
Davecotah, to llrengthen Mauphus Cawn, who want- 
ed fome Europeans to efcort him to camp, VVe 
therefore opened our communication with Tonde- 
man's country for provifions, as no merchant could 
be perfuaded to venture the other way with grain from 
Tanjore. The enemy continued on the illand, not 
yet chufing to encamp on the plain •, befides, they 
had fufFered as well as we in the laft affair. Their 
whole attention was taken up in fchemes to furprize 
our parties, but we fo often changed our roads, and 
the time for bringing in our provifions, that they ne- 
ver fucceeded. We were greatly alfifted in this by a 
Moorman, who for his deferved merit was made 
commander of our fepoys. 

Mahomed Ifouf Cawn, commonly called the Nel- 
loure Subadar, from the place whence he came, had 
firft a company of fepoys in our fervice, which were 
raifed by himfelf. He is an excellent partizan, knows 
the country well, is brave and refolute, but cool and 
wary in adtion. He was never fparing of himfelf, but 
out upon all parties, and by his good intelligence 
brought in provifions to keep us tolerably well fupj. lied. 
He is born a foldier, and better of his colour I never 
(aw in the country. 

Mr. Palk, who was now at Tanjore, found affairs, 
juft as I had reprefented them : Monagee a pri loner, 
the King difficult of accefs, and his minifter llrong =n 
the Maiffore intereft, oppofing all our meafures, and 
ever throwing in obftacles to prevent Mr. Palk's fee- 
ing his mafter ; and when, after fome days, he was 
admitted to an audience, he found the King wavering 
and irrefoluie, one hour feemingly convinced by his 

H a aro;u- 

iiS N AR R A TI VE OF THE W AR 1754. 

arguments, the next liflening to, and approving of 
Snccogee, and upon the whole determining nothing. 
Add to all thefe difliculties another, which as we did 
not fufpedl it, was the mod dangerous. It was no leis 
than the treachery of onr hnguifl, who of courle was 
acquainted, and knew all our defigns and motions. 
This man being in treaty with Nanderauze, difcover- 
ed to him all he knew of our affairs. It was a moft 
intricate piece of villainy, and with no fmall difficulty 
traced to the bottom, fo carefully had the fellow laid his 
fchemes. When thefacl was proved againft him, he 
was blown away from the mouth of a cannon, the 
common punifhment of traitors. 

In thi> fnuation did we remain till fome time in 
May, ftill waiting for Mauphus Cawn, and in hopes 
that his coming would determine the King of Tanjore 
to return to our alliance ; but another accident helped 
to bring it about more effedually. On the i 2th of 
May, I fent a party out in the morning to take poft 
on the plain, and wait for a convoy of provifions from 
Tondeman's country. The party was commanded 
by a difcreet and gallant officer, captain Caillaud, 
who u'ith 120 men, two guns, and 500 (epoys march- 
ed from camp about four o'clock in the morning. The 
Nelloure Subadar, who was in the front of his ad- 
vanced party, on getting over a little rifing ground, 
was furprilcd by his horfe neighing, who was imme- 
diately anfwered by many others. When he got to 
the top of the bank, he difcovered a part of the ene- 
my pofbed ; the French troop in particular, who 
mounted on his appearing, firil difcharging their car- 
bines, on hearing which captain Caillaud halted, for- 
med his party, and rode up to his advanced guard. 
He met the Nelloure Subadar, who told him, the 
enemy were on the road, and had pofted themfelves, 
2S well as he could diftinguilhi, in the fame place where 
it was intended to wait for the provifions. The ene- 
my had a bank in their front, whigh formed a parapet, 
and it was agreed to attack them, immediately on their 



flank, with the Europeans on one ride,and thefepoyson 
the other. They quickly drove the enemy, and obliged 
them to leave a tumbril of ammunition behind, and (bme 
of their men. The poft was immediately taken, and 
there the party waited agreeable to their orders. By 
this time it was broad day- light, when we difcovered 
the number of the enemy, which was much fuperior 
to our party, even in infantry, befides all the Mai'- 
fore cavalry. Captain Caillaud therefore employed a 
black fellow to flip through the enemy that had fur- 
rounded him, and ordered the provifions to return. 
The enemy continued at a little diftance from the 
poft, and contented themfelves with a cannonade. 
The moment the firing was heard in the camp, the 
little army being under arms, marched to fupport 
the party. The whole body of the enemy were i^etn 
likewife on the plain. Captain Polier commanded 
(I being much indifpofed at the time, and fcarce able 
to move out of bed.) As our diftance was lefs than 
that of the enemy, we were firft joined. Captain 
Caillaud having reported what he had done v/ith re- 
gard to the provifions, it was agreed to return to 
camp, and, if poffible, to avoid the enemy, then haf- 
tening to cut off our retreat. 

In the mornmg, one of the gun-carriages was ren- 
dered ufelefs, by the enemy's cannonade. The fame 
accident alfo happened to captain Polier, who not 
caring to leave the cannon behind, fpent fome little 
time in fixing them on fpare carriages, to bring them 
off, this being done, they began to move, the lepoys 
divided in front and rear. The enemy had now alfo 
joined, and were marching down in very good order, 
and fo near, that it was impoffible to avoid an engage- 
ment. The French battalion, as our people marched 
by files, was on the right flank, the fepoys in our rear, 
and the cavalry ready to charge on the right, and 
in front. 

Our army marched on very quick to gain a more 
advantageous piece of ground a little way before them, 
which the moment they were in pofleflion of, the men 

H 4 vverc 

I20 N ARR ATI V E OF THE W AR 1754. 

were halted, and faced theFrench; the fepoys in the rear 
were drav/n up fronting thofe of the enemy, to keep 
them ofF our right flank, lb that our httle body was 
formed in half a iquare. The fepoys on the left, 
with one piece of cannoii, had orders to keep off the 
cavalry. Our two remaining pieces (for we carried 
out but five in all), were in the front of the batta- 
lion oppofite the French. Never, I believe, were two 
pieces better ferved l they were of the fhort fix poun- 
ders, that take in a large quantity of grape, lo that 
when they were near enough, every fhot took place in 
the French battalion. The enemy were fo much gal- 
led by the brifknefs of this cannonade, that they be- 
gan to give way, which we faw, in fpite of all the ef- 
forts of their officers to keep them up. The lucky 
minute was iir. proved, by our men advancing and 
giving them a fire, which compleated what the cannon 
had begun, and Itfc us at liberty to finifh our retreat. 
We fuffered moftly from their fepoys, who, though 
they fired at a great diftance, annoyed us very much 
in wounding our men, and moft of our officers ; 
captain Polier received two wounds, and was obliged 
to give up the command to the next officer, captain 
Caillaud, who began the march on the retreat of the 
French, and brought the party home with the two dif- 
mounted pieces of cannon. 

Our forces, that day, when joined, confifted of 
12 platoons in battalion 360 men, 1500 fepoys ; and 
as to our cavalrv, we had our troop of about 1 1 men, 
and a few of the Nabob's horfe : our artillery five 
piects of cannon, two of which were rendered un- 
ferviceabie by the accidents before related. The 
French had 500 Europeans, their two companies of 
deferters, their troop of about 50, near 5000 fepoys, 
and all the Maiflbre cavalry. About 6000 of the 
Marattas the day before luckily crolTcd the Coleroon, 
on fome dilpute between them and the Maiflbreans. 

Our lofs m battalion was fix officers wounded out 
of nine, 59 private men killed and wounded, and 



about 200 fepoys. The enemy's lofs was much more 

I expeded the French would have encamped where 
we had fought, which, had they done, we mufl have 
run the chance of another battle, either to have march- 
ed away towards Tanjore, or to have convoyed in 
provifions ; but they luckily for us chofe to return 
to the ifland, and our communication being open, 
the provifions came in that night. I now deter- 
mined to march towards Tanjore, and there wait for 
Mauphus Cawn ; befides, I was in hopes my pre{ence 
with an army might do fomething in favour of Mr. 
Palk's negociations. I wrote to him, however, to ap- 
prize the King of my intentions, and to fee how he 
took it. While I was waiting for his anfwer, an event 
happened v/hich made our army as welcome as we 
could wifh. The enemy, the fecond night after our 
engagement, took all their Europeans, 3000 fepoys, 
and 2000 horfe, and marched away for 1 ondeman's 
country, with an intentien to burn and deftroy every 
thing they could, to deter that Polygar from fending 
any more provifions. 

The country people alarmed, drove all their catde, 
and valuable effedts into the woods, where it was 
impolfible to follow them \ and this expedition of the 
enemy's ended in nothing, but burning a few empty 
villages, and taking a gun of ours in the woods, 
which the fepoys had to proted our convoys. After 
three days they returned, but vexed at their difap- 
pointment, and finding the King of Tanjore would 
not declare, they loll patience, and fell furiouily upon 
the frontiers of his country, rook Killycottah, a fort 
on the borders, and marched to Koiladdy, which they 
alio took, and by that means madethemlclves mafters 
of the bank on the ifland, which carries the water into 
the Tanjore country, and began to cut it in three or 
four places. 

In thefe circumftances, without waiting for Mr, 
Palk's anfwer, fori knew -the King would be glad 


122 NARR A TI V E OF THE W AR 1754. 

to fee us in his country to defend it. we marched im- 
mediately to Tanjore, through Tondeman's woods, 
dividing our force, and leaving half with captain Kill- 
patrick in Trichinopoly. i wrote alfo for the party 
from Davecotah to march, and meet us at Tanjore, 
for I found that Mauphus Cawn, tor whom we waited, 
was not moved from Arcot. On my firfl day's march, 
as I expedled, I had a letter from the King, begging 
me to come, and wi(hing me Joy on the late victory. 
Mr. Palk alfo wrote to me, that things were much 
altered in our favour fince this expedition of the 
enemy's, and that the King had ordered his horfe 
out under Gauderow. Mr. Palk advifed him to fend 
his cavalry to meet us, that when joined, we might 
foon drive the enemy out of his kingdom. Inftead of 
that, he ordered 1200 horfe to go to Tricatapolly 
to punifli the enemy, as he faid. 

Morarow, who flill remembered the fhame of his 
defeat, ibme months before, thouglit it now a good 
time to be revenged of the Tanjore troops, efpecially 
when Monagee was not at their head. He therelbre 
crolTed the Cauvery, and at day-break fell upon Gau- 
derow's party, who made as little refiflance as fur- 
prifed troops commonly do: Gauderow and 200 of 
his men only efcaped, the reft were either killed, 
wounded, or taken pri Toners. We arrived two days 
after this fray near Tanjore, and there met the party 
from Davecottah, and 500 fepoys. The King came 
out of his fort to meet me, but I was fo ill, that 
I was obliged to fend captain Caiilaud to make 
my apology. 

The next grand point we had for Mr. Palk to 
endeavour at, was the removal of Succogee from the 
King, and Monagee to be reftored to favour and 
power. The circumftances were favourable for us, 
and Mr. Palk and captain Caiilaud managed fo fuc- 
ceisfully, that they convinced the Tanjorean, that to 
his minifter, and his bad counfels muft be attributed 
all his misfortunes -, and that, had he continued flea- 


dy to the Nabob and the Englifh, the war might have 
been happily finifhed, and the enemy could not have 
dared to enter and lay wafte his country, nor the bank 
have been deftroyed. But dill it was not too late; 
every thing might be recovered if Succogee v/as re- 
moved from his perfon and councils, and Monagee 
reftored to his former rank, who had given fo many 
convincing proofs of his ftrong attachments to his 
mailer's intereft. The king was deeply concerned : 
he would fain employ both •, he was unwilling to 
part with his favourite; but when he was convinced 
that our friendfhip depended on it, Succogee was re- 
moved, and Monagee inverted with the fole and full 
management of his kingdom, and appointed once 
more commander in chief of his forces. New troops 
were raifed to make up for their late lofs, and every 
thing promifed v/ell from fo lucky a change in our 

At this time we were acquainted from Madrafs, 
of the arrival of a detachment lent us from Bombay, 
by that prefidency, at the requeft of our governor 
and council ; and indeed I muft do governor Bour- 
chier the juftice to fay, that he was always inclined 
to give us any affiltance in his power. Some fhips 
from Europe arrived alfo with recruits. 

Mauphus Cawn was then at Conjeveram, 60 miles 
weft of Madrafs, but he wanted money and fome 
Europeans to enable him to join us. My opinion 
was afked, what fhould be done in this affair. I gave 
it for advancing him the fum required, a lack of 
roupees, and that a party of 500 Europeans, confid- 
ing of the Bombay detachment and the recruits late- 
ly arrived, fhould immediately march and take Mau- 
phus Cawn Under their efcort. All this was agreed to, 
and the party marched accordingly. 

Morarow, on fome difpute between him and 
the MaiiToreans, had crofted the Coleroon b'^fore 
the 1 2th of May, as I have before obferved. He 
repafled it to perform that exploit againft the Tan- 


124 N ARR ATI VE OF THE WAR 1754. 

jore troops -, and having (Iruck the fevere blow afore- 
mentioned, he returned to the other Tide of the 
Coleroon again, and continued at a diflance from 
the Maillore camp. He then propofed to the Nabob, 
that if the payment of three lack of roupees could 
be fecured to him, he would return to his own 
country, and never more be an enemy to him, the 
Englilh, or the Tanjoreans. The Nabob having no 
money, applied to the King of Tanjore, and after 
a great many meetings, it was agreed to, and the 
articles drawn up and figned. Jn the mean time 
Morarow gave Nanderauze to underftand, that he 
was in treaty with the Nabob, but that if he would 
pay him the money then due, he would return to his 
alTiftance. Nanderauze fent him all the money he 
could fpare -, and Morarow finding there was no 
chance for more from that quarter, agreeable to his 
treaty with the Nabob, marched off. Part of the 
money was paid by the king of Tanjore on his 
going, the reft to be paid on his arrival in his own 

Another detachment came from Davecottah, com- 
manded by captain Zeigler, confiding of about 80 . 
Europeans and Topalfes, and 400 lepoys. As my 
health was much impaired, and therefore my conti- 
nuing uith the army very precarious, the governor 
and council, at my requeft, fent captain Killpatrick 
a major's commiifion, and confented to his fucceed- 
ing to the command, if I fhould be obliged to leave 
it. I was not a little chagrined to find the Tanjore 
troops fo long aflembling, being anxious to march. 
The enemy were now again encamped on the plain, 
and had lb clofely befet Trichinopoly, that our com- 
munication Was quite cut off At laft Monagee fet 
up his ftandard, and joining us on the 25th, we 
marched. My intentions were to have proceeded 
directly toTrichinopoly ; but in a council of war next 
day, I found Monagee unwilling to proceed, till we 
were joined by our other party, who were efcorting 



MauphusCawn. With all the reafons I made ufe of, 
I could not convince him of the necelTity of an im- 
mediate march. We were therefore obliged to wait, 
but on thefe conditions only, that he fhould in the 
interim colledl a magazine of grain equal to the con- 
fumption inTrichinopoly, to enaiile us, on our ar- 
rival, to replace what had been fpent in our ab- 

Mauphus Cawn was then advanced as far as Fort 
St. David, where, contrary to his agreement, he 
wanted all his money before he pafied the Coleroonv 
and even faid that this would not be flifficient to pay 
his troops, infifting on a further fum. Finding he 
trifled with us, I ordered captain Forbes not to wait 
for him, but to join me with his Bombay detachment, 
and our recruits, as expeditioufly as poffible, which he 
completed on the 14th. The 1 5th I reviewed the 
army, which confided of about 1 200 men in batali- 
on, 3000 fepoys, and 14 pieces of cannon. Mona- 
gee had with him 2500 horfe, 3000 infantry, and 
lome field pieces. On the 1 6th we marched, and the 
17th reached Trichinopoly. 

The enemy had been joined the night before by 
200 Europeans, and their whole body appeared on 
the plain in order of battle ; their battalion and fepoys 
with the Sugar-Loaf Rock, on their right, and the 
cavalry on their left. I ordered our advanced guard 
to take poiTelfion of a bank which commanded the 
entrance to the plain. As we advanced, the enemy 
began to cannonade. When I had pafled the bank, 
we formed, and faced the enemy. Monagee's troops 
made up the fecond line, and covered our baggage 
and provifions. The enemy kept moving on ; and 
we likewife, our cannon anfwering theirs. We ex- 
peded nothing but an engagement, and were not a 
little furprized, at once, to fee their battalion go to 
the right about, their cannon drawing off, and the 
whole retreating very regularly. They killed us a 
captain and 1 5 men, and fuffered themfelves (bme- 


126 N A R R A T I V E OF THE W A R 1754. 

thing more. The enemy had another party of To- 
pafles and fepoys marching to join them from the 
illand, which when perceived by Major Killpatrick, 
he fallied out with part of his garrifon, and obliged 
them, after a levere cannonade, to retire to the 

We halted next day to refrefli our men, and to 
put our heavy baggage into the fort, refolving not to 
give the enemy reil, till they had quitted the plain. 
They had the firft day gone to the Five Rocks, but 
on our marching to the Fakeer's Tope, they moved 
off, and encamped at Mootachillenour. We follow- 
ed them, and in the night they thought proper to 
crofs the river, and encamped behind their Pagodas 
on the ifland. We then retook our pofl off Elmi- 
feram, and fent a detachment to cover the king 
of Tanjore's workmen, repairing the bank near 
Koiladdy, the enemy having alio abandoned that 

About this time our fleet, under the command of 
admiral Watfon, arrived with colonel Adlercron's 
regiment, and the French fliips had brought Mr. 
Godeheu, commilfary-general and governor-general 
of all their fettlements, with 1500 Eviropeans. Up- 
on his arrival he wrote to Mr. Saunders to ac- 
quaint him with his inclination to purfue pacific 
meafures, introducing his propofals for a fufpenlion of 
arms, by fending back the troops which Mr. Du- 
pleix had caufed to be Hopped in their paflage from 
Madrafs to Fort St. David. The governor and 
council, pleafed to find they had now to deal with 
a perfon who appeared to concur with them in pur- 
fuing the true intereft of the two commercial com- 
panies, were not long in fending their anfwer, and 
both fincerely labouring to haften the conclufion of 
an event fo much to be wifhed. A Sufpenfion of arms 
was agreed on, and actually took place on the i ith of 
Odober 1754. 


1754- or; THE coASToi COROMANDEL. 127 

The ARTICLES were as follow. 

To begin from the 1 1 th of Oftober, the day on which 
pubhfhed to all the troops, in all the forts, and aftual 
poflefTions of the two con tracing nations in the Carnatick ; 
all a6ts of hoftility Ihall ceafe between the French and the 

IL During the courfe of this fufpenfion, which fhall be for 
three months, their troops ihall not a£l againft each other, not 
only as principals, but even as auxiliaries. 

III. The two nations fhall oblige their allies to enter into 
the fame agreement. 

IV. If either of the two nations, French or Englifh, fhall 
commit any aQ: of hoflility, poflefs themfelves of any place; 
or either occafion any damage to the other after the day of the 
publication of the faid fufpenfion, both oblige themfelves to 
make reparation proportionable to the damage, and to the en- 
tire refliiution of v.'hatever was taken. 

V. If the allies or other troops in the pay of either nation^ 
(hall commit any a£t of hoftility, or plunder the territories of 
which either nation is now in pofTefnon, it fhali be lawful 
for both nations to repulfe their infults by force ; by which 
the Injured nation fliall not be deemed to have infringed 
the prefent agreement. ^ 

VI. If the allies or auxiliary troops of either nation, (hall 
take arms or infult the countries of which the nation they 
were allied to is now in polfeflion, the two nations (hall fuc- 
cour each other in this cafe to oppofe this enemy, who (hould 
become thereby a common enemy to both. 

VII. The troops of the two nations fhall be employed dur- 
ing this fufpenfion of arms, to fecure their fettlements and 
prefent polTellions ; they may be tranfported freely, and with- 
out any difficulty, from one place to another at the pleafure pf 
the governors, generals, commanders, dec. of each nation ; 



and all perfons a6luaily under the proteftion of either flag, 
may in like manner go and come where they think proper, 
■without being difturbed either in their efFeSs or perfons. 

VIII. There fhall be a free commerce throughout the Car- 
natick, and in all the countries to the northward on the Coro- 
mandel coafl, for the two contra6ting nations ; they may 
bring goods from all the places in the dependencies of either 
nation or their allies, and tranfport them freely and without 
any duty whatever through the refpe6bive territories and * 

IX. As foon as the fufpenfion is proclaimed, the mutual 
exchange of prifoners fhall be fet about, and the neceflary 
meafures taken in an amicable manner to foften the fate of 
thofe that fhall remain, by putting them together into places 
where they may feel lefs of the rigour of a long captivity. 

Mr. Palk and Mr. Vans itt art were fent to Pon- 
dichery, and returned with the following Treaty 
and the Truce. 

ARTICLES of a provifwnal ^reaty^ concluded 
and agreed on beiiaeen us Thomas Saunders, Efq-y 
Prefident for the Honourable Englijh Company on the 
coaji of Coromandel and Orixa, Governor of Fort St. 
George, i^c. and the Sieur Charles Robert Godeheu, 
Commijfary for his mojl Chrijiian Maiejly; Comman- 
der General of all the fetilements of the French Com- 
pany on both fides the Cape of Good Hope, and at 
China ; Preftdent of all the councils there efiablifh- 
ed, and Dirc^or General cf the India Company of 


The two companies, Englifh and French, fliall renounce 
for ever all Moorifh government and dignity, and fhall never 
interfere in any difference that may arife between the princes 
of the country. 


* Jageers are lands granted by the Mogul or his reprefentatives. 


All places, except thofe which fhall be ftipulated in the 
definitive treaty, to remain in the poffeffion of the two 
aforefaid nations, French and Englifh, fhall be delivered up 
to the Moors. 

II. In the Tanjore country, the Englifh fhall poflefs 
Davecottah, and the French Karical ; each with their pre- 
fent diftrids. 

III. On the Coromandel coaft, the French fhall poflefs 
Pondichery, the diflric^s of which are to be fpecified in the 
definitive treaty. The Englifh fhall poflefs Fort St. George, 
and Fort St. David, with the diflrifls likewife to be 

The French fhall form a limited fettlement, the fituation 
of which fhall be chofen between Nizampatam, and the ri- 
ver of Gondecama exclufively ; as an equivalent for the dif- 
ference there is between Davecottah, and Fort St. David to- 
gether, compared with Karical : 

Or elfe, 

The diftrifls of Pondichery fhall be made equal to thofe of 
Fort St. George and Fort St. David together, and in this cafe 
the French fliall abandon the Point D'Appuy, propofed above. 
The alternative fhall be left to the determination of the two 

IV A'lazulipatam and Divy fhall be neuter, leaving to the 
two ccmpjinies the choice of making a partition ; each nati- 
on fliail have a houfe for commerce at Mazulipatam, with an 
equal number of foldiers to guard it, in cafe the town ihould 
remain neuter. Divyihall be delivered to the Englifh, if the 
French referve Mazulipatam. And if the French keep Divy;* 
the Englifh ihall have Mazulipatam. In thefe two lafl cafes, 
equal diftricls fliall be annexed to the poflelTions. 

V. The navigation of Narzapore river fhall be free ; the 
Englifh may carry their fettlement upon the banks of the faid 
river, or keep Bandermalanka ; but they fhall pcflefs only 
one of thofe tsvo places j the French fliall have a fettlement 

I on 


on the fame river. The diftrlQs (hall be equal between the 
two nations. 

VI. The entrance of Ingeram river fliall be free, neither 
the French nor the Enghfh fhail pofTefs the iflands of Coringe 
and Yellacatippa. The Englilh fhaii have their fa6lory at 
SuncrapoIIam, with its diftridls, and a warehoufe at Nelle- 
pely, the fortifications of which fhall be razed. The French 
fhall have their fa£tory at Yanam, with diftrifts equal to 
thofe of SuncrapoIIam, and they fhall be at liberty to have 
a ware-hoafe on the Terra Firma in cafe they judge it ne- 
ceflary, for the convenience and eafe of their trading 

VII. In the Chickakul country, as the Englilli have Vi^ 
7,agapatam, the French may fettle a fa6tory where they 
pleafe, to the fouthward of Pondemarka, or the northward 
of Bimlepatam, whether at Gangam or Mafoufbuncjer, on an 
equality with Vizagapatam. 

VIII. Thefe conditions accepted on both fides, although 
they are not to be a law for a definitive treaty in Europe, they 
fhall neverthelefs produce a truce between the two nations 
and their allies, until news is received in India of the anfwers 
made in Europe concerning this agreement; which anfwers 
we promife bona fide to communicate to each other as foon 
as they fhall be arrived by the fhips of either nation. 

IX. Neither nation fhall be allowed to procure, during the 
truce, any new grantor celTion, or to build forts for the defence 
of new eflablilhments. It fhall only be lawful to rebuild and 
repair the fortifications now fubfilling in the eflabHlhments 
they pofTefs at this time, in order to prevent their entire 

X. Until the arrival of anfwers from Europe to thefe 
articles, which fliall be difpatched thither by the firft fhips, 
to be fubmited to the decifion of the two companies, under 
the pleafure and approbation of the two crowns, the two 
nations fhall not proceed to any ceflion, retroceffion, or eva- 
cuation of what they now pofTefs, every thing being to remain 
on the footing of uti pofTidetis. 

XI. With 



XI. With regard to the indemnification, the two nations 
may expect for the expences of the war ; this article (hall be 
amicably adjufted in the definitive treaty. 

Done at Fort St. George, 31 Decemb. 1754. 

TL. S ] (Signed) Thomas Saunders. 

(In Englilh and French) (Under the Englifh) 

Tl. ?A (Signe) Godeheu. 

(Under the French) 

Examined with the original, and 
atttefted to be a true copy. 

Dated at Pondichery, Hen. Vansittart, l Secretaries. 
26 Dec. 1754. Jos. Du Pre, J 

ARTICLESand Stipulations^ of a 7ruce^ conclu- 
ded bet-ween us Thomas Saunders^ Ejq\ Preftdent^ i^c. 
&c. ^c. and the Sieur Charles Robert Godeheu^ Cotn- 
fnij[ar)\ isc. i§c. i^c. in virtue of a provifional trea- 
ty which we have ftgned the fame day, to promote the 
re-ejlablijjjment of tranquillity in this part of India. 

A R T I C L E I. 

To take place on the iTth of January, 1755 ; the day of 
the exp'ration of the fufpenfion of arms, proclaimed the i \ th 
of October, 1754; all hoftilities fhall ceafe between the 
Ergl.fli and French. 

II. During this truce, which fhall be in force until we are 
informed in India of the anfwers made in Europe concerning 
the fiid provifional treaty ; the troops of the two nations, 
French and rnglifn, fhall not a6t againft each other, either as 
principals or auxiliaries. 

I 2 III. The 

132 N ARR ATI VE OF THE W AR i^^. 

III. The two nations, Englifh and French, engage to oblige 
their allies to obferve all that is ftipulated for the accompliilh- 
mcntof the truce by virtue of the treaty; and whoever fhall 
dart to infringe it fhall be reputed a common enemy, and 
fhall be reduced to good order by the force of arms. 

IV. If either of the two nations, French or Englifh, or 
either auxiliary troops or allies, fhall commit any act of hofti- 
lity, pofTefs themfelves of any place, or any one fhall caufe any 
damage to another during the faid truce ; both oblige them- 
felves to make reparation proportionable to the damage, and to 
the entire reflltution of whatever fhall be taken. 

V. If the allies or other troops in pay of either nation, fhall 
be guilty of any act of hoftility, or commit any pillages in the 
territories whereof either nation is now in poflefTion, it fhall 
be lawful for both nations to repulfe their infults by force, by 
which the injured nation fhall not be deemed to have infringed 
the prefent agreement. 

VI. If the allies or auxiliary troops of either nation, fhafl 
take up arms and infult the countries of which the nation they 
are allied to is now in pofTelTion ; in this cafe, the two nations 
fhall afTifl each other againft this enemy, who fhall thereby be- 
come the common enemy of both. 

VII. The troops of the two nations fhall be employed, du- 
ring this truce, in the care of their prefent eflablifhments and 
poJTefTions ; they may be tranfported freely, and without any 
difnculty, from one place to another, at the pleafure of the 
governor, gener.ils, commanders, i\'c. of each nation ; and 
all pcrfons actually under the protettion of either flag, may 
likewife go and come at pleafure, without being molefled ei- 
ther in their effects or perfons. 

VIII. Trade fhall be free throughout the Carnatick, and in 
all the countries to the northward of the Coromandel coafl, 
for the two contra6ting nations ; they may fetch merchandizes 
from all the places in the dependance of each other, and tran- 
fport them freely, without any reltraint, through the refpeftive 
jageers and territories. 




IX. ,AI1 common enemies, or the particular enemies of ei- 
ther nation, who (hall come to attack the EngliHi and French 
in their prefent pofTelTions, and' trouble the tranquillity which 
is to reign in India, fhall be repulfed by the united force of the 
two nations, French and Englifh. 

X. As foon as the truce is proclaimed, the mutual exchange 
of prifoners fhall be fet about, man for man ; and means fliall 
be refolved on for the eafe of thofe which fhall not be ex- 

XL Commiflaries fhall be appointed on both fides, to exa- 
mine into the infringements committed by each party, or their 
auxiliary troops or allies, and fettle the reflitution to be made 
of all the places taken, during the truce, againft the tenour of 
the fufpenfion of arms ; as likewife of all that may have been 
taken from them by the faid auxiliary troops, in merchandizes, 
effects, money, &c. and farther, to fettle in a fixed method, 
for a guide, during the whole time of the truce, all the names, 
and the extent of every country, * paragana an village, under 
the power, and in the pofTefTion of the two nations, Englifh 
and French. 

XII. It is agreed, that whenever, in the courfe of the truce, 
any complaint fhall be made by either of the faid nations of an 
infringement of the 4th article, the faid commiflaries on each 
fide appointed, fhall certify and examine the fad, that juftice 
maybe done accordingly to the injured nation, either by refti- 
tution or reparation, according to the nature of the injury re- 

Done at Fort St. George, 31 Dec. 1754. Signed as before. 

Dated at Pondichery, 
26 Dec. 1754. 

* A Paragana is any diftrift of country, 

I 3 Additi- 

134 N ARR ATI VE OF THE W AR, &c. 1754. 

Additional Articles and Stipulations to tbs foregoing 


A R T I C L E I. 

If any nation fbould attempt to ere6l:a fettlement within the 
bounds of the prefent poiTefrions of either of the two conn- 
panies ; both Englifli and French fhall jointly oppofe and hin- 
der any fuch undertaking. 

II. The cuftonn-houfes and f juncans fhall remain on the 
fame footing as before the war ; and no alteration (hall be made 
in the duties paid on the importation and exportation of goods 
of the produce or manufa<5ture of the coaft. 

Done at Fort St. George, 31 Dec. 1754. Signed as before. 

Dated at Pondichery, 
4 Jan. 1755- 

f A Jancan is a toll or duty on every thing that pafles. 

T R A N. 


O N T H E 


In the Year 1755. 

TH E fiifpenfion of arms was accompanied with 
another event of great importance to the tran- 
quillity of India, the departure ot Mr. Dupleix^ who 
being removed from the government, returned with 
the next (hips for Europe. 

Here it may be proper to take a view of the feveral 
provinces and governments of the Deckan, their pre- 
fent interefls and defigns. This will not be a mere 
recapitulation of what has been faid in the Narrative •, 
for as the princes of that country are continually agi- 
tated by the paflions of avarice, ambition and jea- 
loufy ; they are every moment prompted by fufpicion 
or the love of intrigue, to enter into new quarrels, 
form different connexions, and by their rertlefs and 
uncertain fpirit, create the utmoft perplexities to their 
allies. Fond of compliments, ceremonial and re- 
peated profefTions of friendfhip, they have little regard 
for truth or gratitude ; nor have they any conliderati- 

I 4 on 

136 TR AN S ACTIONS ON 1755. 

on for the future more than the pall, folely occupied 
with what they imagine will advance their prcfent 
views. This chara6ter of the Afiaticks in general 
will be t-xemplified by a review of the prefent fituati- 
on and defigns of the feveral powers of the Deckan, 
ab they appeared in the yt-ar 1755. 

Salabatzing was induced by his incapacity and 
flcjth, to (ubmit himfelf entirely to the councils of the 
French for the fake of their protection and alViftance. 
Bound by no tieo of affection, he was now meditating 
the removal of thofe very perfons with whom he had 
fo lately been fharing the greatefl power and wealth, 
without the leaft regard to their having alTifled him in 
that ufurpation. 

The king of Tanjore, a fubtle prince, lived in a 
continual jealoufy of the Englifh and French, who 
had both fetilcmenrs in his dominions, well knowing 
that either of thefe hngly was sble to give law to him, 
and always apprehending moll from the fide to which 
the balance of power feemed to incline. From a 
diffidence of the French, and a better opinion of the 
Englilh faith, he had, for the moll part, fhewn a re- 
gard tor our alliance, but it required great addrefs to 
manage his irrefolution, to divert his partiality for a 
treacherous favourite, and keep him firm to his en- 
gagements. His moll dangerous neighbours were 
the iVlainbreans, a rich people, and formidable from 
their being undiiturbed at home. He knew they had 
long formed dcfigns againft Trichinopoly, and at this 
very time, were in treaty with the French for that 
end. The knowledge of this determined him to enter 
into the ilrictcll bands of friendlhip with us, and yet, 
at the fame time, his fufpicion of our entering i^^O 
any alliance with the governor of Maraya, (a country 
bordering on his dominions to the fouth), threw hirn 
into the mod precipitate refolution of carrying fire and 
fword into that country. It was in vain to remonftrfltg 
to him, that fo ralh a proceeding would only facilitate 
the defigns of the Mailibrean, by leaving Trichinopo- 


ly defencelefs. The Maravar was the prefent objetl 
of hisjealoiify. 

Tondeman a Polygar, whofe woods, adjoining to 
Tanjore, had been an ufeful protedtion to our con- 
voys during the war, was aUb uneafy at our fuppofed 
intentions of aUiance with the Maravar. 

The king of Maiffore, young, and in a manner 
confined to his feragho, gave up the direction of 
affairs to his uncle, who was prime miniiler and bro- 
ther to Nanderauze. They were both, at this time, 
purfuing their fcheme on Trichinopoly, in which they 
fuffered fo many cepulfes, and faw their extravagant, 
prqjeds fo often defeated, that th^y were ready to 
feize any pretext for abandoning their enterprize. 
They foon reHnquifhed it on good reafons, and from 
thenceforth became lefs formidable neighbours to the 
king of Tanjore. 

Mootis AUee Cawn, governor of *Velloure, a pow- 
erful and defigning man, had the addrefs to murder 
two Nabobs with impunity ; and during this long war, 
to keep himfelf clear of its calamities. Mr. Dupleix 
ufed to call him his deputy in his province. Though 
no confidence could be placed in the friendfhip of this 
artful man, it was imprudent to have him for an ene- 
my ; therefore his offers to acknowledge the Nabob 
were gladly accepted, but there was little fincerity ia 
his profeflions of fubmiffion. 

The Marattas have always had fo confiderable a 
fhare in the difturbances, and were at this time taking 
fo large a part in the politicks of thefe countries, that 
it is requifite, for the explanation of the affairs of the 
peninfula, to give as many particulars of this exten- 
live people as can be afcertained ; for as they have no 
written hiflory, and fcarce any tradition, that we 
know, of their former ftate, it is impolfible to pro- 
cure a full and fatisfadory account of fo numerous a 


* Within twelve miles of Arcot, the ftrongeft fort in all that 


nation, once fettled, then difperfed, and now le-efta- 
blifhing themfelves throughout all parts of the Mo- 
gul's empire: a people who have had, from time 
immemorial, fettlements to the north of Delly, great 
part of which they Hill polTcfs, though fo great were 
the numbers that were driven out from thence, by 
Aurenzeb, that he employed above twenty years 
in fruitlel's endeavours to reduce them in their 
new iettlements in the mountainous parts of the 

They have had continued wars ever fince, with all 
the Moguls, Subahs and governors, and made innu- 
merable treaties of peace with them, which they never 
obferve any longer than they think it their intereft. 
They have themfelves had ftrange internal revoluti- 
ons; and what is moft ftrange, the prefent go- 
verning men among them are Bramins or priefts, 
hated by the true Marattas, but followed by them for 

Their Raja or Prince is facred : and they hold that 
he ought to be a kind of idol, fhut up and fed at 
the publick expence, and the executive power lodged 
in fome other branch of his fam.iiy, at leaft, fuch has 
been the eftablifhrnent on the Malabar coaft : but this 
was fubverted by the ufurpation of the two Bramins, 
the one called Peelagee, and the other Budgerow. Peela- 
gee governed Guzarat, and Budgerow the country to the 
fouthward. His ion, who fuccceded him, is known by his 
name Balazerow, on the Coromandel coaft : On the 
Malabar he is called the Nanna, for that is the title 
by which the acling head of the government and gene- 
ral of the forces is diftinguilbed. The nominal 
prince, or the idol, as he has been defcribed, is ftiled 
Ram Raia and Saha Raja. AUthefe names, indifcri- 
minately ufed and ftrangely fpelt, occafion no fmall 
difticulty to the reader, who is^ here alfo defired to 
take notice, that though all writers fpeak of Sat taarah, 
as the capital of the Maratta*s country, the refidence 


175S- THE Coast OF COROMANDEL. 159 

of the Bramin their fovereign is * Poona, where all 
the bufinefs of the government is carried on. 

What proves that they have formerly been povv^er- 
ful over all the Mogul's empire, though now difunited, 
is the univerfal acknowledgment of the C/jouty or tri- 
bute paid to them of a fourth of the revenues of 
every Raja or governor. This they ftill collecft in all 
parts, taking what they can get of it in ready money, 
and leaving the ballance in arrear, which will ferve 
them at leall as a pretence tor another incurfion, 
whenever they want employment for their troops. 

It may feem ftrange that thefe Marattas, who are 
Bramins, and fo ftri6t obfervers of the Gentou religi- 
on, and the tenets of the Tran (migration of fouls, 
that they will never kill the mofl ofFenfive animals 
that crawl about them ; fhould, without any fcruple, 
eagerly employ their fabres to the deftruction of their 
fellow-creatures. The falvo for this extraordinary 
contradiction, is a device of their priefts, who, by the 
(acrifice of a Buffalo, with many mifterious and en- 
thufiaflick ceremonies, abfolve their warriors from the 
reftridions which bind the vulgar. 

It fhould be here obferved that the Marattas men- 
tioned fb often in the narrative, were only a body of 
horfe, freebooters, who alternately took the pay of 
the higheft bidder. They were fuch as Morarow 
had picked up to follow his fortunes, and till he at- 
tempted to make himfelf independent, they had no 
fettled habitation, and no profelTion but v/ar, if it 
may be called a profeflion where they have neither art 
nor difcipline, and yet they are formidable to the 
Moors, who carrying fuch numerous and incumbered 
armies to the field, are the eafier harraifed, and even 
ftarved by them. For thefe pillagers, continually 
galloping round the country, cut off the convoys, and 


* Poona is about a hundred miles eaft-fouth-eift of Bombay. 
D'Anville fays, the fituation of Sattairah is not afcerfained, and 
therefore he has not put it in his map. 

140 TR A N S A CTIO NS ON 1755. 

as moll of their parties carry with them neither 
baggage, nor provifions, they eafily elude all purfuit, 
and in an inftant retire to their faftneffes, or even, if 
occafion requires, to their own country. They ride a 
hardy horfe inured to fatigue, and for the moH" part 
fed with (landing corn. The common men have no 
cloathing but a turban on their head, and a fafh round 
their waiil ; inflead of a faddle they ufe fuch a kind of 
pad as is recommended by Marfhal Saxe. Truly for- 
midable with their fabres, they are fatal to troops 
that are once broke. 

The Marattas, though not without trade and ma- 
nufactures, have principally enriched themfelves, by 
obliging the wealthy and more refpeclable powers 
their neighbours to be tributary to them. It will na- 
turally be allied, why do the oppulent ftates fubmit 
to be tributary ? and what fecurity have they that 
thefe licentious plunderers will abide by their agree- 
ments, and not continually encroach upon them, and 
raife their demands.? The reafon is plain: it is lefs 
expenfive, and a lighter tax upon trade, to agree to 
fome certain payment, than to engage in the unknown 
expence of armies, to free themfelves from fo irregu- 
lar a foe : and as to greater exadions, if the chief has 
once fettled the Chout, he will hardly venture to ftrug- 
gle for more, as the money agreed on goes into his 
own pocket ; and were he to proceed to the more vio- 
lent method of compulfion, by invading the country, 
the fpoil would all become the property of his troops, 
under the article of plunder, and his own fhare would 
come very Ihort of the fum flipulated •, behdes, they 
have the prudence to confider, that a country ravaged 
by their troops, will produce neither tribute nor plun- 
der again for fome time. 

They are a deflrucftive foe and an unferviceable 
friend. They ruin their enemies by burning their 
country, and their allies by their avaricious demands 
for money. Inftead of meriting their pay, which 
they might eafily do after a defeat, by cutting off all 


1755- 'T"'"' COAST OF COROMANDEL. 141 

the broken troops, they fly to the camp, where every 
man procures a good burthen for his horfe, and walk- 
ing on foot, drives him away loaded with the Ipoii. 

Such has been, in a great meafure, the ftate of the 
Maratta people -, but about this time it will appear, 
that they entertained various defigns of extending their 
territories in (everal parts of the country, and alfb on 
the fea coaft. They took large dirtrids from the 
Viceroy of the Deckan, marched to Delly and made 
a Mogul, and after driving out Angria by our (Irength, 
beat the Portugueze by their own. They had generals 
who let up for themfelvesin the remote countries that 
they had conquered, and were giving fome other in- 
dications of their return from a vagabond life of ra- 
pine and diforder, to a more fettled fyftem of policy. 

Of all the Princes of the Deckan, there are none 
fo free from the faults of the country as the Nabob 
Mahomed Allee Cawn ; having always experienced 
the invariable friendfhip of the Englilh, he has been 
taught the true value of honour and coniiancy, and 
throughout his conduc^t, manifefted uncommon gra- 
titude and fidelity to his engagements. The fums we 
had expended in the fupport of his»caufe, inftead of 
raifing in him the expedation of being farther bur- 
thenfome to us, lay like a heavy weight upon his 
mind ; and the diflrefs he was in for money, with the 
impoffibility of paying any confiderable part of his 
debt to the company, vifibly afFeded his health : his 
brothers who accom.panied him, having a feparatc 
command, would each of them keep up as many at- 
tendants, and as large an expence as the Nabob him- 
(elf Exhaufled by this unnecelTary profufion, he was 
not able to furnifh the workmen and materials with 
which he had engaged to fupply our engineers for 
compleatirg their fortifications, nor even to find mo- 
ney (or his own troops to prevent them from difband- 
ing. Upon confideration of this ftate of the Nabob's 
affairs, it was prudently determined to take an cxadt 
account of his revenues, which wt-re mortgaged to 


142 TRANSACTIONS on 1755. 

the company, in order to judge what Turns might be 
adtually forth-coming for their ufe, after a due pro- 
portion fhould be allotted for the maintenance of 
himfelF, and the fupport of his dignity. 

It was at the fame time recommended to him, to 
fettle as foon as polhble at Arcot, his capital, with all 
his family, as well to fave expence, by reducing their 
feveral retinues to one houfhold, as for the credit of 
his government. But it was of great conlequence to 
his revenues, before he left the countries of Madura 
and Tinevelly, which u(ed to produce an immenfe in- 
come, to collect the tribute v/hich had not been paid 
during the troubles, and alfo to induce the feveral 
Polygars, and all fubordinate governors to acknow- 
ledge the Nabob's right, by receiving grants from 
him for the countries they held under his govern- 

It was neceffary on this, as on all other occafions, 
to have at hand a fufficient force j for in this country, 
we are to look upon an army as a proper formality 
ufually attending a meilage to a friend, a fubjedt, or 
an enemy. From thefe confiderations, an expedition 
was ordered into the Madura and Tinevelly countries 
to colle6l the revenues, under the command of Alex- 
ander Heron, lieutenant colonel in his Majefl:y's fer- 
vice, and major of the company's forces, attended by 
Mr. Maunfell, to ac't together with the Nabob's Va- 
keel, (or agent) as commilTaries for the adminiftration 
of the monies received. Colonel Heron, the latter 
end of January 1755, marched to Manapar, a village 
about thirtv miles from Trichinopoly. Soon after his 
arrival, he was joined by the Vakeels of four neigh- 
bouring Polygars, who came to fettle their accounts, 
promiling foon to pay the ballances that were due ; 
they alfo figned a paper, acknowledging themfelves 
umler the Nabob's government, independant of any 
other power whatfbevcr ; and that they enjoyed their 
lands in right of his grants only. At the fame time 
the Nabob received letiers of the like purport from 



the three principal men in the Madura and Tinevelly 
countries. But upon the return of the officers, one 
of the four Polygars, by name Lachynaig, who had 
paid part of his tribute, and given a bill for the reft, 
refufed to pay the r^ mainder -, wherefore, at the in- 
ftance of the Nabob, colonel Heron, on the loth of 
February, moved with the army clofe to a fort, which 
was one of the barriers of his country. All that day 
and the next, he endeavoured, both by fair means 
and threats, to make him comply, but could get no 
fatisfadtory anfwer. He then determined to attack 
the fort the next morning, in which he lucceeded with 
httle lofs : and alfo the fame day took another fort, 
which gave him pofleilion of all the country of that 
Polygar, except the tops of the hills, where the in- 
habitants had taken Ihelter. In thefe two affairs he 
lolt fourteen fepoys and Ibme few * colleries. 

Here the Nabob left colonel Heron, and his bro- 
ther Mauphus Cawn accompanied him in the expedi- 
tion. The roads were exceflive bad through the 
woods for the carriage of the heavy cannon. Some 
breaft-works thrown up in the narrow pafTes, were 
abandoned on the army's nearer approach, though 
not till part of the fepoys had given their fire, which 
was returned, but without any efl'eifl. Beyond the 
woods was a ftonefort, which, had it been quite fi- 
nifhed, would have been of confiderable ftrength for 
that part of the country. The Madura people who 
were fortifying it, abandoned it immediately. There 
was found in this fort fome grain, ammunition, and 
four Pieces of cannon. The colonel left (bme troops 
in pofleffion, and advanced towards the town of 
Madura -, upon which the garrifon retired a little far- 
ther into the country, to a fmall fort, whither they 
carried their moft valuable effedls, and military flores. 
The greater part of the inhabitants remained, and 
feemed very well fatisfied with the change of govern- 
ment. Being then the feafon for gathering in the 

* See page 64 and 65. 


grain, and collecting the revenues, it was refolved to 
quarter the army there. Madura is a ftrong Indian 
town, encompafTed with a wall likeTrichinopoly, but 
being of much greater extent, would require a very 
large garrifon to defend it. 

Colonel Heron, having wrote circular letters to all 
the neighbouring Polygars, as well as to the People of 
Tinevelly, marched for the fort to which Myana the 
late governor of Madura had retired. It was a ftrong 
Pagoda, which he had fortified in the beft manner he 
could, but on the expedlation of an attack, he and all 
his horfe fecured themlelves by a timely retreat, and 
carried with him his elephants, camels, treafure, and 
the greateft part of his valuable effe<5ls -, he left a few 
fepoys to defend the fort, who fired very brifldy for 
fome time, but on our returning it with cannon and 
fmall arms, they furrendered. Here were found three 
brafs and iron cannon, a number of Malabar guns, 
and a great quantity of ammunition. After taking 
two other fmall forts, the army marched for Tine- 
velly, and arrived the 25th; fome of the Polygars 
came in, others fent their Vakeels to fettle every 
thing amicably. 

The greateft difficulty arofe from the good inclina- 
tions of the Poly gar ot * Marava. He offered a free 
palTage through his country for the Englifh troops, 
employed his intereft with the other Polygars, and 
(ent his brother, who advanced within five miles of 
the army, with three thoufand men and fome pieces 
of cannon, tendering his fervice, and prefhng us to 
make fettlements in his country. The news of this 
caufed fo great jealoufy, and worked upon the King 
of Tanjore and Tondeman, in fuch a manner, that 
they fent a proteft. againft our treating with the Mara- 
var, and even raifed forces, and were aftually march- 
ing into his country ; Monngee, it feems, while out 


• Marava is a large county on the fea-coaft to the fouth of our 
fettlements, and to the eaft of Madura. 

i75S* THE Coast of COROMANDEL. 14^ 

of favour, had received fome perfonal affronts from 
the Maravar : this might be in fad the infuperable 
difficulty; but the reafon given out was the frienddiip 
that had iubfifted between the xVIaravar and the Ma- 
illbreans ; but at this critical time, the very fear of 
the MailTorean was a reafon for letting all prefent 
jealoufies fubfide : therefore all endeavours to mollify 
the king of Tanjore and Tondeman being vain, or- 
ders were difpatched to colonel Heron, to break off 
all further treaty with the Maravar. 

At the fame time, advice being received of the ap- 
proach of Salabatzing, with Mr. Buify, the arm.y was 
ordered to return as (uon as poffible to Trichinopoly. 
The news of Salbatzing's march was true, but it had 
not the confequence that was apprehended ; for he 
entered Maiflore, v/here he levied the revenues of 
that rich province, and returned, carrying with him 
fifty-two Lack of roupees. MeiTrs. BulTy and Law 
were both with him ; the latter made a demand in the 
name of the French Company for feven lack for the 
lofs he had fuftained when he was taken in Seringam. 
The money was refufcd, and at Mr. Bufify's requeft^ 
Law defifted from his demand. 

Colonel Heron had very little advanced the compa- 
ny's affairs by his conduO:! at Madura and Tinevellv. 
The monies he colleded did not amount to the char- 
ges of the expedition, and the terror of his arms was 
lb little refpec^.ed in the country, that Myana, the late 
governor of xMadura, having cut off a party that was 
lent to furprize him, had the boldnels to come to the 
very gates of Tinevclly while the army was there, 
and plunder the villages round. The colonel having 
received his orders, iet out the 22d of May, and in 
his wayi at the defire of Miuphus Cawn, invefted a 
fort, which for want of heavy cannon, he was obliged 
to leave and continue his march to Madura, where he 
arrived the 26th of May. He left it the 28th, and 
calling at Colguddy Pagoda, feized a large number of 
religious images, and demanded five thoufand roupee* 

K , fof 


for their ranfom, which being refufed, he put them 
into his tumbrils, and was carrying them off. 
The Colleries were eafily inftigated by the Bramins 
to refcue their gods-, and taking the opportunity 
when the baggage was pafTing fome ftrong de- 
files in the Natam woods, they rufned from the 
thickets in great numbers, recovered their idols, def- 
troyed feveral carriages, ftabbed a hundred bullocks, 
killed fome men, and carried off a quantity of bag- 
gage. The army purfued their march, without any 
thing farther to be remarked, till they reached Tri- 
chinopoly the 6th of June. Colonel Heron was tried 
by a court martial for mifcondud in this expedition. 
It was proved that he had -given in falfe accounts, had 
fecreted part of the money received, and for this piir- 
pofe, inftead of coUeding the revenues in concert 
with Mr. Maunfel, had entered into a private agree- 
ment with the Nabob's brother, Mauphus Cawn, 
and farmed out the countries to him at half their va- 
lue, not paying a regard to the inftrudlions fent him 
by the Nabob himfelf 

Trichinopoly being looked upon as the main fecu- 
rity for the Nabob's debt, colonel Heron was ordered 
to leave there a garrifon of five hundred men, under 
the command ot major Killpatrick. Nanderauze, 
the MailTorean general, who lay encamped near the 
town, was continually pradifing every kind of ftrata- 
gem, and contriving the moft chimerical defigns to 
make himfelf mafter of it. He employed a bramin 
in the town, who conftantly fent him intelligence, 
and gained him fome friends in the place, and having 
prepared four hundred ladders, and concerted every 
thing for an efcalade in the night, he made a propo- 
fal to Mr. De Sauffay, commander of the French at 
Seringam, to join him in the attempt. Mr. De 
Sauffay, expreffing his fenfe of fo treacherous a pro- 
ceeding in the time of a fufpenfion of arms, Nander- 
auze urged him with repeated felicitations, and even 


17 5v THE Coast of COROMANDEL. f4.f 

offered liirn three lack of roiipecs, provided he would 
feign a quarrel, march off, and thereby leave liim at 
liberty to purfue his defigns. Mr. De SauHay having 
rejeded thefe offers with difdain, was ibon after in-- 
formed by a friend he had in general's councils, 
that in cafe of his refufal, the next projed: was to fur- 
prize the French, and endeavour to cut them off. He 
wrote to major Killpatrick to fend him a trufly perfon, 
to whom he communicated the whole, and moreover 
a (fu red him, that in cafe the MailTorean made any mo- 
tion towards the town, he would immediately attack 
his rear, and make a fignal on the fight of which the 
major might (ally, and put the enemy between two fires* 

While the French and Englifh chiefs were inter-^ 
changing their alTurrinces of mutual afri(l"ance againft 
this Indian politician, he fuddenly decamped and haf* 
tened his march home, not altogether, as fome ima- 
gined,' from difappointment, but rather from having 
received accounts of the march of Salabatzing to- 
wards his couQtry. Soon after his return, he flirred 
up a rebellion, which threw the kingdom of Maiilbre 
into confufion. 

The enemy being removed, and no farther obda- 
cle remaining to delay the neceflary meafure of con-* 
duding the Nabob to his capital, a proper efcorte was 
ordered : and captain Poiier having prepared every 
thing for that purpofe, they began their march tlie 
9th of July^ and proceeding in the flow manner 
which the burthenfome pomp of eaftern ftate mufl al- 
ways oGcaiion, arrived at Condor^ and forded the 
Cauvery on the i6!:h. They halted the next day,, 
and Monagee, with a numerous train, paid' the Nabob 
a vifit. At this interview, the ftrongefl proteflations 
of an inviolable friendfiiip were made on both fides. 
Monagee affured the Nabob, mofb particularly, from 
the King of Tanjore, that he would never forfake 
him, and had five thoufand horfe ready at his order, 
if he needed them in the Arcot country. The Na- 
bob having thanked Monagee for the promifed aids 

K 2 and 


and for his love and friendlTiip, which he always re- 
lied on, at the fame time whifpeied captain Polier in 
Englifh, ^Tis ail a lie. The captain to )k up the dif- 
courfe, afluring Monagee that the Engliih, as they 
had hitherto conllantly fupported the Nabob, would 
continue their protection to him, as alio their friend- 
fhip ifiviolably n. iih the King of Tanjore, fo long as 
he remained firm to the Nabob. Monagee declared 
the King of Maif?.:!re had offered his King fixty lack 
ot roupv:es, provided he v/ouM forfake the Nabob, but 
he rejecfted the propofal. With a few more civilities, 
and fome ufeful orders about provilions, Monagee 
conckided his vifit. 

The Nabob continuing his march, arrived within a 
mile of Arcot the 19th of Augufl, where he refolv- 
ed to wait for a lucky day to make his entry into the 
city. Here he was met by colonel Lawrence, Mr. 
Palk and Mr. WaKh, deputed to invite hitn to Ma- 
drafs. He readily confented, and at the iame time 
defired thofe gentlemen to mention aloud at his Dur- 
bar, that now the army was arrived there, the Poly- 
gars and his other tributaries fhould be hrft invited to 
fettle accounts, and pay off their arrears, but i; that they 
did not comply without delay, they Hiould be forced 
to it. As they were fend b!e this mull have a good 
effett, they took an opportunity of doing it at a full 
alfembly, on which among the rett, Abdiel Vahob 
Cawn, and the governor of Velloure's Vakeel were 

On the 2 1 ft the Nabob made his entry into Ar- 
cot in a very fplendid manner, and the 30th he vi- 
fited Madrafs, and was received at the Company's 
garden-houfe by the governor, the admirals V-^atlon 
and Pocock, and moft of the gentlemen of the place. 
During his ftay there, the proper meafures were con- 
certed for colleding his revenues, and towards the 
latter end of Odober he fet out for that purpofe, ac- 
companied by major Killpatrick with a detachment of 
xhiQt hundred Europeans, and fifteen hundred fepoys, 


1755- THE COAST OF C O R O Al A N D E L. 149 

together with Mr, Percival, who was appointed com- 
miirary general for the Company. He was alfo to be 
prefent at every tranfadion, it being agreed with the 
Nabob, that half the money to be collected from the 
feveral Polygars fhould be paid to hirafelf, and the 
otl)er half 10 the Company. ^ 

To enter into an exa(f\ detail of their proceedings 
v/ith the feveral petty Polygars would be very tirefome 
and uninterelling to moii readers. Therefore, not to 
take up their time with a catalogue of uncooth names, 
which will never occur again in the fubfequent rela- 
tion of thefe affairs, it (hall fuffice to fay, that from 
the 20th of Ociober to the end of the year 1 755, 
the army was either encamped or in motion about 
the diftrict of Arcot •, and that the Polygars and go- 
vernors, in proportion, to the remotenefs or flrength 
of tlieir little forts, v/ere micre or lefs backward in 
fettling their accounts, and all dealt evafively. No 
hoililuies were however committed againil any of 
them, although it v/as a confiderable time before 
fome of them came to fuch terms as the Nabob 
would accept, and (everal held out beyond the end 
of the year ; but thofe being the leaft able to conti- 
nue their oppofition, were left to be reduced by the 
forces of the Nabob. 

Mootis Allee Cawn having been mentioned in the 
narrative, and his character difplay'd v^'ithin a few 
pages, a particular detail of his condudl (hall here 
be given ; as it will fully ferve to convey a general 
idea of the chicanery of all Afiatic governors, as well 
Moors as Indians, when called upon for the arrears 
of their tribute. 

This crafty politician having the mortification to 
find himfelf outv/itted by Mr. Dupleix, addreiled 
himfelf to the Nabob, who was then, it is to be ob- 
ferved, at a diflance, acknowledging his right, and of- 
fering to fettle the tribute due from him for the dif» 
tricf of VelloLire. He attefted the fincerity of his in- 
tentions with his hand on the Alcoran, calling God 

K 3 and 

rS-o T R AN S AC TIONS ON 1755. 

end the Prophet to witnefs to his truth. But when 
the Nabob, upon his arrival at Arcor, Cent to claim 
the performance of thefe folemn engagennents, it too 
plainly appeared, that they were meant only to a- 
mute and deceive him : it was therefore thought ncr 
ceffary to urike a terror into him for an example, as, 
both in riches and power, he was the nioft confider- 
ableofall the chiefs in the province. Accordingly, 
on the 19th of January 1756, the army was reinfor- 
ced with the grenadiers •, and another company, with 
two eighteen-pounders, v/as detached after them. 
Mdjor Killpatrick advanced within five milts of Vel- 
loure the 30th ; and found it to be, as it had been re- 
ported, the ftrongefl: fort in the province. 

The next day the Governor of Madrafs received a 
letter from Mr. De Leyrit, difputing the N^ibob's 
right to Velioure, and threatening to oppofe all our 
proceedings ; and intelligence came, at the fame tim.e, 
that a party of three hundred French and three hun- 
dred Sepoys, were adually marching from Pondi- 
chery, Thefe advices were diipatched the fame night 
to Major' Killpatrick, with dircdtions to continue nego- 
tiations with iVIootis Alice Cawn •, and in cafe the 
French fhould actually approach, to lend a mefiageto 
the commanding officer to retire, and if he fhou'd 
pay no regard to the mefliige, but proceed to fuc- 
cour Vtlloiire, or commit any diftuibance in the Na- 
bob's diftricts, then to oppofe him by force. Major 
Killpatrick had advanced within cannon fhot of 
the fort when thefe difpatches reached him; and, 
during feveral days that he remained in his encamp- 
ment treating with the Governor, different advices 
came of parties moving from Pondichery and Villa- 
nour to Gingee, and from thence, by Chetteput road, 
towards Velioure. It was, therefore, to be appre- 
hended, that the Governor might be prevailed on by 
the French, to admit their troops, for the defence of 
his fort, and thefe if once admitted, it was forefeen, 
would not be withdrawn again from fo valuable a 



pofleflion. The Governor had fent his Vakeel to 
Madrafs, where he was at this very time, to defire 
that fome Englifh gentleman might be Cent to Vel- 
loure, with power to fettle affairs amicably. 

Tlie redudion of the fort was now, by the Inter- 
poHtion of the French, rendered impradicable, and 
the ftay of the army, with any other objed but that 
of an accommodation, a ufelefs expence : it was 
therefore refolved to accede to the propofal of the 
Vakeel, and a proper perfon was accordingly deputed. 
While this meafure was prudently concerting at Ma- 
drafs, Mootis Allee Cawn, finding that our army re- 
mained clofe to his walls, notwithftanding all the mo- 
tions of the French, agreed with Major Killpatrick 
to pay qne hundred thoufand pagodas, and twenty- 
five thoufand roupees, for the removal of our troops, 
defired to enter into friendfhip with us \ and, by way 
of earnefl:, fent out tv.'enty thoufand roupees. 

No fooner was this money paid, than Mootis 
Allee Cawn (informed by his Vakeel that a deputati- 
on was ordered on that very day) withdrew from his 
engagements ; and, perfuaded that he might com- 
pound for lefs than he agreed the day before to pay 
to Major Killpatrick, refufed the next day to com- 
ply with the terms. Whatever Major Killpatrick 
could urge, he would only anfwer, that, as a depu- 
tation was fent from Madrafs, he fhould not do bu- 
finefs in any other way ; and not only perfifted ob- 
flinately in his refufal, but flatly denied his agree- 
ment made on the 9th of February. The collected 
army of the French lay, during all this time, en- 
camped between Gingee and Chetteput, at the dis- 
tance of about thirty-five miles from Velloure j it con- 
fifted, according to the beft intelligence, of about fe- 
ven hundred French and fifteen hundred Sepoys, 
It was therefore thought advifeable to wait for an op- 
portunity when the Governor might be in a more 
complying humour : and the event juftified this pru- 
dent determination. Major Killpatrick having re- 

K 4 mainetj 

152 EXPEDITION against ANGRIA. 1755. 

mained near Velloure with the army till the 24th, 
and receiving no offers that he could accept, uithout 
eftabhihing a precedent of the moll pernicious con- 
fequence, moved that day for Arcot, where he quar- 
tered the troops. 

^4ooti3 Alice Cawn, after repeated evafions and der 
lays, at laft put an end to this tirefome negociation 
by a compromire with the Nabob, and payment in 
part, without military compulfion •, but not before 
the beginning of Auguft 1756. The famefliufBing 
condudt was pradtiftd, in a degree, by all the leffer 
governors, v\ho entrenched themfelves for a while in 
tne feveral fortrefles with which this country abounds ; 
but, in their turn, they followed the example of 
Mootis Allee Cawn, in his compliance ; as they had 
attempted to imitate him, according to their abi- 
lities in his chicanery and refnlance. 

The Fleet having no other objecl: during the truce 
it was agreed to employ it in the redu(5tion of a pi- 
ratical (late on the Malabar coad, which had for a 
long time infefted the trade of Bombay, Admiral 
Watfon undertook this expedidon with the fame zeal 
which he fhewed on every occafion for the fervice of 
his country, and the benefit of the Company in the 
Indian Teas. 

Th-e Admiral had failed to Trincomalay, the 6th of 
April, chiefly to avoid the rifque of bad weather dur- 
ing that month. On the 13th of May he returned 
to Fort St. David, where he remained three months, 
it being the v;indward port both to Madrafs and Pon- 
dichery. He came to Madrafs on the 1 9th of Augufl, 
and failing with the whole fquadron for Bombay the 
loth of Ocl:ober, arrived there the 10th of November. 
His force confifted of the Kent, of fixty-four guns, 
Capt. Speke j the Cuinberland, of fixty-f x guns, 
Capt. Harrifon ; the Tyger, of fixty guns, Capt. La- 
tham ; the Salilbury, of fifty guns, Capt. Knowler, 
the Bridgewater, of twenty Guns, Capt. Martin ; 
^iid the King'b-fiilier Hoop, of fourteen guns, Capt; 



Smith. Rear Admiral Watfon's flag was hoifled on 
board the Kent, and Rear Admiral Pocock's in the 

For the better underflianding the purpofe of this 
expedition, it will be neceflary to explain the nature 
of the enemy they were going againft, and by what 
means a fmall neft of pirates, as they originally were, 
grew to a confiderahle flrength, and at laft became a 
little empire, like the piratical dates of Barbary. 

About a hundred years fince, Conajee Angria, from 
^ private Maratta, had been employed as a General 
and Admiral, under the Saha Raja, in his wars with 
the Seedee, or Mogul's Admiral. Being afterwards 
made Governor of Severndroog, upon the firft fa- 
vourable opportunity, he feized many of the vefTels 
he had formerly commanded; with thefe he began 
to commit ads of piracy, confining himfelf, however, 
to this iiland, till he had, by repeated fuccelTes at fea, 
rendered himfelf more formidable. The Marattas 
were alarmed, but had no means of getting at him 
in his iiland, he having now taken the greateft part 
of their fleet. ' They therefore built three forts upon 
the main, within lef> than point-blank fhoc of his lit- 
tle territory, v/hich was a fmall, rocky, well-fortified 
ifland, of about one mile in circumference. By 
means of thefe forts they hoped to reduce him to 
obedience -, but he having the fea open, and being 
much fuperior to his countrymen in fkiil and bravery, 
attacked and took feveral of their fea ports, and at 
length carried his ccnqueft^ frof: Famana to Raja- 
pore on the fea coafts ; an extent of country of near 
fixty leagues in length, in witich are feveral commo- 
dious harbours. He alfo pofTeHed himlelf of a great 
part 6f the inland country, in fome places for twenty 
miles back, and in others thirty -, fecuring it to him- 
felf by building little forts, upon fuch eminences as 
commanded the narrow pafles and defiles. His fuc- 
ceiTors, ftrengthening themfelves continually, by en- 
gaging every defperate fellow they could feduce from 
^ the 

154. EXPEDITION agaikst ANGRIA. 1755. 

the European fettlements, grew to be fo powerful, 
that the Marattas thought proper to agree to a peace 
v.ith them, on condition that they lliould acknow- 
ledge the fovereignty of the Raja, and pay him an an- 
ijual tribute. Being maflers of the coall, they made 
many confiderable captures on the fcas. From the 
Englifli Eaft India company (befides veflels of lels 
note) they took the Darby, richly laden, from Eu- 
rope, with one hundred and fifty men ; and ahb the 
Reftoration armed fhip, of twenty guns, and two 
hundred men, fitted out purpofely to cruize againll 
them. They took ahb, from the French, the Jupiter, 
of forty guns, with four hundred flaves on board i 
and had the prefumption to attack Commodore L,ille, 
in the Vigilant of fixtyfour guns, the Ruby of fifty 
guns, and feveral other fhips m company, when the 
Commodore was leaving the Malabar coaft. 

The Dutch too fufiered in their turn -, and, about 
twenty years ago, in refentment, (ent feven armed 
ihips from Batavia, and tv/o bomb-veffels, with a 
number of land forces, and attacked Geriah, but 
without fuccefs. Angria growing more and more pow- 
erful, could brook no kind of lubjedion, and at 
kngth threw off his allegiance to the JVIarattas, Up- 
on this he received fome remonftrances and threats 
from the Nanna •, but was fo far from regarding them, 
that he ordered the ears and nofes of the ambafla- 
dors who brought th.era to be cut off, in contempt 
of their Prince and his auihority. Exafperated at this 
infuh, the Marattas meditated his ruin, and repeated- 
ly applied to the Governor and Council of Bombay, 
for the ailiftance of their marine force to extirpate 

The piracies of all the uicceflbrs of Angria, who 
being of his family ftill bore the fame name, great- 
ly annoyed net only the natives both by fea and land, 
but alio all European and Moors fhips, going down 
that coaft. As they put the Eaft India company 
^o a continual expence in keeping a marine force at 


■qS$' EXPEDITION against ANGRIA. 155 

Bombay, to protedt their own and all Englifli country^ 
(hips, the deftruction of fo troublefome a neighbour 
had been the object of the govern raent of Bombay 
for near fifty years, and immenfe fums had been ex- 
pended on expeditipns which Hitherto had all proved 
fruirlefs. Commodore Matthews, in 1722, with hia 
fquadron and a fmall Portuguefe army, joined the 
Bombay land and fea forces in an expedition againll a 
fort called Colabiey, but this was defeated by the 
treachery, or rather cowardice of the Portuguefe, who- 
patched up a peace with Angria ; and the ihips and 
troops returned to Bombay, except the Shoreham 
man of war, who had her bottom beat out on the 
rocks. In the year 175 1, Commodore Liile being at 
Bombay, the Governor propofed to him the reducti- 
on of Geriah ; which he promjied to attempt, as the 
Nanna had engaged to attack the place by land, but 
a rupture between the iMoors at Aurengabad and the 
Nanna, happened at that time, which put a flop to 
the enterprize. The Governor being thoroughly per-» 
fuaded that the mofl effectual way of deftroying An- 
gria, would be by the alliflance of the Marattas, kept 
up a ftriCt friend{"hip with the Nanna, who alTured 
him that he fhould be joined by a powerful army as 
foon as ever a fcheme could be agreed on for the re- 
duClion of Angria's forts on the coafl. Upon thefe 
allhrances, a treaty with the Marattas was concluded, 
and articles were figned by the Nanna on his part, 
and by the Governor of Bombay on that of the com- 

While this treaty was in agitation, an event hap- 
pened which fhewed the necellity of carrying it into 
immediate execution. In February 1754, Angria's 
flieet attacked three Dutch fliips, one of fifty, one of 
thirty-fix, and one of eighteen guns ; burnt the two 
former with three of his own vefTels, and took the lat- 
ter. Upon this fuccefs he grew infolent, and having 
built feveral vefTels, and fet upon the flocks two fhips, 
pne of which was to carry forty guns, he boafled 



that he fliould foon be fuperior to whatever could be 
brought againft him in the Indian Teas. In the year 
1755, at a time when the gieaieil part of the com- 
pany's forces were ablent on fervice, the Marattas 
notified that they were then dilpoled to jom in the 
necefiary bufinefij of humbling this common enemy, 
Co formidable to the whole Malabar coaft. Commo- 
dore James, who was commander in chief of their 
marine force in India, being then at Bombay, faited 
on the 2?d of March, in the Protector of forty-four 
guns, wirh the Swallov/ of hxteen guns, and the Vi- 
per and Triumph bomb veilels, being all the force 
that could be colletled together at that time. 

The next day he faw ofFRaJapore leven (ail of An- 
gria's grabs and eleven gallivats, and chafed them to 
the fouthward •, and the day after, theMaratta's fleet 
came out of Choule, and joining the Commodore 
with feven grabs and fixty gallivats, proceeded to 
Commoro bay, where they landed, and trifled away 
thirty hours ; for it is iifual with them to land fre- 
quently, as they are prohibited by their religion to 
eat on board, and aifo enjoined walliing, and other 
ceremonies, which can only be performed on fhore, 
Landing again the next day, they received intelligence 
that Angria's fleet was in the harbour of Severndroog. 
The Commodore at lengtii brought up his dilatory 
affociates -, and immediately upon his approach, which 
was on the 29th, Angria's fleet flipt their cables, and 
run out to fea, the gallivats towing their larger veffels. 
This gave them a great advantage over our fhips, as 
there was little wind. The chafe continued from 
break of day till the afternoon ; and it was obfervable, 
that our friends the Marattas, who being light, and 
built floaty for failing large, and in light gales, and 
who had, during all the preceding days, failed better 
than any of our veflTels, were now all ailern, while 
their countrymen fhewed a dexterity in their flight 
wtiich we could not but admire. They threw out 
every thing tp lighten their veflels with amazing in- 


1755- EXPEDITION against ANGRIA. 15-7 

duftry and readinefs, and fpreading all the fails they 
could crowd on the yards, they faftened to the flag- 
Hav^s their garments, quilts, and even their tu bans 
extended to catch every breath of air. By this 
manoeuvre they giiined their point, and drew the Com- 
modore fo far from his ftation, that he was obliged 
to give over the chafe and return to Severndroog. 

The fortrefs, which bore that name, was iuuaied 
on an iiland within mufket-fliot of the main land» 
with no more than two fathom and an hal'' in the 
frith. It is llrongly, but not regularly fortified j 
the greatefl part of the works being cut out of the 
folid rock, and the reft built with ftones ten or 
twelve feet fquare -, on the baftions were fifty-four 
guns. The largeft of the forts on the main land 
is called fort Goa, built in the fame manner, with large 
fquare ftones, and mounting forty guns. The other 
two mounting above twenty guns each, were con- 
ftruded in a lefs ardficial manner, with ftones of 
an irregular ftiape. 

On the fecond of April, the Commodore began to 
cannonade and bombard the iiland fort; but finding 
the walls on the fide where he firft made his attack, 
of extraordinary ftrength, for they were fifty feet high 
and eighteen thick, he moved his ftation fo as to reach 
fort Goa with his lower deck guns, while he plyed Se- 
verndroog with his upper tier. About noon, the 
north-eaft baftion of the latter, and part of the para- 
pet were laid in ruins, when a fheil fet fire to the 
Jioufes, which the garrifon were prevented from ex- 
tinguifhing by the inceffant fire from the round-tops. 
The wind being northerly, communicated the fire all 
over the fort ; one of their magazines blew up, and a 
general conflagration enfued. A multitude of men, 
women, and children, running out on the farther 
fide of the ifland, embarked in boats, but were moft 
of them taken by the Swallow, who was ftationed to 
the fouthward to prevent any fuccours from being 
thrown into the ifland on that fide. The Commc- 



dore then turned all his fire on fort Goa ; and,aftera 
fevere cannonade, the enemy hung out a flag of truce ; 
but the Governor, with Tome cholen Sepoys, crofTed 
over to Severndroog, which was entirely evacuated 
upon the blowing up of their fecond and grand ma- 
gazine. The Governor was now in pofreUion of the 
jiland fort, and the commodore of. the other three ; 
from whence he kept a fmart fire on Severndroog. 
The Governor trufting to the natural llrengtli of the 
place, was refolved to maintain it till he (hould re- 
ceive fuccours from Dabul. As this appeared from 
all his anfwers to the fummons and melTages that were 
fent him, a number of feamen were landed, under co- 
ver of the fire from the fhips and the Ihore, who refo- 
lutely ran up to the gates, and being determined to 
carry their point, with their axes cut open the gate of 
the fally port, and procured an entrance with very 
litde lofs. 

On the 8th of April, the Commodore anchored 
off Bancote (now called fort Victoria) the mod nor- 
thern port of any confequence of a!l Angria's do- 
minions, which furrendered the next day upon a fum« 
mons. This place the Eaft-India Company, having 
the free confent of the Marattas, have fmce taken 
into their hands, as it is a good harbour, and there is 
a great trade for fait and other goods, which are fenc 
to that port from Bombay ; and what is ftill more ef- 
fential, the country about it abounds with cattle, 
which are much wanted for the ufe of the garrifon and 
fquadron at Bombay. Of all provifions, beef is the 
mod difficult to be procured from any part of the 
continent ; for, excepting Rajapore, which joins to 
Bancote, and ispoflelfed by Mahometans (being the 
port of the Seedee) the coaft is all inhabited by Gen- 
toos, who never kill any living creature ; and as they 
worlhip the cow, are particularly forbid by 'their re- 
ligion to fuffer the death of any kind of cattle. A:^ 
all other places were by treaty to be given up to the 
Marattas, the Commodore caufed the Englifh flag, 


17^6. EXPEDITIONagainst ANGRIA. 159 

which had been hoifted on all the forts for a few days, 
to be flruck on the nth, and delivered them to be 
garrifoned by the Marattas. On the 14th he ancho- 
red at Dabul, with an intention to attack that place ; 
but next morning received orders to return to Bom- 
bay, as the feafon was thought to be too far advan- 
ced for him to attempt any thing farther. 

The fquadron under the command of rear Admiral 
Watfon, arrived at' Bombay in November following : 
While they were cleaning and repairing. Commodore 
James in the Protedor, and the Revenge and Bom- 
bay frigates under his command, was lent to recon- 
noitre Geriah, the capital of Angria'sdonjnions, and 
to found the depths of water at the entrance of the 
harbour ; which fervice he performed, and returned 
to Bombay the laft of December. The Admiral then 
fent the Bridgewater and King-fifher floop, and fome 
of the company's armed fhips, to cruize off that port» 
who were joined on the 27th of January, 1756, by 
Commodore James in the Protestor, and Guardian 
frigate, and remained on this ftation till the nth of 
February, when the Admiral and the whole fquadron 

Upon the appearance of the EngUfh fleet, Angria, 
who had flattered himfelf that he fhould never fee fo 
large a force upon the coaff, was .terrified to Co great 
a degree, that he abandoned his fort in hopes of pur- 
chafing his peace with the Marattas. They knew 
how to make their advantage of his prefent fituation 
and perturbation of mind, and immediately turned 
their thoughts to the riches of their prifoner ; for as 
fuch they then confidered him ; and that they might 
folely polTefs the plunder of the place, infifled on his 
fending an order to his brother, who was left in com- 
mand, to put them in poflTeilion of the fort. The 
Admiral having information of thefe clandeftine pro- 
ceedings, fent- a fummons the next morning to tie 
fort ; and receiving no anfwer, he weighed in the af- 
ternoon, and ftood in to the harbour in two divilions, 


t5o EXPEDITIONagainst ANGRI A. 1756. 

the Bridgewater leading that of his Majefty's fhips in 
the following order : Bridgewater, Tyger, Kent, 
Cumberland and Salifbury, with the Protector of for- 
ty guns, belonging to the Eaft India Company. The 
King's-filher led thofe of the Company, confifling of 
the Revenge,, Bombay, Grab, and Guardian frigates j 
the Drake, Warren, Triumph, and Viper bomb- 
ketches. As foon as the fhips were properly placed, 
they began foch a fire as foon f. kneed both the bat- 
teries and the grabs. About four o'clock a fhell was 
thrown into the Reftoration, an armed fliip taken by 
Angria fome time ago from the Eaft India Company, 
which fet heron fire-, and very foon after his whole 
fleet fliared the fame fate. In the night the Admiral 
landed all the troops, under the command of Colonel 
Clive, fufpeding the enemy would endeavour to let in 
the Marattas; which fuppofition was verified by a de- 
ferter, who informed Mr. Watfon, that Angria had 
fent orders to his brother, who commanded the gar- 
rifon, on no accoun": to fuffer the Englilli to come in. 
The next morning the Admiral fent a meflage to the 
Commandant, declaring, that if he did not, in an 
hour's time, deliver up the place, and let the Englifh 
march in, the attack fliould be renewed, and he muft 
then expedl no quarter. In anfwer'to this, he defired 
a ceffation 'till the next morning •, giving for a reafon,. 
•that it v/as not in his power to deliver up the place 
without Angria's permiffion, which he was only wait- 
ing for. 

Thefe were apparently trifling pretences to gain time^ 
and to wait for an opportunity of giving the Marattas 
polTefTion of the place ;■ therefore the Admiral renew- 
ed the attack about four in the afternoon, and in lefs 
than half an hour the garrifon flung out a flag of truce. 
It was then expeded that their colours ihould be 
hauled down, and our troops a:dmitted: but as they 
did not comply with this demand, the Admiral repeat- 
ed the attack with fo terrible a fire, that thegarrilory 
cried out for mercy, which our troops were then near 



enough to hear diftindlly j and foon after they took 
polTellion of the fort. 

The lofs on both fides was very inconfiderable : our 
people found their fafcty in their own bravery and fpi- 
rit, and by driving the enemy from their works with 
the briflcnefs of their fire. The garrifon, having once 
abandoned the batteries, were fafe in the extraordina- 
ry heigiit and thicknefs of their walls ; for all their 
ramparts which were not hewn out of the fdlid rock, 
were built of mafiy ftone, at lead ten feet in length, 
laid endways •, fo that the greateft weight of metal 
made no imprelTion, and would never have effected a 
breach. It is evident, therefore, that the garrifon 
was fubdued by the very terror of fo unufual a 

There were found in the place upwards of two hun- 
dred guns, fix hrafs mortars, and a very large quanti- 
ty of ammunition of all kinds, and, in money and 
efFedls, above one hundred and twenty thoufand 
pounds. The grabs, which were burnt, conlifted of 
eight ketches, and one fhip, befides two others which 
were building (one of which was to carry forty guns) 
and a conliderable number of fmall veflels called gaU 

Colonel Clive, with his troops on fhore, blockaded 
the fort ; and, at the fame time, by his pofition, pre- 
vented the Marattas from getting pollelllon of the 
place in a clandeftine manner ; this was proved to be 
their defign, by an offer they made to the Captains 
Buchanan and Forbes, of fifty thoufand roupees, if 
they would futfer them to pafs their guard ; but they, 
rejecting the offer with indignation, difclofed it to 
Colonel Clive : after which, the Marattas found it as 
impo'Tible to elude the vigilance of the commander, 
as to corrupt the integrity of his officers. 

Soon after the fufpenfion of arms was agreed on 
and p'lblilTied, Mr. Saunders made a complaint to 
Mr. G(»deheu, defiring redrefs, on advice thatNande^ 
rauze, the Maiffore General, had taken Tinneveily, 

i62 TR ANSAC TI O NS ON 1755. 

was attacking Madura, and had flopped a quantity 
of our cio.h. Mr. Godeheu immediately wrote to 
Nanderauze, requiring him forthwith to ceafe from 
all hollilities, and warning him, withal, that, unlefs 
he readily conicnted to reftore every thing that he had 
taken, he mull expe^fl to be compelled to it by every 
power that had any fenfeof juftice; and that none of 
his allies could think it confiflent with their honour 
to fupport him in difturbing the prefent tranquilli* 

At the fame time the King of Tanjore, infifting on 
the reftitution of fome countries which the Polygar of 
Marava had taken from him at the beginning of the 
war, was on the point of proceeding to hoftilities ; 
but, by our intervention, the Polygar delivered up the 
countries, and fatisfied the King. 

He then demanded of Tondeman two fmall dif- 
trids, which he thought were unjuftly diflevered from 
his kingdom *, for his minifter Monagee, in confi- 
deration of his having been aflifted in a favourite en- 
tcrprize by this Polygar, had formally made them 
over to him in the name of the King his mafter, with- 
out his confent or knowledge. Captain Caillaud Was 
fent to learn the truth of this matter ; and alfo, if 
polTible, to reconcile the difference. He had firfl an 
intervievy with Monagee, who confefled to him, that 
he had privately made ufe of the feal and authority of 
the King, and had, for a long time, contrived to con- 
ceal this affair from him ; but, upon being diTgraced 
fome years fmce, he had taken refuge with Tonde- 
man, and then it was difcovered : that, fmce he had 
been reftored to favour, his mafter had been perpetu- 
ally urging him to endeavour to regain thefe countries ; 
and therefore, while the King's Jealouly of Tonde- 
man fubfifted, though he knew the diftrefs of the 
country in maintaining the troops he now kept on foot, 
it was unfafe for him to diftnifs them. He then en- 
treated, with tears in his eyes, that the F.nglifh would 
not forfake him, declaring, that his ruin was inevita- 


ble, unlefs they would find fome way, for the prefent 
at ieaft, to quiet the King's impatience. 

This mediation, dextroufly managed by Captain 
Caillaud, who foon after had an interview with the 
King, ferved to prevent hoftilities for a time ; but all 
endeavours for an accommodation would have proved 
ineffetflual, had not the want of money to equip the 
army for the field had the defired efFed of maintain- 
ing peace. 

The Danes, fome time ago, aflced from the King 
of Tanjore an enlargement of their bounds, as part 
of their fort was wafhed down with the fea. Being 
refufed their requeft, they marched with two hundred 
Europeans, five pieces of cannon, and fome Peons, 
and attacked two pagodas belonging to the King of 
Tanjore, about three miles from Tranquebar. They 
took one, and attempted the other v/ithout fuccefs ; 
for a detachment of horfe and Sepoys having arrived 
there from Tanjore, had attacked the Danes, killed 
them about forty men, and wounded an hundred 
more-, the red efcaped to the other pagoda, which 
they were fortifying. Thefe differences were alio 
referred to, and accommodated by the Governor and 
Council of Madrafs 

The tranquillity on one fide of the country, was no 
fecurity to our extenfive concerns and interefts in other 
parts. A letter from Mr. De Ley r it, fucceflbr to 
Mr. Godeheu, gave great concern to all who had at 
heart the true commercial interefts of the fettlements, 
and the duration of the late treaty: but if the letters 
of Mr. De Leyrit were alarming, how much more 
was to be apprehended from the condudt of M. De 
Buffy, who was every day enlarging the valuable and 
extenfive poffeffions which the French held in the 
north. It was now apparent, that the ufe they had 
been endeavouring to make of their influence over 
the Viceroy, ever fince the truce, was to acquire to 
themfelves the dominion of all the provinc<;s of the 
Deckan. They began to manifeft thefe intentions, by 

L 2 making 

r64 TRANSACTlONSoN 1756. 

making fuch exorbitant demands of pofleflions from 
Salabatzing as might well alarm him. One, among 
others, was, that they fhould be put in pofleflion of 
the fort of Golconda. 

In order to fhew by what means this important for- 
trefs was faved from falling into the hands of the 
French, who feldom give up a point of this nature 
which they have once attempted, it will be neceffary 
to give a ftort account of one of thofe rebellions 
which are fo frequent in this country, that they are 
feldom taken notice of but for their confequences. 

It was about this time that Morarow, the Maratta 
freebooter, attempted to make himfelf independent, 
and to ftrengthen himfelf in the fort of Savanore, 
by the concurrence of the Nabob of that diftridl. Bal- 
lazerow, the chief of the Marattas, prepared to re- 
duce him, as a rebel to that flate, and applied to the 
Governor of Madrafsfor Ibme Englifh gunners. Be- 
fore he could receive an anfwer to his letter, Salabat- 
zing, confidering alfo the Nabob of Savanore as a 
rebel, made it a common caufe ; and, joining Balla- 
y.erow, they foon obliged Morarow to come out of the 
fort and make his fubmiflions ; not forgetting, at the 
fame time, to call the Nabob of Savanore to ac- 
count, for the prote<f\ion he had given him in his 

The French accompanied the Viceroy in this ex- 
pedition, and their alTiuTiing behaviour did not efcape 
thedifcerning eyesof Ballazerow ; who looking upon 
the French as a difgrace to the Viceroy, and a great 
obflrudion to all his own views, remonflrated to Sala- 
batzing the danger and fhame which the influence of a 
handful of Europeans, thus arrogantly giving law to 
a great Prince, mull bring on his charader and go- 

The good council of Ballazerow, as it came very 
opportunely for the prefervarion of the fort of Gol- 
conda, was not thrown away., Salabatzing reprefented 
the unreafonablenefs of fuch a demand : he told M. 



De BufTy, that the countries which had been already 
given him were more than fufficient for the pay and 
expences of his troops, and defired to entertain them 
no longer upon fuch extravagant terms. M. De Bufiy 
replied in a haughty (lile to this expoftulation, and on- 
ly grew more preffing in his demands, till Salabatzing 
was obliged to order him immediately to return to 
Pondichery. M. De BulTy was now under a necei- 
fity of withdrawing his forces -, and he began his 
march, as he pretended, for Maffulipatam, by the 
way of Hydrabad, the capital of Golconda. 

Upon the departure of M. De Bufly, Salabatzing 
wrote to the Governor of Madrafs, requefting Ibme 
troops, to prevent the French from infulting him in 
his government. In the mean time, the French having 
committed fbme diforders in the countries they were 
palling through, the Viceroy detached a party of Ma- 
ratta horfe to keep near them on the road, and prevent 
further difturbances. M. De Bufly, however, arri- 
ved fafe at Hydrabad, and took poll with his troops in 
a large houfe in the town, where he had mounted feme 
guns, and prepared to defend himfelf againft an at- 

M. De Bufly had fecured a good ft:ock of provifions 
of all forts, by plundering the Bazars : his force con- 
fifted of four hundred Europeans, and three or four 
hundred Sepoys, and the French had embarked from 
Pondichery four or five hundred men, to be landed 
at Maffulipatam, and to march from thence to (uc- 
cour M. De Bufly. The march from Malfulapatam 
-to Hydrabad may be reckoned about fifteen days. 

As the French had made fo large a draft from Pon- 
dichery, there was the lefs danger to our fettlements of 
any enterprize from thence ; therefore it was agreed, 
that about four hundred Europeans, including the train 
of artillery, and four hundred Sepoys, might be fent 
with fafety to the afliftance of Salabatzing : for al- 
though M. De Bufly, if he fliould be joined by all 
the detachments fent from Pondichery, would have 

L g near 

i66 TRANSACTlONSoN 1756. 

near one thoufand men, yet, ffs he had no black 
troops, he would be liable to be continually harralled 
and ftarved, while onr party, joined by fifty thoufand 
horfe, had no fuch diinculties to apprehend. Sala- 
batzmg had himfelf pointed out the road by wjiich our 
dera^hmcnt lliould march, aiid Tent orders to all the 
Polygars antl other officers refiding in the adjacent 
countries, to furnilh fufficient proviiions. 

Every tiling being thus fettled, the necelTary prepara- 
tions were making for the march of the troops, when 
the news came of the furrender of Collembuzar and 
the danger of Calcutta, hnmediately upon this ad- 
vice, iMnjor Killpatrick was fent with two hundred and 
fifty men for Bengal. Frelli applications came from 
Salabatzing, and it was refolved; notwithftanding the 
detachment to Bengal, to continue the expedition to 
Golconda, v\hen the account came of the lofs of Cal- 
cutta and all the fubordinate factories. The necef- 
fity of re eftablifhing the fettlements in Bengal (uper- 
ceded every other conhderation : therefore it was re- 
fjlved, in this mofl critical juncture, to fend fix hun- 
red Eun^peans, and a thoufand Sepoys, under the 
command of Colonel Clive, for that important fer- 
vice, which was fo happily effeded 

As the Englifh were thus prevented from fupport- 
ing the Viceroy in his meafures, he was obliged to al- 
ter his refolutions, and finding that M. De BuiTy was 
joined by five hnndred Eurojeans under Mr. Law, 
he (non hearkened to terms of accommodation ^ and 
the French were again admitted into the iervice of 

In confequence of this, about the beginning of the 
next Year, the faiflories of Ingeram, Bandermalanka, 
and Vizagapatam, were taken by the enemy. As 
thele events were not unforefecn, immediately upon 
the re-c<jmmencement of hoftilities, the greateft part 
of the Company's effecfls were fhipped off, particular- 
ly from the two former places. The latter was by 
no means provided to refill: lo large a force as JVl. De 



Buflfy brought againflit: For he palTed the Chicacole 
the 20th of June with fix hundred Europeans and 
fix thoufand Sepoys, and thirty pieces of cannon. He 
had alfo obliged the Raja to furnifh him with four 
thoufand pikemen. The garrifon confiAed of one 
hundred and forty Europeans, and four hundred 'and 
twenty Sepoys and Topafles. 

On the 24th, about three in the afternoon, a large 
party of horfe being the van of the army, approached 
the town, in order to take a view of fome of the 
out-works ; but being fired at from the Black- Rock 
battery, retired to a great diftance. Next morning 
the whole army was come up within two miles, and 
a confiderable party encamped very near the town. 
In the afternoon M. De BuiTy fent the following fum- 
mons to the Chief of the fadory. 

SIR, French Camp, June 25, 1757. 

*' It is, I believe, needlefs to tell you what brings 
" me before your place ; but I think it necefTary to 
*' acquaint you of it, by fummoning you to furren- 
" der it up, and not expofe your felf and your gar- 
'* rifon by a miftaken bravery, to all the fury which 
" follows an aflault or efcalade ; an evil which I fhould 
** not be able to put a ftop to, having in my army 
*' barbarous and undifciplined nations. 

" You will avoid this in furrendering, and may de- 
" pend upon all the good treatment and generofity, 
** on which my nation piques itfelf in fuch a cale, and 
" particularly, Sir, 

" Your moft humble and 

*' Moft obedient fervant, 

« DE BUSS Y." 

L 4 A capitula- 


A capitulation was accepted, in which it was agreed 
to deliver up the place, the fortirications, the artillery, 
marine, and military ftores, arms, (hip ftores, &c. 
to the Company of France ; as alfo all that fhould be 
found m the different magazines belonging to the H,ng- 
lilli Company. 

The Chief, the Council, and all tliofe employed in 
the Engl.fh Company's fervice, the olticers and all 
others, both civil and military, to be prilbners of war 
on their parole. 

All the foldiers, failors, and other Europeans, to 
be priionerp, as long as the war (hould continue be- 
tween the King of France and the King of England, 
crtill they fhould be exchanged. 

The Capture of this place gave the French the en- 
tire polTeJiion of the cocii from Ganjam to MalTulipai- 

While the affairs in the north took this unfavour- 
able turn, the Company received very little benefit 
from the fouthern provinces, which were thought to 
have been peaceably eftabliilied. 

in March, 1756, advice was received from the 
Nabob, that the Polygars, who vv'ere united againft 
his brother Mauphus Cawn, had obtained leveral ad- 
vantages over his troops, and had blocked up a large 
party in a ftrong fort, between iMadura and Tinne- 
vclly. He requefted that an European force might 
be lent to fupport his brother. It being thought im- 
prudent at that time to part with any number of Eu- 
ropeans from Fort St. George, or to give the French a 
pretence for marching to the alhllance of thofe fadti- 
ous Polygars, Mahomed ICuut Cawn, the Nelloure 
Subadar who had a commilTion as commander over 
a'l the Company Sepovs) was fent with a thoufand 
Sepoys and the Coffree Company from Trichinopo- 


The day before he began his march, advice was re- 
ceived that Mauplins Cawn had obtained a compleat 
victory over the rebels, killed the General, and two 



thoufand Colleries, and taken three hundred horfe, 
with all the baggage, guns, and fome elephants : the 
battle was fought within (even miles of Tinnevelly. 
This viitory was lb far from producing the quiet which 
might naturally be expected from it, that it ferved on- 
ly to enable Mauphus Cawn to put in execution the 
defign he had all along entertained, of making himfelf 
independent of his brother and his allies. He accord- 
ingly began to ftir in the Tinnevelly province ; having 
already, under falfe and frivolous pretences, obliged 
our Sepoys to leave the fortrefs of Madura. He could 
then no longer conceal his intentions, and therefore, 
without pretending to difguife them, he put himfelf at 
the head of his troops, refolving to oblige Ifouf Cawn 
entirely to quit the country, as he had already driven 
him out of Madura. 

In the beginning of the year 1757, Captain Cail- 
laud, who then commanded in Trichinopoly, was 
ordered to march from thence to the aifiliance of 
Ifouf Cawn, with one hundred and twenty Europeans, 
five hundred Sepoys, and tvvo pieces of cannon. As 
Madura was now in the pofleflion of the enemy, he 
was obliged to take a large circuit to get into the 
Tinnevelly province by another road. Mauphus 
Cawn, did all in his power to oppofe his march, but 
to no purpofe i for, on the 17th of March, Captain 
Caillaud reached Tinnevelly, and joined Ifouf Cawn. 
.His army then confifled of a few more Europeans 
and Sepoys, three additional pieces of artillery, and 
■about five or fix hundred cavalry. With this force he 
marched in queft of Mauphus Cawn, whofe troops 
confifting of cavalry, eafily made their elcape among 
the woods. Captain Caillaud, knowingit was in vain 
to purfue them in that country, employed himfelf 
more ufefully, in fettling accounts with the renter, 
and remitting fome money to the Company after he 
had provided for the payment of the army. 



Having finifhed this neceffary preliminary, he 
marched the beginning of May for Madura, the 
conqiieft: c^ which was of the greateft confequence to 
the affairs of the two provinces, and arrived before 
it the twelfth of May. It is a large town, fortified in 
the old way, with two walls, and round towers at pro- 
per diftances for flanking, and a ditch. 

Mauphus Cawn had a garrifon there, and on hear- 
ing of the march of our troops, he threw in another 
reinforcement ; fo that in all, they had eight or nine 
hundred cavalry, and about three thoufand black 
infantry, moft of them with fire arms, fourteen pieces 
of cannon, with powder and ammunition in plenty. 
Captain Caillaud had no artillery with him ; he there- 
fore fent to Trichinopoly for fome battering cannon ; 
and, in the mean time, was making all the neceffary 
preparations for the attack, when he received a letter 
from the Prefidency of Madrafs, acquainting him 
that the French were in motion, their intentions not 
known, but fufpecfted to be againft Trichinopoly ; 
that, if this was confirmed to him, he was, before all 
things, to confult the fafety of that place. 

He did not, however, think it neceffary, upon a meer 
report, to abandon his enter prize, but refolved to 
wait; and, in the mean time, made his difpofitions 
for the worft that could happen •, but as the call for 
his forces might be fudden, he took a refolution to 
make himfelf mafler of Madura by furprize: he was 
the rather encouraged to it, by obferving a place 
which feemed to him, on reconnoitring, very fit for 
anefcalade. The ditch was dry, the firft wall very 
low, and, by intelligence from within, he knew it was 
thinly guarded j he therefore made all neceffary pre- 
parations for the attempt. 

Every thing went on at firft with extraordinary fuc- 
cefs i the advanced party, with their ladders, had got 
over the firft wall unperceived and unheard, and were 
pulling over the longer ladders, to mount the inner 



wall. The unavoidable noife of their arms and im- 
plements, the grating of the ladders again ft the walls, 
together with the breaking of one of them, alarmed 
the Gentry, who immediately challenged and fired. 
The guard which was ncarell hoifted fome blue lights 
(a compofition they make in that country, of fulphur 
and antimony, which throws an exceeding clear light 
all around) by v/hich they faw the afTailants clofe under 
the wall, preparing for the efcalade, and many more 
on the glacis, ready to fupport them ; the main body 
was in a hollow way, out of their fight, but within 
two hundred yards of the wall. The alarm was given 
in an inftant, and they began to fire very fmartly from 
the walls ; none of the troops lay far from their pofts, 
Co that the fire encreafed every minute, therefore the 
retreat was ordered, and performed with a very in- 
con fiderable lofs ; which was the more extraordinary, 
as the men were fo much expofed. 

Captain Caillaud received a letter that very day 
from the Prefidency, to inform him, that they did not 
imagine the French had defigns on Trichinopoly, from 
the late intelligence received of their motions •, and 
that they had fent from Fort St. George a fmall rein- 
forcement to that garrifon : he therefore thought he 
might have time to finifh the fiege, when the heavy 
cannon fhould arrive, and had given diredions to the 
officer who commanded in his abfence at Trichinopo- 
ly, to fpare no money nor pains for good intelligence, 
that he might be in time apprized of the enemy's de- 
figns and motions : but, notwithftanding thefe pre- 
cautions, the firft intelligence he received was, that the 
French were in fight of Trichinopoly : however, as 
his orders obliged him to hold his troops in readinefs 
againft all events, his difpoiitions were made accord- 
ingly, and he began his march immediately on receiv- 
ing the news. He left behind him a good \ art of his 
army to blockade the place, taking with him all the 
Europeans, and one thoufand of the beft Sepoys, with 
four days provifions in their knapfacks. 



Madura is an hundred miles from Trichinopoly, 
and the French, under the command of M. D'Au- 
teuil, had then inverted the place. They had nine 
hundred men in battalion, three or four thouland Se- 
poys,about one hundred European cavalry and huifars, 
and a much greater number of the country horfe. It 
was no fmall dirticulty to get into the town, as the ene- 
my knew of his march, and made, as they thought, 
a difpofition that could not fail of preventing him. 
Captain Caillaud was aware, that, if any misfor- 
tune ihould befal his party, Trichinopoly mult inevi- 
tably be loft ; but he had an advantage in his know- 
ledge of the country, and alfo of the proper methods 
of procuring intelligence. He had by this means a 
true account of the difpofitions of the French. 

They had formed themfelves in four divifions which 
made a chain quite a-crofs the plain, in the front of 
which their cavalry was advanced, and divided into 
fmall parties, to poffefs the roads and pofts all roimd. 
One part they had neglected, as thinking it imprac- 
ticable for troops to march that way : it was a trad of 
land extending about nine miles to the weft of the 
town, wholly confifting of plantations of rice. As 
the grain will not grow in this country, unlelsthe foil 
be overflowed with water, the fields muft of confe- 
qucnce be one continued flough, through which it is 
impoffible to march v/ithout being above the knee in 
mud at each ftcp. Captain Caillaud finding, as has 
been faid, every other avenue ftopped, refolved to 
take his rout by this difficult, and therefore unfufped- 
ed, way. About two in the afternoon he fet out on 
the dirett plain road, and continued to purfue the fame 
courfe for fome miles : this he did to deceive the ene- 
my, and prevent the danger of a difcovery, if it 
fhouid have happened that they had any fpies among 
our people At the clofe of the evening he flruck 
out of the road, and about ten o'clock got into the 
rire fields, and, for the next feven hours, the troops 
purfued their fatiguing march, till the long wi(h'd-for 



day appeared ; they were then within cannon fhot of 
the fort, which they loon reached, with no fmalljoy 
and fatisfadion. Captain Caillaud had previoufly de- 
tached two companies of Sepoys to the right, in order 
to give the enemy an alarm that wav, and ftill keep 
up their attention on that fide. Thofe two compa- 
nies executed their orders perfedly well, fet the enemy 
in motion, and then retired to the woods, from 
whence they eafiiy found their way into the town tl'ie 
following night. 

The French could not at firft believe the party was 
got in, but were foon convinced of it, and that very 
night repaffed the river, and went on the iOand of Se- 
ringham. M. D'Auteuil was greatly blamed for hist 
bad manoeuvre, and ordered to return to Pondichery : 
upon his arrival there the command of the army was 
taken from him. 

The manner in which the French came fo unexpec- 
tedly upon Trichinopoly is too artful to be paifed over 

The declaration of war in Europe had to this time 
produced very little alteration in the affairs of the 
Coaft ; for, after parting with fo confiderable a portion 
of our flrength for the Bengal expedition, which re- 
duced us to an equality with Pondichery, we could 
not hope to obtain, by a commencement of hoftilities, 
any advantage equivalent to the expence of taking 
the field •, and therefore our endeavours had been to 
preferve the tranquillity of the province, to the end 
that the colled^ion of the revenues, m which the Com- 
pany had now fo great a concern, might not be inter- 
rupted, and the French receiving no fupplies from 
Europe to render them greatly (iiperior to us, had re- 
mained alfo quiet ; realoning, no doubt, upon the 
fame principles. At laft, upon the arrival of two 
fi-iips, which landed at mofl two hundred men, they 
grew impatient of repofe, and though not daring to 
avow their defigns, they found it no d fficult matter to 
form a pretext for taking the field : for while the two 



companies, for fear of giving each other alarm, for- 
bore to quell the irregularities of the petty Governors 
by force of arms, thofe turbulent chiefs, who knew 
no other law than the fword, had made continual in- 
vafions on the countries adjacent to their little forts, 
and grievoully opprefTed the inhabitants v/ith their de- 
predations and exadions. 

They had pradifed thefe outrages, with impunity, 
for the reafons abovementioned, and might fliU have 
continued the fame, but that the French, to conceal 
their intended furprize of Trichinopolv, chofe to give 
out that M! D'Auteuil, who marched firll with only 
two hundred men, had no other purpofe than to de- 
mand fatisfadion of Meer Saib, the Governor of El- 
lavanafore, for ravages he had committed on fome of 
their neighbouring villages. The more effedually to 
difguife their real dcfigns, they adual'y advanced near 
the fort of Ellavanafore, and being repulfed by Meer 
Saib might have paid dear for their attempt, had not 
that refolute Chief received a wound, of which he 
died a few Days after. The conflernation his death 
occafioned, being increafed by a reinforcement which 
M. Auteuil received from Pondichery, determined 
Meer Saib's brother to abandon the fort, and the 
French took pofTeffion of it the 13th of April. For 
the fame purpofe, alfo, they pretended difputes with 
WorriarpoUam, and other ; laces lying on that road. 

M, Dauteuil, leaving a fmall garriibn at Ellavana- 
fore, moved with the body of the army, firft, to Ver- 
dachilum, where being joined by a reinforcem.ent from 
Pondichery, Karical, and all their oiher garrilbns, he 
marched the 4th of May and encamped near Worriar- 
poUam, and on the 7th made an attack upon one of 
the pafles of the woods, but was repulfed. He then 
accommodated matters with the Polygars, who were 
malters of thofe pafles, on the promife ff a (um of' 
money ; and moved on with fuch expedition, that an 
advanced party encamped near Seringham the 12th; 
and on the 13th M. D'Auteuil croffed the river with 



1757- THE Coast OF COROMANDEL. 17$ 

the whole army, and took poll at Worriour, a pagoda 
two miles and a half weft of Trichinopoly. 

The deligns of the French, which had been fug- 
gefted by private intelligence, were now too apparent; 
therefore, on the nth of April, a reinforcement of 
fifty men were ordered from Fort St. David, to march 
with all fpeed to Trichinopoly, 

The great confequence of that place, from the 
ftrength of the fortification, the large trad of coun- 
try it commands, as it may be called the key to Ma- 
dura and Tinnevelly, and, above all, the number of 
four hundred French prifoners which were there con- 
fined, determined the Prefidency of Madrafs, upon 
the firfl news of the march of the enemy from Wor- 
riarpollam. to make all the efforts in their power for 
its fafety. They could take their meafures with the 
lefs rifque, fince the French had drained all their gar- 
rifbns fo far, that Pondichery itfeif was left with very 
few Europeans fit for duty : therefore, having already 
lent a detachment from Fort St. David to Trichonopo- 
ly, m order to caufe a diverfion they prepared three 
hundred Europeans to march from Madrafs, with five 
hundred Seapoys, to bejoined by a party under Colo- 
nel Forde, The Colonel had been fent, at the requeft 
of the Nabob, againfthis* brother, NazeabullaCawn, 
Governor of Nelloure ; who having refufed to be ac- 
countable for his arrears, had entered into a correfpon- 
dence with the French Chief at Mafliilipatam, and 
procured from him an afliftance of feventy or eighty 
military, and fome Sepoys. Abdul Vahab Cawn, who 
was left there with the Nabob's troops, not being able 
to collecft money to pay them, was obliged to trome 
away, fo that NazeabuUaCawn had the entire pofTelTion 
of the country. He had not admitted the French par- 
ty int(j the fort, but kept them with his army, which 
he then employed in fubduing the neighbouring Poly- 
gars. It was to be feared they would find an oppor- 
tunitv of taking pofieffion of the fort, unlefs we took 
fome fteps to prevent them ; for Nazeabulla Cawn, in 


* He was a natural fen of the Nabob's father. 


return for the airiftance received from the French, had 
already made over to them fome (hare of his country, 
and particularly the ports of Ramahatam and Kiftna- 
patam ; places with which the Madrafs-merchants have 
a confiderable commerce. 

Colonel Forde was ordered to Nelloure with a de- 
tachment of one hundred Europeans, fifty Coffrees, 
and three hundred Sepoys ; with two field pieces, one 
eighteen-pounder, and three royals. The Sepoyg 
were fent over-land to Kiftnapatam, and Colonel 
Forde proceeded by fea, with the reft of the detach- 
ment, for the fame place, where he difembarked the 
the troops, and was joined by the Sepoys, and Abdul 
Vahob Cawn ; who, afcer the ulual delays of thofe 
people, fupplied him, at laft, with bullocks and other 
neceflaries for his march. 

The fort of Nelloure, which is twelve miles from 
Kiftnapatam, is about twice as large as Madrafs. It 
has five gates, two large and three fmall ones, and is 
furrounded by a mud wall, which is very broad at the 
bottom, and about three feet thick on the top of the 
rampart. It is almoft furrounded by a dry ditch, ex- 
cept on the north Ade, where is a river, which in the 
rainy feafon only, has v/ater in it. 

Colonel Forde having battered the fort three days, 
at length made a pra(5ti cable breach on the 5th of 
May, and began the alfault at break of day, in the 
following order : The Coffrees, Enfign Elliot at their 
head, marched with great refolution to the foot of the 
breach, three companies of Sepoys followed them 
very clofe till they came within fixty paces of the 
breach, and then lav dov/n in a ditch, and could not 
be got to advance a ftep farther, fo that the Europe- 
ans were obliged to march over them to the breach j 
v/herejoining the Coffrees, they advanced to the top 
of it ; but were fo warmly received by the people in 
the fort, with pikes, firelocks, and ftones, that it was 
impollible for them to get over. In this fituation the 
fight was continued three quarters of an hour, and 



then the Sepoys ran away as faft as they could to- 
wards our battery. The Colonel, now convinced 
that nothing could be done with his force, deferted 
by the Sepoys, againft fo gallant a defence, ordered a 
retreat, which was conducted with fuch good order, 
that not a man was hurt aker they had left the at- 
tack ; but, while they continued in the breach, the 
a(f\ion was uncommonly brifk. Our people behaved 
with great refolution, and had forty killed and wound- 
ed, with about fifty Cotfrees and Sepoys : all thefe 
men were wounded in fuch a manner as to be render- 
ed unfit for prefent adion ; but there were fcarce any 
of the affailants who came off without bruifes and 
contufions, from ftones, pikes, or clubs ; for, with 
fuch weapons, numbers of the people in the place op- 
pofed and greatly incommoded them. 

Colonel Forde, having no dependance on any but 
his own people, and thofe being greatly reduced, and 
alfo great part of the ammunition expended, he flop- 
ped all further proceedings till he heard from the 
Prefidency of Madrafs, whom he immediately ac- 
quainted with the foregoing particulars. At the time 
thefe advices arrived at Madrafs, the French were 
encamped nearer to that place than our troops would- 
be when before Nellour : therefore it was judged more 
prudent to give up that undertaking, than to hazard 
a detachment to the northward •, whereas, by march- 
ing to the fbuthward, they could at once prevent the 
defigns of the enemy on Trichinopoly, and ferve as 
a barrier between them and Fort St. George *, there-, 
fore they fent out three hundred Europeans to tlie 
fouthward, and difpatched orders to Colonel Forde ,to 
join them with all his force. 

While the neceffary preparations were making for 
the march of the forces from Madrafs, Captain Poller 
was ordered from Chengalaput and Carangoly, to en- 
deavour to reduce Outremalour, a fort pofTefTed by 
the French, iituate about fifteen miles from Chenga- 
laput, and eight from Carangoly. On the approach 

M of 


of the party from Carangoly, the French garrifon, 
which confifled only of Sepoys, abandoned the fort 
before Captain Polier*s arrival : he left about forty 
Sepoys in charge of it, and then returned towards 
Chengalaput, near to which he encamped, in readi- 
nefs to join the army from Fort St. George, By this 
time the French garrifon of Allumparva, being rein- 
forced by fea from Pondichery, fo as to make up about 
one hundred Europeans and TopalTes, and three hun- 
dred Sepoys, marched from thence, and retook Ou- 

Colonel Adlercron refolving to command in perfon 
the intended expedition for the relief of Trichinopoly, 
marched from Fort St. George the 26th -, and, left the 
French redoubts of Waldour and Villenour fhould 
caufe any delay in his pafTing by the direct road to 
Fort St. David, he took the rout of Chengalaput and 
Wandewafh; and as he judged it neceffary to halt at 
fome place for Colonel Forde to come up with his par- 
ty, it was recommended to him to employ that fpare 
time in a fecond redudion of Outremalour, and in 
demolifhing that fort. It was hoped that they might 
then be able to garrifon Chengalaput and Carangoly, 
in fuch manner as to cover all thofe diftricts ; which, 
thus proteded, would bring a confiderable revenue 
to the Company. On the approach of Colonel Ad- 
lercron, the garrifon evacuated the place and threw 
themfelves into Wandewafu. 

While the Colonel was detained at Outremalour, in 
deftroying the fortifications of that place, he received 
letters from the Prefidency, to acquaint him, that, 
fmce Capt. Caillaud had fucceeded in throwing fuc- 
cours into Trichinopoly, they were no longer in pain 
for that fort ; and therefore requefted him immediate- 
ly to inveft the fortrefs of Wandewafh, and to pufh 
the attack with the utmoft vigour, that he might 
get pofleflion of it before the French army could 
come to its relief. They were urgent for this under- 
taking, on account of the Governor's behaviour, who 



had paid the Nabob no tribute fince the year 1 752 ; 
and alfo, during that time had been a conftant favourer 
of the French, who, under cover of that fort, had 
been enabled to make the moft fudden incurfions into 
all the diftrids of the Arcot province. The redud:i- 
on of this fortrefs would not only have prevented this 
inconvenience for the future, but the place itfelf would 
have been ot the utmoft conlequence to the Nabob 
and his allies, as being produdive of large revenues, 
and alfo capable of ferving as a barrier for the neigh- 
bouring countries. 

Colonel Adlercron marched with the army on the 
5 th of June to Wandewafh, and the next day entered 
the town ; but, before the heavy cannon could come 
up, the greateft part of the French army from Tri* 
chinopoly reached Pondichery, and marched out again 
to the relief of Wandewafh : v^'hereupon Colonel Ad 
lercron, judging it impradticable to execute the plan 
which had been concerted at Madrafs, refolved to 
wait for dire<5\ions from thence ; and, in the mean time, 
withdrew from the town, and encamped a few miles 
oflf. The Prefidency, being fenfible that the colleded 
force of the French would exceed our numbers, could 
not reafonably hope to obtain any confiderable 
advantage by keeping the field, and were therefore 
defirous of putting an end to the expence ; accord- 
ingly, they wrote to Colonel Aclercron to return with 
the army to Madrafs, They imagined that the French 
would alfo confider, that our force was fufiicient to 
obitrud; any attempt on their fide, and would there- 
fore recall their troops to Pondichery. 

Before Colonel Adlercron began his march for Ma- 
drafs the enemy's army had reached Wandewafh ; and, 
a very few hours after he left Outremalour, a party 
of French took pofTeifion of it. Notwithftanding the 
enemy moved fo clofe after him. Colonel Adlercron 
neither advifed the Prefidency of their proceedings, nor 
waited to Hop their progrefs, but continued his march 
towards Madrafs : the confequence of which was, 
M z that, 


that, on the very day he left Chengalaput, they made 
a forced march from Outremalour to Conjeveram, 
phindered the town, and attacked the fort, or walled 
pagoda ; which was, hoM'ever, fo well defended by a 
Serjeant and two companies of Sepoys, that they 
were repulfed, with the lofs of an officer and fix Eu- 
ropeans killed, and about ten wounded. When this 
news reached Madrafs the army was arrived within 
fix miles of that place. The Governor and Council 
thought it highly neceiTary they fhould immediately 
march again, to protect their poirelnons from further 

Colonel Lawrence, who on every occafion fliewed 
the moft earneft difpofition to contribute in any fhape 
to the advancement of all military operations, offered 
to join the army as a volunteer •, and, when it was 
imagined Trichinopoly would have been the fcene of 
a(5lion, his intention was to proceed with the troops 
from Fort St. David for the defence of that place. 
Afterwards, when the French army returned from Tri- 
chinopoly and were colleded at Wandewafh, he offer- 
ed to embark with all the men that could be fpared 
from Fort St. David, and to land at Sadrafs, in order 
to join the army in the moft expeditious manner. Be- 
ing fenfible how much his abilities and experience 
would contribute to the regulation and good condudt 
of the army, and judging Fort St. David to be free 
from all danger, as the whole French force was on 
the other fide, the Prefidency approved of this pro- 
pofal, and Colonel Lawrence accordingly landed near 
Sadrafs, with about one hundred men, the 22d ot 
June, three days after the march of the army -, which 
he joined on the other fide of Chengalaput. 

The army then advanced towards the enemy, and 
tookpoft the iQth of July within four miles of them. 
The French were ftrongly intrenched about a mile 
from Wandewalh As their troops were manifetUy 
difconrented, which appeared by their frequent deler- 
tion, and our men were all in good fpirits and eager 


1755- THE COAST OF C O R O M A N D E L. i8i 

for an engagement, all poflible endeavours were ufed 
to induce the enemy to come out of their entrench- 
ments. On the 17th fome of the Nabob's horfe, fup- 
ported by a fmall party of Europeans, werefent with- 
in cannon (hot of their camp, in hopes that a de- 
tachment would be lent out againff them, and a gene- 
ral adion brought on by that means, but all was in 
vain ; and, as their entrenchments were defended by 
feveral batteries, and they had a great fuperiority alio 
in the number of their troops, it was judged that they 
could not be attacked in fuch a poft without too great 
hazard. The continuance of the army in their en- 
campment in this ftate of inadion, was only a ufelefs 
expence -, tlierefore, to reduce it as far as prudence 
would admit, Colonel Adlercron was defired to (end 
part of the army to Chengalaput and Carangoly, and 
the remainder to Conjeveram. This place, being 
fituated in the center of our pofTefTions, was a conve- 
nient flation for the troops to move from, which ever 
way the enterprizes of the enemy might make it ne- 

The enemy remained about Wandewafh till the 
20th of September, when they moved againft Chette- 
put with a body of eighteen hundred Europeans, Ni- 
zar Mahomed Cawn, affifted with a Serjeant and fix- 
teen men from Fort St. George, defended the place 
to the I all extremity, and even after the enemy had 
got pofleffion of the fort he fought them in the 
Itreets till he was killed with a mufket ball ; his fami- 
ly then defiroyed themfelves, and a vail flaughter was 
made among his troops. This obllinate defence coft 
the behegers alfo a great number of men. 

The French withdrawing from the neighbourhood 
of Trichinopoly, left Captain Caillaud at liberty to 
proceed for the redudion of Madura ; but, as the 
enemy found employment for all the troops that coula 
be fpared from Madrafs, it was impolhble to reinforce 
him with fuch a itrength as fhould fecure him fuqcefs. 

M 3 * Without 

l82 WAR ON THE ^757- 

Without waiting for farther fupplies, he took with 
hiiPi fuch a force as he thought might be fpared from 
Trichinopoly without weakening the garrifon too 
much, and marched the 27th of June with ninety mili- 
tary, four hundred Sepoys, and two twenty four poun- 
ders ; with thefe he joined Lieutenant Rumbold, who 
had maintained his poft before Madura with the Cof- 
frtes and Sepoys left und r his command. It took up 
fbme days to make the neceiTary preparations for erec- 
ting a battery, which was opened on the 9th, and a 
breach made before noon. Captain Caillaud thought 
it advifeable to aiTault the breach without delay, left 
the befieged fhould throw up feme works within du- 
ring the night. 

The diipofition being made, he began the attack at 
two in the afternoon ; but the breach was fo vigorouf- 
ly defended, that the beft of his troops were either 
killed or difabled in the attempt •, the reft fell back, 
and it was impofiinleto prevent a general retreat, or to 
perfuade the remains of the army to a fecond attack : 
neither was it advi(eable, at a time when the befieged 
were elated with having killed and wounded, upon 
this occafion, between thirty and forty Europeans and 
CofFrees, and a hundred Sepoys. 

Captain Caillaud refolving to wait for an opportuni- 
ty to renew his attempt, in the mean time, made the 
proper difpofitions for reducing the place by famine •, 
but as this method might take up fo much time as to 
prolong his ftay till the arrival of the French fleet, he 
eagerly caught at the firft opening for a treaty, and 
though the propofals of Mauphus Cawn's people were 
moft exorbitant, he did not raftily rejeil them, but by 
degrees abating the terms, reduced them at length to 
ja hundred and feventy thoufand roupees. He then 
concluded the bargain, and Madura was delivered up 
to him juft at the time that the French fleet arrived. 
This event making it neceiTary to provide for the de- 
fence of all the garrifons ; orders were fent to with- 


draw the troops from the Tinevelly country, and Cap- 
tain Caillaud returned to Trichinopoly ; leaving a 
large garrifon of Sepoys at Madura, under the com- 
mand of Ifouf Cawn. 

Mauphus Cawn being now matter of all the reve- 
nue of Tinevelly, the diftrids of Madura alone were 
not fufficient to defray the expence of maintaining the 
fort . 

The coaft was at this time in danger of being dl- 
fturbed by other powers as well as the French. 

The IViaratlas, who are continually traverfmg thcfe 
immenfe countries with their vafl bodies of horfe, in 
a mod incredible manner, having, within the lail two 
years, conquered large di(lri<5ts in manydiftant parts 
of the Deckan, had alfo entered the kingdom of Maif^ 
fore, and at each time carried away upwards of thirty 
Jack of roupees. The Nanna Balazerow, in his return, 
polTelTed himfelf of the fort and country of Serah, the 
next province to Cadapah. He left Balaventerow, his 
General, with about eight thoufand horfe, atCa- 
danattam, a place about eighty miles from Arcot. His 
orders were to demand the Chout of the Arcot and 
Trichinopoly countries, which had been unpaid for 
fome years paft. For this purpofe he fent a Vakeel to 
the Nabob, and another to Pondichery. Balazerow 
made a demand of forty lack of roupees ; but, upon 
the reprefentation of the Nabob, who defcribed to the 
Vakeel the ftate of his country for fome years pad, 
and affured him that not only the whole revenues of 
the diflrids in his poiTefTion, but every roupee he 
could borrow befides, had been fpent in oppofing the 
defigns of the French, who would otherwife have fub- 
dued the whole Carnatick, the Vakeel reduced the 
demand to three lack ; and, upon the Nabob's fur- 
ther inftances, to two lack and a half, one half to be 
paid immediately, the other in one month. The Na- 
bob thought this a more reafonable accommoda- 

M 4 tion 

i84 ••' M A R A T T A S. 1757, 

dation than could have been expei^cd ; but not being 
able to raife that fum himlelf, reconnnncnded to the 
Prefidency to confVnt to theie terms, and advance the 
money, Thelowftateof their treafury put it out of 
their power to comply with this requeft ^ nor could 
they, at any time, with prudence, pay fuch a lum 
upon'ia mere demand, without making fome agree- 
ment, or terms of alliance, for the good of their af- 
fairs. In hopes to gain time, as fljips from Europe 
were every day expeded, they wrote to the Maratra 
Vakeel at Arcot, defiring him to come and fettle the 
affair in difpute at Madrafs ; and, at the fame 
time, recommended to the Nabob to accompany 

Although the Vakeel had told the Nabob that the 
French had offered four lack of roupeestothe Marat-; 
ta General, to engage him in their alliance, and hint- 
ed, that the confequence of our not complying im- 
mediately with the terms offered, would be the ruin of 
the countries in our pofTeflion, yet it was not appre- 
hended that the Nanna had impowered this officer to 
proceed to fuch extremities : neither could it be fuppo- 
led diat the French were able to make good fo large 
an offer as four lack, having reduced their own finan- 
ces to ^s low an ebb as tliofe of their neighbours ; but 
it is natural to the Moons, in ali their tranfacStions, to 
rilfx a proportion of falfhood, and, if they fancy they 
can carry their point by it, they pride themfelves in 
the conceit of their art and cunning. ■ 

=^'|rK6 Nabob arrived at Madrafs the 8th of Augufl 
1*757^ with Amoortarow, the Maratta Vakeel, and 
fome days were employed in reprefenting to Amoorta- 
rbw thie vafl expence which the Nabob and the Com- 
pany had been at to preferve the country from the 
entire dominion of the Frc?nch -, but the endeavours 
of the Prefidency, by that argument, to avoid the 
payment he demandedj v/ere fruitlefs, and all their 

*' ' remonllrances 

1757. M A R A T T A S. 185 

remonflrances of very little weight, the Nabob ha- 
\ing abfolutely engaged with Amoortarow, before he 
left Arcot, to pay the furn of two hundred and fifty 
thoufand roupees. Whenever it was propofed to 
Amoorfrow to abate in his demand, his anfwer was, 
conftantly, that he had the Nabob's promife, and 
flioald get the money from him. The Maratta feem- 
ed determined, in cafe it was not paid, tolaywafte 
the countries in the poffellion of the Nabob and the 
Company, vhich was certainly in the power of an army 
of eight thoufand horfe. Such a force was then with- 
in eighty miles of Arcot, and might have feized a fum 
far exceeding their demand, as ir was the time of 
the * Tripety fea^-, during which folemnity the grea- 
teft part of the revenues are ufually colleded at the 
pagoda. The f*refidency therefore agreed, upon thefe 
confiderations, to enable the Nabob to pay the fum 
in queftion, by allowing it to be deducted out of the 
fecond half of his allignmeHt of eight lack to the Com- 

Notwithftanding the power of the Marattas was fb 
well known, and had been of late fo univerfally felt, 
fuch is the reliefs fpirit of all the Indian as well as 
Moorifh Chiefs, that Morarow, who had, not long 
fmce, brought himfelf and the Nabob ot' Savanore 
to the neceflity of imploring pardon from the Nanna, 
was now propofing a league, between himfelf, the 
Nabobs of Cadapah and Canoul, and the King of 
Maifibre, with intent to retake Serah from the Nanna, 

Jib &fi 5-l3f!w ,rtot srl3 01 ^^^::c-: ^^1 

* Tripety is a pagoda fituated upon a hill about one hundred 
and fi.'ty miles N. N. W. of Madrafs. It is held in the fame vene- 
ration by the Gentoos, as Mecca is by the Mahometans. An an- 
nual feaft is held at Tripety, in the month of September, at which 
time a great number of devotees refort to the pagoda ; and from 
the prefents made by fuch a multitude of votaries, alarge revenue 
accrues to the Nabob. None but Gentoos, of different tribes, are 
permitted to afcend the facied hill on v^hich the pagoda ftands. 

i86 M A R A T T A S. 1757. 

and prevent his getting any footing in the Carnatick. 
Gjuld this treaty have been accomplifhed with any 
profped of fuccefs, it mad be granted, that it might 
have been a glorious barrier againft the inroads of that 
deftrudtive power. The propofal was fpecious, and 
would have had the approbation, and, polTibiy, the 
concurrence of the Engiifh, could it have been con- 
fidered as a fyftem of cool and lafting policy ; but it 
was rather to be fufpeded of having its foundation in 
ambition or revenge, and as it proved, was only a 
means of provoking the Marattas to make thole 
countries the feat of war, and of throwing them the 
iooner into their hands. Upon the fir ft advice of this 
intended confederacy, Balaventarow marched againft 
the Nabob of Cadapah, and killing him in a battle, 
took the greateft part of the country into his own 
hands ; but Abdul Mahomed Cawn, with fomeof the 
relations and troops of the late Nabob, throwing 
themfelves into Sydoat fort, maintained themfelves 
for a time ; but were at laft obliged to accommodate 
with the befiegers for a fum of money, and the deli- 
very of half the country to the Marattas. 

During the time thefe tranfadions were on foot, 
Amoortarow the Vakeel, with a part of the Maratta 
troops, went agjinft Trepalour, which is alio in the 
dependency of Cadapah ; but he was lefs fuccefsful 
than his mafter, for having attempted an affault, he 
met with fo vigorous a repulfe that great part of his 
forces were cut off, and himfelf mortally wounded 
and carried prifoner to the fort, where he died a few 
days after. The Marattas, during their ftay in thofe 
parts, colleded feveral fums of money from the dif- 
ferent Polygars to the northward ; and then went off 
towards Poora, to join Balazerow. 

From the(e, and many more inftances, it has been 
fhewn how great a check the Marattas have been up- 
on the Moori'h Government, and that it is owing to 
their arms alone that the Mahometans have been pre- 

1757- M A R A T T A S. 187 

vented from the ufurpation of the whole peninfu- 

As the Moors are a luxurious people, in a few years 
of peace they grow enervated by their debaucheries, 
and foon degenerate into (loth and effeminacy. It may 
alfo be added, that a general corruption of manners, 
and treachery to one another, would greatly conduce 
to render them an eafy prey to the Marattas, when- 
ever they fhould take the refolution to expel them 
the country. And though there is not a Governor, 
in the highefl: rank of power and independency, but 
what fbiles himfelf, a thoufand times in the ordinary 
tranfaction of the day, The Slave of the Mogul, 
there is not one of them in the whole empire that pays 
the lead regard to the mofl folemn orders of that mo- 
narch, or that will march his troops to quell any dan- 
gerous commotion, or ftir for the prefervation of the 
life or throne of his mafter. 

The only balance to the power of the Marattas is a 
race of northern people, inhabiting the mountains of 
Candahar, commonly known in India by the name of 
Pattans, though they are more generally called Ag- 
wans on the other fideot the country ; and under that 
name conquered Ifpahan in the year 1722. They are 
Mahometans, yet no lefs enemies to the Moorifh go- 
vernment than the Marattas, or other Indians. They 
are faid to have been defcended from an ancient colo- 
ny of Arabians, who entered the country four hundred 
years before Tamerlane, and built the city of Maflu- 
lipatam ; from thence extending their conqueft north- 
ward, they founded Patna in Bengal, and at lall over- 
ran the whole country to the weft, and were maflers 
of Delli when Tamerlane firft appeared in India. As 
they were always reckoned good foldiers, they are 
now confidered as the very beft infantry in the whole 
empire i and it is natural to fuppofe they ftiould be 
fuch, fince they have been inhabitants of the northern 


i88 P A T T A N S. 1757. 

This warlike nation made themfelves formidable 
to Nadir Shaw, in his march ; and after that con- 
queror had left the iMogul empire in the weak and 
indefenfible ftate to which he had reduced it, the 
Pattans invaded it, on a fuppofition that it was then 
in too low a condition to be able to refill the force 
which he at that time thought was fufficient to bring 
again (I it. 

As foon as the Emperor was apprized of their 
march, he ailembled his council, and fitting on his 
throne, furrounded by his Generals and twenty-two 
principal Omrahs, held in his hand a betel, which, 
according to the cuflom of the country, he offered to 
that chief who fhould immediately engage to take the 
command of the army and repulfe the enemies of 
his country. So univerfaJ was the effeminacy or 
treachery of the courtiers, that not one of them ad- 
vanced to take the betel as a pledge of their fideli- 
ty ; which the young Prince, being then about eigh- 
teen, obferving with extreme concern, prefented 
himlelf to his father, with earned entreaties that he 
might be permitted to receive it. 

His father refufed him, reprefenting to him, that 
it was not proper for the heir of the empire to expofe 
himlelf in fo perilous an enterprize, while there were 
fo manv experienced Generals more fit for that fer- 
vice. On the other hand, the Omrahs all maintain- 
ed, that, as his fon had offered to take the betel, he 
alone ihould put himfeif at the head of the troops ; 
and joining with the Prince in folicitations, prevailed 
at length upon the En.neror, who immediately gave 
his orders for the raifir,^ of three hundred thoufand 

The Omrahs, withdra mg from court, entered 
into a confpiracy, and gainirig, t he Chiefs of the feve- 
ral corps which competed this army, fo haflily af- 
fembled, concerted with them t'; betray the Prince, 

The young hero, being infon nM of the plot that 
was laid againft his life, a little before he gave battle 


1757- AFFAIRS OF DELL I. 189 

to the Pattans, had the addrefs privately to fecure 
the perlbns of thofe treacherous commanders ; he 
then attacked the enemy, and, gaining a compleat 
vidtory, obliged them to quit the country by a preci- 
pitate flight. While the Prince was thus glorioully 
delivering his country from the Pattans, the confpi- 
rators in the capital caufed it to be reported, that he 
was fallen in batde, and, entering the palace, feized on 
the Emperor, and Ibangled him, giving out that he 
had poi Toned himfelf in afit of delpair, occalloned by 
the lofs of the battle and the death of his fon. This 
horrible aflalTmation could not be concealed from the 
Prince, who was now returning in triumph to Delli. 
He was fenfible of the danger that threatened his own 
life from fo formidable a confpiracy, and to avoid it, 
adopted the llratagem which his great grandfather Au- 
renzeb pradifed on another occailon. He appeared 
inconfolabie for the lofs of his tather, pretending to 
believe that he died a natural death : he tore off his 
garments, and took the habit of a Fakeer, declaring 
publickly, that he renounced the world, and that he 
would never more have concern in the government. 
A Court of juftice for a ftate criminal is a thing 
unheard of in thefe lawlefs governments -, and there 
is no way of punifhing a traitor but by turning againit 
him his own arts of treachery and deceit. 

The Prince aded his part fo well, that he deceiv- 
ed the confpirators, who went out to meet him, with 
adurances of their readinefs to acknowledge him for 
their mafter and King. He received them with a 
declaration of his intentions to give up the crown, 
and even to retire from the world. He told them, 
that, as it was neceflary fo vafl an empire Ihould not 
be deftitute of a head, he muft entreat their alliftance 
to dired him in the choice of an emperor, defiring 
that they would aflemble in his palace that evening, 
to deliberate on this important affair. 1 he Omrahs 
retired flattering themfelves that they fhould now 
have an opportunity of fetting up a creature of their 


I90 A F F A I R S OF D E L L I. 1757. 

own; while A met Shaw, for that was the name of 
the young Emperor, entered the royal palace, and 
prepared a number of trufty perfons, whom he 
placed on each fide of the doors of the fever al ave- 
nues which led to his inner court. 

The entrance to the apartments of Eaflern Princes 
is fo difpofed, with a view to prevent the fudden ir- 
ruption of alTaflins, that there is no approaching the 
prefence chamber but through long oblique pallages, 
wherein, at intervals, there are receifes for the polling 
of guards. This contrivance at once fecures the 
monarch from the attempts of the moft determined 
villains; and, at the fame time, affords him an op- 
portunity for executing his purpofes on thofe who have 
incurred his difpleafure. 

Every thing being difpofed for the reception of the 
Omrahs, they were each introduced, as they arrived 
to thefe fatal avenues ; and, as they flooped to 
pais the curtains, which are generally kept lowered, 
they were feized by the guards, and immediately re- 
ceived the juft reward of their crimes. 

Thus the Emperor Amet Shaw eftablilhed him- 
felf, for a while, in the quiet poffeflion of the throne, 
by triumphing at once over his foreign and domef- 
tick enemies. But it was not long before the peace 
of Delli was more fatally diflurbed ; for the Pat tan 
Chief retiring to Lahore, in a little time affembled a 
much more formidable army, and entering Delli, 
gave up the town to be plundered three days by his 
foldiers. In the mean time, he took to himfelf all 
that was to be found in the royal treafury, and re- 
quired of the colledlors of the publick revenues, that 
they fhould be accountable to him for all they had 
received. He then marched home, being fuppofed 
to have taken away more riches, except jewels, than 
Nadir Shaw carried out of the country. He made 
no revolution, and, it is faid, no alteration in the go- 
vernment of Indoftan, and yet he affumed a kind of 
fovereignty over it ; but when he returned to La- 



hore, he drew a line from north to fbuth, afluming 
to himlelf a vaft extent of country to the weft of that 
line, which was before, at leaft nominally, depen- 
dent on the emprie of Indoftan ; there he left his 
fon Timur as Governor of his new dominions, 
and gave no further diflurbance to Indoftan till the 
year 1757. 

Before we enter on the moft important of all the 
military operations on the Coromandel coaft, it may 
be ufeful to take a view of the ftrength of the refpec- 
tive Companies. 

The French had nineteen hundred Europeans on 
the coaft, exclufive of thofe with M. De Bulfy, be- 
fore the arrival of their fquadron in September. This 
fleet brought a reinforcement of one thoufand mili- 
tary, which, added to a number of failors that were 
landed, nearly compleated three thoufand five hundred 
men. The Englilh having no more than one thou- 
fand three hundred of the Company's troops, had en- 
creafed them by enlifting three hundred and thirty- 
four of Colonel Adlercron's regiment, when that 
officer, with his corps, was ordered home ; and as 
the China l"hips brought them only eighty-four fol- 
diers, their whole force amounted to no more than 
one thoufand fix hundred and eighteen men. 

In confideration of this vaft fuperiority on the part 
of the enemy, the Prefedency judged it neceffary to 
lufpend all operations of the field, and keep the 
troops colleded in the feveral garrifons. Confor- 
mably to this plan, they drew the army from Conje- 
veram into Madrafs, ordered back Major Poller, who 
was marched to the northward, to protect Tripety 
againft the threatened attack of NazeabuUa Cawn from 
Nelloure ; and direded Captain Caillaud (who hav- 
ing taken polTeffion of the fort of Madura, was pre- 
paring to march for Tinnevelly) to return to Tri- 
chinopoly with all his Europeans, and as many Se- 
poys as he ftiould think neceflaryj leaving Ifouf 



Cawn, witii the reft of the Sepoys, to piroted Ma- 
dura and Tinnevelly. 

While we continued thus waiting the motions of 
the French, and furprized that they fhou!d remain 
inactive for fo many months after the taking of Chet- 
teput, a fleet of eleven fail, commanded by M. 
D'Ache, appeared off Fort St. David early in the 
morning of the 28th of April : two of them proceed- 
ing to Pondicher), landed M. Lally, while feven an- 
chored in Fort St. David's road, and two farther off 
to the eaftward. The Bridgwater and Triton being 
furrounded in St. David's road, were obliged to run 
afhore, in order to fave their crews and ftor.^s. Next 
morning a large detachment from Pondichery entered 
the bounds of Fort St. David, an:! were to have been 
joined by the troops from the fhips ; but the unex- 
pected appearance of the Englifh fquadron to the 
fouthward at the fame inftant, putting them into con- 
fufion, prevented the difembarkation. 

Admiral Pocock being joined by Commodore Ste- 
vens, who arrived in Madrafs road on the 24th of 
March, with the Elizabeth, Yarmouth, Weymouth, 
and Newcaftle, on the 28th hoifted his flag on board 
the Yarmouth, and, after having put the fquadron 
in the beft condition poffible for the fea, failed on the 
1 7th of April, in order to get to windward of Fort 
St. David, to intercept the French fquadron, which, 
by intelligence, he had reafon to exped. 

His whole force now confifted of the Yarmouth, 
fixty-four guns, five hundred and forty men, Capt. 
John Harrifon ; the Elizabeth, fixty-four guns, four 
hundred and ninety-five men. Commodore Stephens, 
Capt. Kempenfelt his captain ; the Cumberland, fixty- 
fix guns, five hundred and twenty m.en, Capt. Brere- 
ton ; the Weymouth, fixty guns, four hundred and 
twenty men, Captain Nicholas Vincent ; the Tyger, 
fixty guns, four hundred men. Captain Thomas La- 
tham J the Newcafl:le, fifty guns, three hundred and 



fifty rnen, Captain George Legge; and the Salifbury^ 
fifty guns and three hundred men, Captain John 
Somerfet ; with the Queenborough and Protedlor 

The 28th at noon the Admiral made Negapatdni^ 
and the next rriorning, at half an hour paft nine 
o*clock, in running down to St. David's, faw (even. 
["hips in that road getting under fail, and two crui- 
zing in the offing, which, by their not anfwering his 
fignal, he concluded were enenhies, and made the fig- 
tiai for a general chace. They then Hood off fhore 
to the eaftward, tinder top-fails, with the wind at 
Ibuth ; and at noon, being joined by the two (hips 
in the offings and forming the line of battle a-head, 
with the ftar board tacks on board, the Admiral found 
it necellary to make the fignal to form his line alfo ^ 
and when all his fhips came up and got into their fta-^ 
tion, which was a little before three o'clock in the 
afternoonj and nearly within random fhot of the 
enemy, who continued, under their topfails, he bore 
down upon the Zodiaque, on board of which fhip 
M. D'Ache wore a eornette at the mizen-top-maft 
head, keeping a litde ^ head of him^. The French be- 
gan to fire upon him as he approached them ; notwith- 
fianding which^ he forebore to throw out the fignal 
for engaging till he came within half mu(ket fhot of 
the Zodiaque. A little after three, perceiving the 
fhips were not all got near enough to the enemy, the 
Adm.iral made the fignal for a clofer engagement 1 
which, was immediately complied with by the fhips 
in the van. At half an hour paft four, obferving the 
rear of the French line had drawn up pretty clofe to 
the Zodiaque, he made the Cumberland, Newcaftle, 
and Weymouth's fignals to make fail up^ and engage 
elofe. A few minutes after M. D'Ache broke the 
line, and fhot up under the lee quarter of his lecond 
a-head, and then put before the wind : his fecond a- 
llern, who kept on the Yarmouth's quarter moll 

N pait 


part of .the adion, then came up along- fide, gave his 
fire, and bore away •, the two other 'fhips in the rear 
came up in hke manner, and then bore away. The 
Admiral obferving the enemy's van to bear away alio, 
hauled down the fignal for the line, and made the fig- 
nal for a general chafe. At fix, the enemy joined two 
fhips about four miles to leeward, and at the fame 
time hauledtheir wind, and flood to the weftward, 
with the larboard tacks on board. 

The Yarmouth's mads, yards, fails, and rigging, 
as weli as the Elizabeth, .Tyger, and Salifbury, were 
damaged fo as to prevent their keeping up with the 
other fhips that were in tlie rear during the action, 
ana had faffered but iittle. From the condition of 
thefe fhips, and, more efpecially, as the night ap- 
proached, the Admiral thought it necefiary to haul- 
clofe upon a wind, and ftand to the fouth-weft, in 
order, if polfible, to keep to windward of the enemy, 
in hopes of being able to engage them next morn- 
ing if he could be fo fortunate as to prevent their 
weathering him in the night. He ordered the Queen- 
borough a-head to obierve their morions, and continu- 
ed endeavouring to work up after them till fix in 
the morning of the iirft of May -, v/hen finding he 
loft ground confiderably, for the enemy had received 
httle damage in their rigging, became to an anchor 
about three leagues to the northward of Sadrafs, and 
fent an officer to the Chief ol that fettlement for in- 
telligence. From thence he was informed, that the 
Bien aime, of feventy four guns, had received fb much 
damage in the action, that the enemy was obliged to 
run her alhore a little to the fouthward of Alampar- 
vey, where the French fquadron was then at anchor. 
The adtion was about feven leagues weft by north of 
that place. 

Admiral Pocock, in his letter to the Secretary of 
the Admiralty obferved, that Commodore Stevens 
and Capt. Kempenfelt, Capt. Latham, and Capt. So- 
inerfet, who were in the van, and alio his own 



Captain, Capt. Harrifon, and all the officers, and 
men belonging to the Yarmouth, by their endeavours 
to come to an engagement with the enemy and 
their conduct in action, gave him a fenfible fatis- 

It was confefied by feveral French officers, that 
they had fix hundred men killed in the adtion and 
many wounded. Our lofs was only twenty-nine men 
killed and thirty wounded; which difparity can only 
be accounted for by the enemy's endeavouring to 
drfmafl; our fhips, while we fired at their hulls : and 
this will aho account for the dellrudion of the Bien- 
aime, and the eicape of all the reft, who got fafe to 
Pondichery the 5th of May. The French had in the 
engagement eight fhips of the line and a frigate. The 
Zodiaque of feventy-four guns, on board of which 
M. D'Ache, as it has been faid, wore a cornette on 
the mizen-top-maft head : Le Bien-aime, alfo of fe- 
venty-four guns, Le Vengeur, and Le St. Louis of 
fixty four, Le Due d'Orleans and Le Due de Bour- 
gogne of fixty, Le Conde and Le Moras of fifty, and 
Le Sylphide a frigate of thirty-fix guns. After the 
engagement they were joined by the tv/o fhips vvhicli 
had been at Pondichery to Land M. Lally : they were 
Le Compte de Provence of feventy four guns, and 
Le Diligent of twenty-four. 

Admiral Pocock having received one hundred and 
twenty recovered men from the hofpital, and above 
fourfcore La fears from the governor of Madrafs, and 
having filhed his mafhs, and repaired his moft ma- 
terial damages, tried for fome days to work up fhore, 
but without fuccefs. He then put off the land ; and 
on the loth of May ftretched as far to the fbuth- 
ward as the latitude of nine degrees and thirty mi- 
nutes north, by which he hoped to fetch to wind- 
ward of Fort St. David ; but upon flanding in again he 
met with fuch ftrong wefterly winds, and the Cum- 
berland's leak increafed fo as to prevent her keeping 

N 2, the 


the wind, therefore being able to reach no higher 
than Alamparvey, he anchored off that place the 26th 
of May. The ^oth he got up in fight of Pondichery •, 
and the ift of June in the morning the French 
fquadron weighed, and Hood out of the road, confid- 
ing of ten fail. Admiral Pocock being confiderably 
to leeward, expected that they would bear down and 
engage him ; but they kept clofe to the wind, and 
plyed away from him, notwithflanding his endeavours 
to get up with them, which was prevented in a great 
meafure by the Cumberland's bad failing. The fe- 
cond and third day, the current fetting flrongly to 
leeward, our fquadron, not having any land or fea 
winds, loll ground confiderably. The 6th, the Ad- 
miral received a letter from the feledt committee of 
Fort St. George, acquainting him, that St. David's 
furrendered the 2d, and that it was probable Fort St. 
George would foon be invefbed, which would put it 
out of his power to fupply the fleet with water. The 
Admiral finding this reafoning to be juft, returned 
and anchored in Madrafs road, where he fupplied his 
fquadron with water and other neceflaries. 

Having related the whole progrels of the fleet to 
their return to Madrafs, it is now time to fliew by 
what fleps the French became maft:ers of Fort St. 

The 29th of April the French horfe came into the 
bounds of Fort St. David ; and prefently after them 
five hundred men of the regiment of Lorrain, and 
about two hundred of the Company's troops, with a 
number of Sepoys, artillery-men and eight pieces of 
cannon. They cut off and difperfed feveral of our 
Sepoys, and plundered the villages. Their motions 
were To fudden, they very much alarmed the inhabi- 
tants of Fort St. David, fo that many of the Lafcars, 
Sepoys, and moft of the artificers left the place. The 
enemy having fummoned Cuddalore, it was furren- 
dered on the 3d of May, on condition that the garri- 



Ton fhould have liberty to retreat, with their arms, to 
Fort St. David the next morning. 

The enemy having withdrawn almoft every man 
from their garrifons, to make themfelves as ftrong as 
pofTible for thefiege of Fort St. David, formed a very 
confiderable army, amounting to three thoufand five 
hundred Europeans, and began to fire upon the place 
with two guns from Cuddalore the 16th, and with five 
mortars from the new town the 17th. On the 26tli 
they opened a battery of feven guns and five mortars 
to the v/ellward, at the diftance of about eight or nine 
hundred yards ; and on the 30th one to the north, of 
nine guns, and three mortars, at the diftance of feven 
or eight hundred yards, and another to the north-eafl: 
of four guns, at about the fame diftance. 

The befieged had loft the greateft part of their 
black forces by defertion, when they imprudently de- 
fended the out-pofts •, which, confidering the weak- 
nefs of the garrifon, (hould have been abandoned 
and deftroyed, Thofe who remained in the place, 
as well Europeans as others, were little difpofed to 
the obfervance of difcipHne and regularity ; for hav- 
ing too free accefs to the feveral ftorehoufes of arrack 
and other ftrong liquors, they were never in a con- 
dition properly to do their duty. 

The enemy had not yet made any breach, but had 
difmounted and difabled thirty guns and carriages, 
and ruined feveral of the works, fo that many of the 
parapets and platforms were deftroyed by the ftiot 
and (hells. The tanks, or refervoirs, had fuffered by 
the bombardment, fo that there was no water to be 
had fit for ufe, but what came out of the covered 
way ; from which they could only be fupplied by 
night ; and the beft well there was likewife deftroyed 
by a bomb. They were alfo ftiort of ammunition, 
having expended a great deal in firing away incon- 
fiderately, before the enemy had begun to make 
their approaches. 

This being the ftate of the place on the ift of June, 
at the requeft of Major Polier, the Deputy Governor 

N 3 called 

ipS W A R ON THE 1758^ 

called a council of war; and it was- unanimoufly 
agreed to fiirrender upon the following articles of 


By which Alexander Wynch, Efq ; ading Deputy 
Governor, and the Gentlemen of the Council at 
Fort St. David, in behalf of the United Company 
of Merchants of England trading to the Jiafl-ln- 
dies, are willing to iurrender the Fort of St. Da- 
vid to M. Lally, Lieutenant-General in his moft 
Chriftian Majefty's Service, and Commander in 
Chief of the French forces in India. 

I. That all ads of hof 
tility fhall ceafe, until the 
articles of capitulation are 
agreed upon and figned. 

II. That the Deputy Go- 
vernor fhall march, at the 
head of the garrifon, drume 
beating, colours flying, out 
of the barrier into the ad- 
vanced covered way, where 
the garrifon fhall ground 
their arms, and furrender 
themfelves prifonersof war, 
on condition of being im- 
mediately exchanged for an 
equal number of his Moll: 
Chriftian Majefty's fub- 
je(5ts, now prifoners in our 
garrifons on the coaft of 
Coromandel ; and, as ibon 
as the exchange takes place, 
the garrifon to be tranf- 
ported to fuch of our fet- 
tipments as our Frefident 

I. Accorde. 

II. Accorde pour lapar- 
cie des honneurs, mais la 
garnifon fera conduite pri- 
lonnier a Pondichery, ou 
elle reftera jufques a ce 
qi^ielle ibit changee contre 
pareil nombre d'officiers et 
foldats de S. M. T. C. ac- 
mellement au Trichinopo- 
ly, et quand les dits foldats 
de S. M. T. C. feront ar- 
rivez a Pondichery, laditte 
garnifon de Fort St. Da- 
vid, fera conduitte a Ma- 
drafs ou a Devicota a mon 



and Council of Fort St 
George may think proper. 

III. That Fort St. Da- 
vid, and its out-works, 
rhall not be demoliflied -, 
but remain in their pre- 
fent ftate, until the conclu- 
fion of a peace. 

IV. 1 hat ail the garri 
ion, including all the fub 
jct\s of his Bntannick Ma 
jelly, as well civil as mili 
tary, fhall have all thei: 


III. Je ne m engage a 
rien fur cet article c'eil le 
fort de la guerre qui en 
decidera, et non celuy dq 
la paix. 

baggage and efFeds fecu- 
red, with liberty of remov- 
ing and difpofingof them 
as they fhall think proper ; 
and that they be fupplied 
with boats or proper con- 
veyances for that purpole. 

V. That the Deputy Go 
vernor and Council, and 
the Company's fervants be 
exchanged againft anequal 
number of the French Eaft 
India Company's fervants 
made prifoners by Admi- 
ral Watfon at Chanderna- 
gore ; and, until the ex- 
change takes place, that 
they be permitted to go 
on their parole to Fort 
St. George. 

VI. That the fick in the 
hofpital which cannot be 
removed, have liberty tol 
^remain, under the care ofl 


IV. La garnifon, et les 
fujets de fa Majefte Bri- 
tannique n'empcrteront a- 
vec eux que leur vaiifelle, 
chevaux, hardes ou meu- 
bles domiCtliques, et il leur 
fera I'ourni dcs batteaux 
pour les tranfporter a Pon- 
dichery, bien entendu que 
les dits batteaux feront vi- 
fite par un commiflaire de 
nos troupes, en prefence 
d'un commilTaire Anglois 
noramez a cet effet. 

V . Accorde, quoy que 
je n'aye pas lieu d*etre 
content de Mr. Wynch, 
qui a manque a ce qu'il 
me devoit ainfi qu'aux 
regies de la guerre. 

VI. Accorde. 





their own furgeons ; and 
that they be fupplied with 
proper provifions and ne- 
cefTaries on paying for the 

VII. That a Capt. and 
fifty of the Engliili troops 
fhall remain in the Fort, 
to deliver it up, and that 
ilri^ difcipline be obferv- 
ed, that no irregularities 
be committed ; and, after 
the furrender, to take the 
fate of the reft of the gar- 

VIII. That two con> 
milTaries fhall remain, to 
deliver up all the maga- 
zines, ammunition, can- 
non, mortars, and goods, 
and point out to the en- 
gineers all the mines and 
fubterraneous works. 

IX. That no Company's 

VII. Un officier, et dij? 
hommes, fuffiront a cette 
operation parceque je ne 
feray entrer qu'une com- 
paignie de grenadiers dans 
le fort jufques a ce qu'il 
foit evacu6. 

Vill. Accorde. 

IX. Accorde mais ceux 

fervant, civil or military, iqui s'en abfenteront fans 
be removed from the coaft un palTeport de moy, fe- 
of Coromandel, until the:ront traittez comme efpi- 
the exchange (ball takejons. 

Ar. Wvnch. 

p. polier de bot- 


Rich. Fairfield, 

Fort St. David, 
»d June 1758I 




Separate article. 

That thedeferters which 
were in the Englifh fcrvice 
at the time of the cartel 
(ettled between the Go. 
vernors of Fort St. George 
and Pondichery, fhail be 
deemed as prifoners; and 
thofe which have delerted 
fince the preient war, be 
pardoned, and return to 
their colours. 

Ar. Wynch, 


Rich. Fairfield. 

I'ort St. David, 
?d June 1758. 


La garnifon fbrtira a 
cinque hcures apres midy 
par la porte de L'Ouvrage 
a corne ou elle dcpofera 
fes amies et il fera permis 
aux officiers militaires et 
civils, de refter jufques a 
demain dans le fort, la 
compagnie des grenadiers 
de feconde battaillon de 
Lorraine prendra poflefli- 
on de la porte de L'Ou- 
vrage a corne, et de celle 
du fort qui y communique 
et s'y tiendra jufques a 
nouvel ordre. 


The lofs of St, David*s gave a great andjufl alarm 
to the government of Madrafs ; as a much more re- 
foluce and obftinate defence had been expeded, frorrj 
the known bravery of Major Polier, who command- 
ed the troops there : but it appeared, that very lit- 
tle care or ceconomy was ufed in the management of 
their artillery and ammunition, as one officer only of 
that department was in the place; the men who com- 
pofed the garrifon were drunk and diforderly, and 
fully fenfible of the little difcipline they were under. 

A court of enquiry was ordered at Madrafs, to 
examine and report fads : Lieutenant- colonel Draper, 
the Majors Brereton and Caillaud compofed this 

court. They reported. That Major Polier's 

perfonal behaviour was much to be commended, 
but that he was injudicious in defending two out- 
pofls at fome diftance from the town, as his num- 


201 N AVAL O PER AT IONS. 1758. 

bers were but weak, having only two hundred Eu- 
ropeans and eighty invalids, and about thirty of the 
artillery, whom he could properly call his garrifon ;• 
the Teamen from two frigates which had been run on 
fhore and burnt, made the majority of his troops : 
the black forces deferted in great numbers. How- 
ever, it was judged that the place might have held 
out much longer, and that the terms on which it 
furrendered were (hameful, as the French were not 
mafters even of the outward covered way, had made 
no breach, had a wet ditch to fill up and pafs, before 
the town could pofiibly be alTaulted. The want of 
ammunition and water were urged as the principal 
excufes for its furrender ; and that the powder with 
which all the mines were loaded were fuppofed to be 
fpoiled by the dampnefs. 

Major Polier, to wipe off the difgrace, was from' 
that moment for fighting upon every occafion, whe- 
ther proper or not ; and, like o;her men in fuch fitu- 
ations, ran from one extreme to the other. 

He defired to go a volunteer with Colonel Dra- 
per in the firft fally made during the fiege of Ma- 
drafs, and was mortally wounded. He was a brave 
man, but very hafty, pafllonate, and fufpicious, which 
oftentimes occafioned m-uch uneahnefs both to him- 
felf and every one elfe. He had ferved the company 
on feveral occafions v/ith much reputation and con- 
dudl •, and, it is thonght, the ill opinion he entertain- 
ed of his garrifon was his motive for confenting 
to the giving up of St. David's. 

M Lally's anfwer to the third article of the ca- 
pitulation too plainly implied the inevitable deftruc- 
tion of the fortifications of St. David's. The works 
have fince been blown up, and the whole reduced to 
an heap of ruins. The prejudice and partiality of 
the conquered, hov/ever they may complain, cannot 
jullly condemn a General for an a6t of this nature ; 
for, furely, the deftrudion of an enemy's fortrefs is 
one of the great ends of war. But the ruin of villas, 



and the injury done to many beautiful ftruftiires in 
the neighbouring country, will be a lafcing reproach 
of wanton barbarity to the French. As for the de- 
vafhations they committed in their march from St. 
David's, by plundering and burning the villages they 
paflTed through, they were immediately refented by 
the people of the country. The fufferers on this oc- 
cafion had it in their power to take their revenge, 
and, by cutting off the fupplies of the army, foon re- 
duced them to fuch a ftate that they were almoft ex- 
haufted by famine as they lay before Tanjore. 

On the 25th of July Admiral Pocock failed with 
the fquadron under his command, and ftood to the 
fouthward, along fhore, with the lea and land breezes, 
and anchored on the evening of the 26th off Alam- 
parvey ; and feeing a fnow and feven chelingas near 
the fort, clofe in fnore, fent the boats manned and 
armed, who burnt and funk the chelingas, and brought 
off the fnow ; the chelingas were all empty, and had 
been fenttrom Pondichery with cannon and ordnance 
ftores, which were all landed the day before ; the fnow 
was loaded with firewood for Pondichery. 

The 27th in the evening the fquadron got up with- 
in three leagues of Pondichery road, where the French 
fleet was atanchor, confiding of eight fhips of the line 
and a frigate. Our fleet confifted of only feven lliips, 
being the fame that were engaged in the lail adtion, 
but fome of them now differently commanded ; Cap- 
tain Martin, who had before been left ill at Madrafs, 
now took the command of the Cumberland. Captain 
John Stukley Somerfet was advanced from the Salif- 
bury to the Weymouth, Captain Colville had the 
Newcal^le, and Captain Brereton the Saliibury. Next 
morning, about ten o'clock, the enemy got under fail, 
and ftood to the fouthward with the land breeze. Ad- 
miral Pocock made the fignal to chafe, in hopes of 
being able to get up with, or weather them if polfible, 
that being the moft probable means of bringing them 
to adion ; but they kept to windward, and the next 



morning anchored to the (buthward of Porto Novo. 
They then weighed and ftood to windward with the 
land breeze, and about eight o'clock were out of fight. 
At four o'clock m the afternoon, the Admiral difcover- 
ing a fhip in the fouth-eaft quarter, gave chafe ; at 
five fhe hoifted French colours, and ftood for the land ; 
he (oon after run her on fhore about two leagues 
to the northward of Porto Novo, and fent the boats 
on board to endeavour to get her off, but finding it 
impracfticable without lofmg too much time, fet her 
on fire. She proved to be the Reflitution, bound to 
Pondichery from Carical, where fhe had been fent with 
ordnance florcs and other materials for M. Lally's ar- 
my. This fhip had been fent from Bengal lafl Octo- 
ber with French priibners, who mutinied, and taking 
the command of the (hip from the mailer, carried 
her to MafTulipatam, from whence fhe was fent to 
Pondichery •, where the Governor and Council, con- 
trary to the law of nations, made a prize of her. 

On the ifl of Auguft, at ten o'clock in the fore- 
noon, the Admiral came in fight of the French fqua- 
dron, as they were getting under fail off Tranquebar, 
and foon after they formed the line of battle a-head, 
with the ftarboard tacks on board, and feemed to 
edge down towards him ; but when he made fail and 
ftood for them, they hauled upon a wind till one 
o'clock, when they formed the line of battle a-breafl, 
and bore down upon him with an eafy fail. At half 
an hour paft one he made the fignal, and formed the 
line of battle a-head with the ftarboard tacks on board, 
and flood to the eaflward under his topfails, fbme- 
times the main-topfails fquare, as the fhips flations re- 
quired in the line, waiting for the enemy. At five the 
enemy's van was abreafl of our center, at about two 
miles diflance ; they ftood on till their van was a- 
breaft of ours, and kept about the fame diffance till 
half an hour paft fix, when they hoifted their topfails, 
fet their courfes, hauled clofe upon a wind, and ftood 



to the foiith eaft. The Admiral then made the fignal 
for our van to fill and (land on, and make fail to the 
fouthward, keeping in aline till twelve o'clock ; and 
judging by the enemy's fignal guns that they had tack- 
ed, made the fignal to wear, and flood to the weft- 
ward after them, but at daylight faw nothing ot 

In the evening he defcried four fhips in (hore to the 
north-weft, on the ^d at five in the morning, faw the 
enemy off Negapatam, about a league to windward, 
formed in the line of battle a-head with their ftar- 
board tacks on board. He made the fignal and form- 
ed his line a-head, with the ftarboard tacks on board, 
and ftood to the fouthward with an eafy fail. At fe- 
ven o'clock, obferving the enemy kept their wind, he 
made the fignal for making more fail, in order to get 
to windward, for that was the only probable means of 
bringing them fbon to adlion, as they failed better in 
general than our fquadron. At half an hour paft 
eight they began to edge down upon him, and at nine 
were at about three miles diftance. He then made 
the fignal for the Elizabeth and Tyger to change places 
in the line, apprehending the enemy's leading (hip in 
the van might be an over match for the Tyger. At 
ten the enemy bore away, and fteer'd for our rear, by 
which means on the fea breeze fetting in about noon, 
our fquadron got the weather gage of them ; and at 
twenty minutes after the Admiral made the fignal for 
the leading fhip to fteer fix points from the wind, and 
atone o'clock got near, within'random fhotof them ; 
their line being then in the form of a half moon, their 
van and rear being to windward of their center. A- 
bout twenty minutes after, obferving the enemies (hips 
in the van begin to fire on the Elizabeth, who was 
within muflcet (hot of her; the Admiral made the 
fignal for battle, and began the engagement with the 
whole fquadron. Mr. D'Ache, who was then under 
his topfails, in about ten minutes after fet his forefail, 



and kept more away ; his fquadron did the fame, and 
continued a running fight in a very irregular line till 
two o'clock, vvlien the Comte de Provence, the Ene- 
mies leading fliip put before the wind, havingcut away 
her mizen-mart on account of taking fire in the mizen 
top eight minutes after ; the Zodiaque and the fhips a- 
head of her kept more away, and were immediately 
followed by the fhips in the rear, which continued in 
an irregular line a-breaft, and increafed their diftance 
a little from us -, on which Admiral Pocock made the 
fignal for a clofer engagement, in order for his all hne 
to bear down as foon as pollible and rake them, which 
was immediately obeyed -, and we were able to keep 
within gun fhot of them till tliree o'clock, when obler- 
ving they began to make more fail, the x\dmiral 
hauled down the fignal for the line, and clofer engage- 
ment, and made the general fignal to chafe ; on which 
the enemy cut away their boats, and made all the fail 
they could, and ftood about north north weft ; our 
fquadron purfued them widi all the fail thev could croud 
till near dark, when the enemy got ofl'by outfailing 
us, and we were obliged to leave off chafe; and 
at eight o'clock anchored off Carical. 

The damage we received was, chiefly in our mafls 
and rigging, for the enemy's endeavours were (as in 
the former action) to difmaft us. They did not ap- 
pear to have fuffered much in their rigging, but they 
had about five hundred and forty men killed and 
wounded ; among the latter were Mr. D'Ache and 
his Captain, There were no more than one and thir- 
ty Englifh killed, and one hundred and fixteen woun- 
ded. Commodore Stevens received a mufquet ball in 
his fhoulder, Captain Martin a wound in his leg by a 
fpl inter. 

The Admiral had the pleafure, on this occafion, of 
writing to the board of Admiralty, that the behaviour 
of all his oflficers and men was, in this adion, entire- 
ly to his fatisfadion. 



On the 5th the Queenborough intercepted a French 
fnow, named the Ruby, of about one hundred and 
twenty tons. She failed from the iilands the ift of 
July, and was bound to Pondichery, loaded chiefly 
with lliot and medicines. 

The French fquadron continued in Pondichery 
road from the lafi: attion till the 3d of September, 
when they failed and proceeded directly to the iilands. 
Upon advice of their being lailed, the Admiral fent 
the Queenborough off Ceylon ; for as it was very early 
in the feafbn, it was probable they might have been 
gone to cruize thereabouts. She returned the 1 7th 
without feeing them. 

The French were at this time driven tofuch fhifts 
for want of, money, that on the 7th of Aiiguft they 
feized and carried into Pondichery a large Dutch ihip 
from Batavia, bound to Negapatam, and having ta- 
ken for their own ufe all the money, to the amount of 
feven or eight lack of roupees ; they unloaded the 
cargo and detained the fhip. It is faid M. Dupleix 
did the fame lall war. 

The fquadron having embarked Major Caillaud, 
with two hundred and fifty men (from Trichinopoly) 
at Negapatam, landed them at Madrafs the 25th of 
September. They remained there, taking in their 
water and (fores, till the feafon called upon them to 
proceed to Bombay. The Admiral, before his de- 
parture, in confequence of an application from the fe- 
\t£t committee, landed a Captain and Lieutenant, 
with a hundred and three marines, as a farther 
flrength to the garrifon. 

The French had withdrawn their whole garrilbn 
from Sering ham, except a few Sepoys, who were left 
to deliver the place to the Maiflbreans : but Captain 
Caillaud, before his departure from Trichinopoly, had 
made a difpofition for attacking it before the troops ar- 
rived from MaiiTore ; and the French Sepoys, upon 
his approach, abandoning the place, he took polTeffi- 
on of it without any lofs. 


208 WAR ON THE 17S^* 

upon the news of the furrender of F'ort St. David^ 
the troops which garrifoned Arcot, Chengalaput and 
Carangoly, were ordered into Madrafs ; for it was ex- 
pecfted the enemy would attack that place next -, but 
in cafe they Ihould go to the fouthward, and inveft Da- 
vecotah, which proved to be their defign, the Chief 
there had orders to abandon the place, and if the 
the fquadron fhould be near him, to go on board with 
his garrifon, in order to come to Madrafs^ if not, to 
retire to Trichinopoly ; which lall he effected without 
any difficulty, by pailing through the Tanjore coun- 
try. The French took pofTelfion of Davecotah ; and 
fbon after M. Lally croffed the Coleroon with his whole 
army, except feven or eight hundred men, which he 
left with M, Soupire; a part of thefe afterwards were 
fent to the fouthward. M. Lally marched by Tran- 
quebar, and the Danes (upplied him with (ome am- 
munition and fie'id pieces. He then encamped in the 
bounds of Negapatam, and demanded of the Dutch 
a loan of money, and alfo of cannon, ammunition and 
provifions •, but the Dutch denied that they afiifted 
him with any thing, except provifions, of which they 
fent him continual fupplies during the expedition to 
Tanjore. The firlt aft of hoflility committed by the 
French againft the Tanjoreans, was the taking pofleP 
fion of Nagore, their fea port, and felling to Mr. 
Fiflier, Colonel of HufTars in their fervice, for two lack 
and a half of- roupees, all the effeds that were found 
there belonging to the country merchants from all 
parts of India, to the value, as was computed, of' 
twice that fum. 

From Negapatam they marched to Trivalour, a pa^ 
goda, about fifteen miles on the road to Tan)ore ; 
there they eftablifhed a magazine, and from thence 
fent deputies to demand of the King of Tanjore the 
payment of a note forced from him by the French 
army, and Chunda Saib, in the year* i749,for feventy 

• See page 44. 


lack of roupees \ and alfo a free padage through his 
country, for the army to march againil Trichinopoly, 
Captain Caillaud, who commanded in that place, being 
directed by the Prelidency of Madrafs to ufe all his en- 
deavours to prevent the King of Tanjore from being 
frightened into a compliance with thefe demands, had 
the fatisfad\ion to find that the behaviour of the French 
at Nagore had provoked the King's refentment, and 
he had already ordered Monagee with his troops to op- 
pofe the march of the French, One thoufand Sepoys, 
and five hundred CoUeries, were ordered to reinforce 
the Tanjoreans from Trichinopoly ; but as it was not 
'fafe to part with any Europeans from that garrifon, 
MonageCj with his country forces alone, was obliged 
to retreat before fo large a body of regulars. It was 
then to be feared that they would be reduced to the ne- 
cefiity of an accommodation ; but fuch was the opi- 
nion they had formed of the French^ that they chofe 
rather to fland a fiege, than enter into a treaty with 
them, M. Lally, prefuming that the condancy of 
their refolutions might be itaggered by their late re- 
puife, fent an embafiy to Tanjore of two officers and 
a prieft, to demand a pallage for his army, by the 
neareft road to Trichinopoly ; defiring at the fame 
rime the afliftance of his troops. The Kingconfented 
to a pafllige through his country, but not by the road 
which was defired. He alio offered fome money, but 
indeed a very fmall part of the fum demanded. As 
for the afliftance of his troops, he abfolutely refufed 
it. With this anfwer the officers returned to camp, 
leaving behind them the prieft, who fome time after 
afKed a fecond audience -, at which, he not only infill- 
ed on the tu'o former articles, but added to them the 
imm.ediate payment of five lack of roupees. The 
King exprefled great (urpri:;je at the prefumption of 
the piiell, but conlentcd to give four lack ; out of 
which he required Ibme coeducation fliould be made for 
the damage done at Nagore j and as to the other ar- 

O ticks, 

210 W A R ON Trt£ 175! 

tides, he gave the fame anfvver as before. While they 
were treating, the army ftill kept advancing ; which 
juftly increahng the fufpicions of the King, he ordered 
the priefl to be difmifled. At night the advanced 
guard of the French army fired fome (hot againft the 
town, from two pieces of cannon, which of con- 
fequence put an end to all negotiation. 

The French loft everyday fome Europeans, by the 
frequent falliesfrom the town ; at length they brought 
up their who'e force againft it, which amounted to 
two thoufand three hundred and feventy regulars, and 
a great number of difciplined Sepoys. The artillery 
which was already brought up, confi ft ed of fourteen 
field pieces, and three of heavy cannon, and they had 
fourteen more at Trivalour, All this was not lefs yet 
fufficient to dejedt the Tanjoreans. At this very time 
they had fent out a body of horfe, joined with the 
Polygars of the country, to cut off the communication 
of the French with Carical ; and had already dcftrov 
ed fome convoys of provifions. Captain CaiUaud ha- 
ving had the good fortune to keep the King of Tan- 
jore fteady to his true interefts, had alfo prevailed on 
Tondeman to aflift with all his people on this impor- 
tiint occafion. A large body of his Peons entered 
Trichinopoly to reinforce that garrifon, while a con- 
fiderable party adapted for that fervice, were employ- 
ed to harrafs the enemy and intercept their fupplies. 
For thefe, and his former Services, the Governor and 
Council thought proper to reward Captain Caillaud 
with a Major's com million. 

M. Lally finding that he did not advance his affairs 
by hoftilities, and being in great want of provifions, 
and other neceftaries. attempted once more to per- 
fuade the King of his fmcerity, by fending him an offi- 
cer of fome rank and quality, and alio a prieft, who 
were at once appointed to conclude an agreement, and 
to remain as hoftages. By this ftep he prevailed Co 
far, as to receive in hand fifty thouiand roupees, and 
a promife of four Jack, as alfo of a fupply of three 


1^5^. COAST OF COROmAnDEL. citi 

liUndred horfe, and one thouiand Colleries ; and on 
his part he engaged immediately to remove the army 
tfom before the town. M. Lally making no motions 
towards the performance of this part of his agree- 
ment, the King of Tanjore refafed to let the two hoP 
tages return ; and declared they fhould not leave the 
town till the French army broke up frorn before it. 
This produced feveral m.efTages, and, at length, it 
was agreed that the Fving fliould forthwith fend him 
the three hundred horfe and Colleries ; and for his own 
fecmity he might detain the gentlemen till the army 
was moved three days march from the place. The 
advantages of this treaty were all overthrown by the 
hally temper of M. Laliy, who feeing only fifty of the 
three hundred horfemen arrive in camp, ordered therd 
all into 'confinement j declaring aloud, that as the 
King had not kept his word in fending the full numbet' 
engaged for, he Would keep thofe he had prifoners till 
he (hould receive the whole'. 

The king upon this confined the two hoftages, and 
Would not lend any more men till his people were re- 
leafed. On the other hand M. Lally, pleating himfelf 
with the tiioughts of his having brought up all his 
heavy cannon, and ereded batteries, while he was 
amufing the king a negotiation, began to fire upoa 
the town, and had even made a confiderable breach;^ 
when the Tanjoreans, determined on a general fally. 
This they executed on the 9th of Auguft, with fur-* 
priling (uccefs : for it will appear furprifing that a 
body of country troops, although their number in 
horle, Sepoys and Colleries was exceeding large, fliould 
tnake any imprefiit)n upon fo ftrong an army of Eu- 
ropeans, and difciplincd Sepoys, as M. Lally had un- 
der his command, fupported by a lafge train of artil- 
lery. They attacked at once the French camp and 
batteries, killed about one hundred Europeans, took 
one gun, one tumbril of ammunition, two elephants, 
and lome horfes ; blew up four tumbrils of ammuni- 
tion, and then returned into the town. 

O a M, Laliy 

212 WAR ON THE 175^- 

M. L.aPy quitting at once all his defigns, retreated 
towardb Carical, leaving his guns fpiked upon the 
batteries. The Tanjoreans did not purlue him till the 
morning, when they came up with him upon his 
march, cut off fifry more of his men, and took two 
pieces of cannon and two mortars. The refl made 
their retreat to Trivalour, and from thence to Cari- 
cal ; and about the end of the month, the greatefl 
part of the troops, and M. Lally himfelf, returned to 
Pondichery. M. Soupire arrived there a few days be- 
fore, after making a march towards VVandewafli, and 
back by the way of Alamiparvey. 

They moved again about the beginning of Oi5\o- 
ber, and took polieffion of, Arcot ; they then return-^ 
ed, and having taken TripaiTore, continued fome 
time at Conjeveram, collecting ammunition and rtores, 
till they were joined by ivj, .3e Bully, with a "body of 
three or four hundred foot and as many horfe, from 
Golconda. Flaving alfo retaken Trinomalav, they 
fhewed by their motions a defign upon Chengalaput -, 
advancing towards that place with three or four hun- 
dred Europeans, five hundred Sepoys, and five pieces 
of cannon ; but were prevented by the arrival of 
four companies of Sepoys, This reinforcement came 
came very opportunely for the prefervation of a poll 
of fo much confequence, as it covered all the coun- 
tries on this fide the Pollar ', and, when in pofiTeliion 
of the enemy, would expole even our own limits to 
incurfion, be a harbour for defeiters from our own 
garrifon, and prevent fupplies of firewood, grain, and 
other provifions, from coming into the town. For 
thefe reafons it was relblved, that the prefent garrifon 
of nine companies of Sepoys, with a ferjeant, corpo- 
ral, and twelve gunners, fhould be reinforced by a 
detachment of feventy Europeans. This was the 
more readily determined, as there would be no ex- 
pence of tranfporting flores, the pay of the Sepoys 
would be no more tliere than at Madrafs, and yet 
their force would be fufficient to refilt any fiidden a(- 
lault. Xhe enemy, 'if they refolved to take the place, 



mufl have been under a necelTity of bringing up their 
whole army, or at leaft a conliderable part of it, ancj 
alfo a train of battering cannon, with proportionable 
fhores: all which would be attended with inch an ex- 
pcnce and lofs of time as they v/ould probably think, 
more than equal to the benefits arifing from the con- 
quefl of the place. The juftnefs of thefe conclufions 
appeared in the end ; for the enemy, influenced by 
the fame reafons, v/aved their defigns upon the place, 
which, it is to be fuppofed, they heartily repented du- 
ring the fiege of Madrafs. Captain Prefton was or- 
dered to take the command of the fort, and to repair 
the works : he foon put it into fuch a ftate as made it 
defenfible againfl a coup de main, and by that means 
ftcured it till fuch time as M. Lally, heard of the arri- 
val of Colonel Draper's regiment on the Malabar coaft, 
and then he haftened every thing for the immediate 
attack of Madrafs. 

Colonel Draper himfelf arrived in feptember, with 
part of his regiment ; and about the middle of Odlo- 
ber it was determined that he fhould march with a 
battalion of our troops as far as Wandelour, while 
Colonel Lawrence took pofh with another at the 
Mount, to be in readinefs to fupport the former. This 
was done to make the enemy cautious of bringing a 
heavy train on this fide of the river ; and by the 
check it gave to their motions, fecured an opportu- 
nity of iupplying the garrifbn of Chengalaput with 
the needful ftores. 

In the mean timelfouf Cawn was ordered to march - 
towards them from Trichinopoly ; and he according- 
ly fet out the 20th of November with two thouland 
well difciplined Sepoys, and two light fieid-pieces. In 
his way he took Ellavanafore. 

The Nabob having recommended to the Governor 
the engaging a party of Marattas, as the mofl effec- 
tual method of preventing the enemy from tranfport- 
ing their artillery by land for the fiege of Fort St. 
George, a propofal was fent to Morarow fo^n after 

O 3 the 

214 WAR ON THE 1755, 

the lofs of St. David's ; with which he compHed, an^ 
engaged to lend his Vakeel to Madrafs to fettle the 
terns. According to their dilatory way of proceed- 
ing the Vakeel did not arrive till October ; it was 
then agreed that Morarow fhould fend two thoufand 
liorfe to our alTifiance ; that five thoufand roupees 
fhould be advanced at Royal Cherow, a place near 
Tripety, for the expence of five hundred hcrfe, 
which were to march upon the firft notice, fo as to 
arrive at Chengalaput in twenty-five days from the 
time the Vakeel iliould leave Madrafs. 

That ten thoufand roupees, for the expence of the 
other fifteen hundred horfe, fhould be paid at Guttee, 
from which place they were to fet oi]t, and arrive at 
Chengalaput in forty- five days from the time the Va- 
keel fhould leave Madrafs i and that ten thoufand 
roupees fhould be paid on the arrival of the faid two 
thoufand horfe at Chengalaput. The twenty-five 
thoufand roupees advanced as above to be deducted 
out of the allowance to the troops of half a roupee 
per day each horfeman, which was to commence 
from the day of their arrival at Chengalaput. 

The Vakeel further defired an allowance might be 
fettled to the Sardars (or Commanders of the troops) 
and alfo for each horfe which fhould be killed in our 
fervice in the time of adion -, and it was accordingly 
agreed that an allowance of thirty roupees per day 
ihould be made for all the Sardars and Jemidars j 
and that for a Sardar's horfe killed in battle one thou- 
fand roupees iTiould be allowed, and four hundred 
roupees for each horfe belonging to the refl of the 

Intelligence being received that M. Lally had been 
reinforced by the daily junction of confiderable par- 
ties, it was thought no longer advifeable to trull a 
part of our force at fo great a diflance as Wande- 
lour ; therefore Colonel Draper was defired to Return 
to the Mount, as foon as he fhould hear that the flores, 
for the protection of which he remained till then in 



thofe parts, were fafely arrived. Colonel Draper ac- 
cordingly moved from Wandelour the iith of No- 
vember, and joined the other battalion at the Mount. 

This place, of which mention has been already 
made, and which will hereafter frequently be fpoken 
of, is an eminence, properly called St. Thomas's 
Mount, from an ancient tradition, that the Apoflle 
St. Thomas had preached the gofpel to the Indians' 
on that fpot. He has always been confidered as the 
tutelar faint of the place, and at this day a Portugueze 
prieft officiates in a chapel dedicated to him, which 
ftands on the top of the mount. It is jullly efteemed 
for the goodnefs of the air, and the pleafantnefs of 
the fituation, on which account a number of villas 
have been built by the gentlemen of Madrafs, with 
gardens all furrounded with brick walls breaft high. 
In this flation, which is about nine miles from Fort St. 
George, the two battalions remained till the 6th of 
December ; when Colonel Lawrence receiving intelli- 
gence of a great augmentation of the enemy's force 
at Wandelour, fent his Aid de Camp to Fort St. 
George, to defire he might be reinforced with as ma- 
ny more men as polTible. Accordingly a party was 
ordered, and marched that afternoon at five o'clock j 
but at the fame time the Governor was defired to 
write to Colonel Lawrence, to remind him that the 
lumofl caution was neceflary at this important crifis ; 
and that it would be too hazardous to venture an ac- 
tion, unlefs upon terms of the higheil advantage. 

Colonel Lawrence having received the Governor's 
letter, and at the fame time hearing the enemy was 
in motion, and confidering the weak ftate of the gar- 
rifon, ordered three companies of infantry to march 
to the little Mount with the two twelve pounders, as 
if to reinforce the party cantoned there •, but at the 
fame time they were direded to march to Madrafs. 
Thefe motions were made the 7th, and now the dan- 
ger of Chengalaput being removed, and that fort 

O 4 having 

2i5 WAR ON THE I75S' 

having received all its fupplies, the reafons for main- 
taining the poft at the Mount no longer (iibfilled : 
tliereiore it was determined to draw the whole force 
r.cater to the garrilbn j and accordingly the enemy 
having advanced within fight of the Mount in the 
afternoon of the 9th, our army reared that evening 
to the Choultry-plain, and there encamped. 

The French army under the command of M. Lair 
ly, encamped at the Mount, and their advanced guard 
took poll at Marmelan. 

The enerny having marched from the Mount, the 
12th in the morning, appeared about day-break upon 
Choultry-plain. Our army after about two hours can* 
nonading, retired into the garrifon, and the enemy 
encamped upon the (\x>t which our troops aban- 
doned, about a mile and a half to the fouthward. At 
the fame time iheir advanced guards took poffelhon of 
the Garden-houfe, and the neighbouring village, in or- 
der to inveft the town. The whole force of the ene- 
my was three thoufand five hundred Europeans, two 
thoufand Sepoys, and as many horfe. 

Nothing of any confequence pafled the next day, 
which was chiefly fpent in reconnoitring-, thisoccafio- 
ned a few lliot to be fired, but without much effeft. 

Three pofts which we held in the Black Tovi^n were 
Reinforced, not with a defign to make an obflinate refift- 
ance, but to retard their progrefs as much as poffible, 
and then retreat towards the Fort in fuch a manner, as 
to run no rifque of being cut of^. 

Early in the morning of the 14th of December, 
M. Lally marched in two columns to attack, and rake 
poiTeffion of the Black Town, whofe large extent 
made it impoffible for our fmall force to difpute it 
witli the enemy ; there had been pofted only two or 
three picquets in fuch parts as were nearclt to Fort 
St. George. Upon M. l^ally's approach, they made 
u hafly retreat towards the Fort, and increafed the ge- 
neral ccnfiulor.. v.hicli at firft v/as but too vilible; 



occafioned by the numbers of black people, women 
and children, who came thronging towards the fort 
tor protedion. It appeared necel'.ary to do fomething 
immediately, to reftore the fpirits of the garrifon ; 
and to convince the enemy that we were not to be 
taken fo ealily as they had been taught to believe. 
Colonel Draper imagining that the mod probable 
means of producing this efFeit might be by making 
a lally, and diflodging the enemy, whilfl they were 
yet unfettled, and perhaps plundering; for indeed 
their apparent contempt of the garrifon, and known 
want of difcipline, feemed to invite to the undertak- 
ing, refolved to offer himfelf to command a party for 
that fervice. He communicated his thoughts to the 
Governor and Colonel Laurence, to whofe fuperior 
authority, and greatjudgment, he paid the utmoft 
deference. They were both of his opinion ; and, ac- 
cording to his requeft, gave him five hundred men 
and two field pieces. At the fame time one hundred 
and fifty men under Major Brereton, marched at 
fome diilance upon Colonel Draper's right flank, to 
obferve Lally's brigade, and prevent their coming up- 
on them from the north part of the Black Town, by 
which they had entered. 

The men marched out of the garrifon with great 
refolution ; and had their regularity and obedience to 
orders been equal to their fpirits, much might have 
been, done ; for the French futfered our people to 
form upon their left flank, miflaking them for Lally's 
brigade. The fire of our artillery loaded with grape, 
foon convinced them of their error -, they immediately 
fell into the greateil confufion, abandoned their can- 
non, and thought of nothing but faving themfelves. 
Had a proper advantage been made of this critical 
moment, the confequence might have been fatal to 
the enemy. Colonel Draper's exhortations to the fol- 
diery, to ceafe firing, and pufh the broken remains of 
the French with fixed bayonets, were quite ineffedu- 
al i though he himfelf advanced forwards to fet them 


2i3 WAR OS THE 1758. 

the example. But as he was followed only by four 
grenadiers, being unfupported, he was obliged to re- 
tire i for of the four brave fellows who went on with 
him, two were killed, the other two dangeroully 

Colonel Draper's march, pofitions, and retreat, 
were as follows. The Colonel proceeded through the 
flreet till he came to where he perceived fome of the 
enemy, and received a fcattering fire, l^o check 
them he left two platoons, and marched on with the 
reft to where he had a fair view of the Lorraine 
regiment and Indian battalions in the flank, for they 
expeded him in another Itreet a little higher up, and 
had pointed four guns in that direction. Our cannon 
began to play brifkly with grape, and with the muf- 
ketry made fuch havock among the enemy, that they 
foon fell into confufion, and ran a-crois the ftreet 
under cover of fome huts. 

Colonel Draper then advanced towards their guns 
(from which they had only fired three fhot) and ex- 
changed a piftol with the officer, who offered to fur- 
render them •, and had there been any men to bring 
them off, they would have been taken : but our troops 
having, like the French, thrown themfelves in among 
fome old walls, and under cover of houfes, gave the 
enemy time to rally ; and confufion became fo vifible 
among our people, that Colonel Draper thought it 
moft prudent to retreat, but unfortunately about 
eighty of his men not paying a due regard to the mo- 
tions of the reft, (which might be owing to the black 
drummers having run away, who fhould have beat 
the retreat,) were fhut up by the enemy in a fquare, 
and taken prifoners. Colonel Draper being joined 
by Major Brereton, continued his retreat with little 
lofs to the Fort, notwithftanding the regiment of 
Lally came from the Armenian church to the little 
bridge, and, with two pieces, fired grape at our 
troops pafling along, but they moflly fell (hort. 



Could regularity and obedience to the officers orders 
hav'e been preterved annong the men in this Tally, it 
might in all probability have prevented the fiege of 
Madrafs, and have ended in the total overthrow of 
]the Lorraine regiment, and the two battalions of In- 
dia ; as it was, they had thirty officers or more killed 
and wounded, and near three hundred men. The 
Count D'Eftfcing, a Brigadier General, was taken 
priloner in the beginning of the a<5\ion. Our lofs was 
Major Polier mortally wound d ; Captain Pafcall fhot 
through the body -, Captain Hume mortally wounded 
and taken ; Captain Lieutenant Bilhock killed ; Lieu- 
tenant Elliot fhot through the body -, Lieutenant 
Smith wounded and taken ; Lieutenant Blair wound- 
ed and taken ; Enfign Cook wounded and taken ; En- 
fign Chafe mortally wounded and taken. Our lofs of 
men was one hundred and three taken, of which 
nineteen were wounded, about fifty were left dead on 
the ipot, and the fame number came in wounded ; fq 
that we llifFered a diminution of more than two hun- 
dred men, and nine officers. 

In the beginning of December Major Caillaud, from 
his known intereft and influence with the country pow- 
ers, was fent with letters from the Prefidency to the 
King of Tanjore, Tondeman, and the other Poly- 
gars in that part of the country, in order to procure 
affiitance from them, with which the Major was to 
join Captain Preflon and Ilbuf Cawn, and take the 
command of that party. 

The danger both from the enemy and the feafon 
were no fmall objedions to this undertaking ; for as it 
was extremely difficult to guard againfl the former, 
the danger of the latter was not lefs to be appre- 
hended, fince it was the very height of the Monfoon ; 
and there was no way of going to the fouthward but 
by fea in an open boat, within reach of many garri- 
fons which the enemy now poiTeiled on the coaft. 
The Prefidency having duly weighed all thefe difficul- 

220 W A R ON TWE 1758- 

ties, were determined at length to hazard them on ac- 
count of the uncertain ftate of affairs at the court of 
Tanjore, and the danger of its iaihng under the ab* 
fblute influence of the French. Major Caillaud was 
therefore ordered to proceed, which he did in the 
manner aforementioned; and having overcome all 
the difficulties which of confequence attended fuch a 
voyage at that feafon, he landed at the Danifh Fort of 
Tranquebar •, from whence as foon as the rains aba> 
ted, which was about the middle of December, he 
reached Tanjore. He found, at his arrival, the face 
of that court ftrangely altered. Monagee, the Prime 
Miniller, and all his adherents had been turned out, 
and a new let placed at the head of affairs. When he 
fpoke to the King, he found him ready to conlent to 
every thing he allied ; but as foon as his back was turn- 
ed, the new council overfet it all, by perfuading theKing 
it was better to wait and fee the event, and then fide 
with "the ftrongeft, according to the policy of eallern 
courts. This did not abfolutely difcourage the Major, 
who perfevered till he was promifed a body of five 
hundred horle, which were to be got ready as foon as 
polfible. While this was in agitation, the Major re- 
ceived the firft advices that the enemy had inverted 
Madrafs, and were in poUeflion of the Black Town. 
The King had alfo received the account ; and as it is 
natural to fiippofe, the example of Fort St. David, 
which had been fo foon given up, ^ and his fears for 
the fate of the only fettlement we had left, created 
pev/ doubts and new delays. Major Caillaud was put 
off from day to day^ but at lafl he carried his point, 
though for no more than three hundred horfe, which 
the company was to pay. He had colleded about 
the dime number of Sepoy f, all chofen men, well 
di!ciplined and acftive, and fo they proved -, for in ele- 
ven days they marched tv/o hundred and fifty miles, 
and got to Chengalaput. There he heard the party 
hz was to coiTimand was at the Mount. Upon this 


1759- COAST OF COR OM AND EL. 221 

intelligence, the Major, leaving his men who were 
too much fatigued to follow hira at that time, took 
frefh horfes, and arrived at the Mount about two in 
the morning. 

Here he foiind that Ifbuf Cawn, (who after feveral 
encounters had ft ill fifteen hundred Sepoys, and two 
thoufand horfe) had been joined by Captain Preilon, 
with part of the garrifon of Chengalaput, confifting 
of about fix hundred Sepoys, fixty E.uropeans, and 
fix three pounders. There were alfo added to this 
party, Captain VaiTerot, with ten of his troopers. 
The occafion of his coming was the immediate ne- 
cellity of fupplying this little army with money, 
which being indifpenfibly urgent, Captain Vaflerot 
offered himfelf to lead ten of his troopers, who fhould 
each carry a bag of a thoufand pagodas to the camp, 
and this he moil gallantly effei5\ed. 

With this body of troops Captain Prefton had fre- 
quently cut off the enemy's fuppties by land, and fur- 
prized one convoy with a number of fpare arms and 
tents for three thoufand men, which he took. He 
kept M. Lally in conftant alarms, by continually mo- 
ving about, but flill keeping fo near hira, as greatly 
to difturb andharrafs him. Captain Preflon had re- 
pulfed feveral detachments from the French array •, 
and, in one aftion, which had been very fevere, had 
the good fortune to difperfe great part of the black 
forces, which obliged the enemy to move off towards 
ArcDt to recruit ; from whence they had returned with 
an augmentation of the country troops three da)s be- 
fore Major Caillaud joined the army. 

Captain Prcfton's adivity, as it merited ,all the 
acknowledgments which were beft:owed on it by the 
garrifon, was in effe(5t, the greateil: interruption to 
the befiegers. At length Mr. Lally, thoroughly fen- 
fible of the check this flying camp could at all times 
give to his defigns, refolved to fend fuch a force againil 
them as would crufh them effedually. He ufed to 


22i W A R OX THE ^1^9'i 

fay they were like the flies, no fooner bent off trom one! 
part, but they came to another. For this purpofe he 
ordered a detachment of fix hundred Europeans, fif- 
teen hundred Sepoys, all his cavalry, (which coniifted 
of near three hundred European dragoons, arid about 
one hundred HulTars, with a thoufand Marattas,) and 
ten pieces of cannon, to attack them. Notice being 
received before day that a large body of the enemy 
were advancing. Major Caillaud prepared to receive 
them, by poffing his troops to the belt advantage. It 
has already been faid, that round the bottom of the 
Mount, many inclofures had been made, and gardens 
laid out, furrounded with brick walls parapet high not 
to intercept the profped. On the Mount, and behind 
thefe garden walls, the Major had made the bell dif- 
pofition he could of his infantry. His cavalry were 
all drawn up on the right, being the bell fpot where 
they could att. As the day broke the enemy appear- 
ed in fight, and the cannonade began Their cavalry 
was inclining very fail to the right, about three hun- 
dred paces from the front of our left. It was molily 
their Europeans whopufhed on that fide, while iheir 
Sepoys endeavoured to occupy all the banks and places; 
on our left, for there they could be under cover. Their 
cavalry made a Hand as loon as they came oppofue to 
ours, to whom orders were immediately lent to 
charge. They readily obeyed, and moved on with a 
good countenance for about one hundred yards ^ but 
finding the enemy were advancing upon them with 
the lame intention, they v.'cre feized with a pannick, 
and fled with the utmoil precipitation. 

The French cavalry who were foremoft, purfued a 
little too eager 1^' a large body that were prefling 
through an interval, which is between the village and 
the fcxjt of the Mount. They v/ere loon ftoppedby 
a difcharge from a party of foot, v;hich had been 
pofted there. Upon this they retreated, not without 



lofs. Things went on a little better on the left. The 
village was well defended, and two or three times 
taken and re-taken, till at length, after three hours 
difpute, It was loft by the rafhnefs of the officer who 
commanded that poft -, who feeing the enemy retreat 
in fome confufion, indifcreetly purfued, not obferving 
a party that was ready to fupport them. This party 
flopped him, and drove him out of the vilbge which 
he never after could recover. 

Thus ftood affairs about ten o'clock in the morning, 
when the enemy, tired of attacking^contented them- 
felves with cannonading us feverely, in hopes, by that 
means, they might diflodge us : but though our peo- 
ple fuffered a good deal, they could not prevail ; there- 
fore about four they made another attack ; but the 
garden walls were fo lined with mufquetry, that it 
quite difpirited them, and they began to think of a 
retreat. At the clofe of the evening they moved off 
their artillery, and foon after their whole body, and 
left us mafters of the field of battle, where we re- 
mained about two hours, which was all the time that 
Mqjor Caiilaud thought proper to ftay, having no am- 
munition itfr for his artillery, and very little for the 
muiquetry : he therefore moved oft in the night to- 
wards Chengalaput, the only place from whence he 
could be fupplied. The lofs of the enemy in this af- 
f-iir was about one hundred and feventy Europeans kil- 
led and wounded, and near fhree hundred Sepoys. 

In the beginning of the fiege, M. Lally, who had 
made very free wif h the Dutch ever fince his arrival in 
the country, was pieafed to gwe them another proof 
of what little refpect he paid to their neutrality, by 
feizing the Fort of Sadrafs, a fettlement of theirs on 
the coaft, equally diftant from Pondichery and Ma- 
drals. Being refolved to make a magazine of this 
place, he turned out the Dutch foldiers and garrifon- 
cd it with French , giving for a realon, that he did it 


224 W A R ON- THE 1750. 

to-prevent our taking it, which he pretended was our 

When it had palled into the hands of our enemy, 
Major Caiilaud tliought proper to lay a plan for fur- 
prizing it, and dilpoled his march fo as to be there 
about four o'clock in the morning. The darkneis of 
the night deceiving the gr.ides, he could not reach Sa- 
drafs, which is twenty miles from Chengalaput till 
lat« next day, which efietlually difappointed his 
Icheme, as he was not llrong enough to attempt it by 
open force. An accident, however, made him 
amends for his difappointment. At night his patroles 
brought him one ul" M. Lally's mellengers, with a let- 
tei" directed to the Governor of Pondichery •, which is 
fb extraordinary,, that it would be unpardonable not 
to infert it with the other occurrences relative to the 
fiege of Fort ot. George ■, efpecially as it is a moft 
authentic proof that the garrifon owed their delive- 
rance to their own bravery andcondud:, and not to the 
arrival of the (hips, fince they did not appear till after 
the writing of this letter. 

Au camp devant Madras le 14 Fevrier. 1759. 

*' II auroit un beau coup a faire ici, il y a un Vaif- 
feau en cette rade de ving". pieces de canon charge de 
toutes les richellesde ?v'.adras et qu'on dit y devoir rel- 
ter jufqu'au vingtiem.e : I'Expedition vient d'arriver 
mais M. Gorlin n'eft point homme a I'attaquer, puis 
qu*il I'a deja fait fuir une fois. LeBriflol d'un autre 
cote a peine a paru a St. Thome que fur la nouvelle 
vague des treizi Vaifleaux de Fortonove il a pris I'epou- 
vante et apres avoir debarquee les munitions dont il 
etoit charge, il n'a feulement pas voulu fe donner le 
tems de reprendre douze pieces de fon canon qu'il nous 
avoit prete pendant le liege-, fi| 'etoit juge du point 
d'honneur des officiers de la compagnie, je le caflerois 
comme un verre, ainfi que quelques autrts : or la 



Fidelle oil ce meme Brifto], avec fes douze canons de 
plus, fufifiroit pour fe rendre maitre du batiment An- 
glois, s'il pouvoit paryenir a gagner le vent fur )uy 
dans robfcu rite de la nuit. Maugendre et Tremillier 
font, dit on, tres bons et ne dullent ils fervir qu'au 
tranfport de deux cens blefses que nous avons ici, le 
fervice feroit d'importance. 

*' Nous fommes toujours dans la meme pofition : 
la breche faite depuis quinze jours, toujours a quinze 
toizes du mur de la place, et jamais ne levant latete 
pour la regarder. Je compte qu'en arrivant a Pondi- 
chery nouschtrcherons tousa apprendre quelqu'autre 
metier, car celuy de la guerre exige trop de pati- 

" De quinze mille Cipayesdont I'armee eft censee 
comp.-'See,j'en compte a peu pres huit cens fur la route 
de Pondichery, charge de fucre et de poivre et autres 
marchandifes, quant aux Coulis, ils font tous em- 
ployes pour le meme objet depuis le jour que nous 
fommes arrive ici. 

" Je prendrai mes mefures des aujourd'huy pour 
embrafer la ville noire et faire fauter la Poudriere, 
vous n'imaginerez jamais que ce font cinquante defer- 
x.<urs Francois et une centaine de Suiffes qui tiennent 
en arret deux milie hommes des troupes du Roy et de 
la Compagnie qui font encore ici exiftant, malgre les 
etats furchargis que chacun fait ici a fa guife de la 
boucherie qu'on en a fait, et vous ferez encore plus 
furprisfije vous difois^ que fans les deux combats et les 
qaatres battailles que nous avons effuye, et fans les 
deux batteries qui ont ete manqueesou faites de travers, 
pour parler plus clairement, nous n'aurions pas perdu 
cinquantes hommes depuis le commencement du fiege, 
jufques aujourd'huy. J'ay ecrit a M. de Larche, s'il 
perfifte a ne point venir ici, tirera de Pargent qui 
voudra des Poleagares, ce ne fera pas moy, etje re- 
nonce, comme je vous en ai deja prevenu il y a plus 
d'un mois, a me meler direcl:ement ni indireclement 
de tout ce qui peut avoir raport a votre adminiftrati- 

P ODi 

225 W A R ON THE 1759' 

on, foit civile foit militaire i I'irai plus tot comman- 
der les Caffres de Madagafcar que de refter dans cette 
Sodome, qu'il neft pas poflible que le feu des Anglois 
ne detruife tot ou tard au defaut de celuy du Ciel. 

I'ay I'honneur d'etre, &c. 

L A L L Y." 

" Je fuis obliger de vous prevenir que Mr. De 
Soupire ayant refuse de prendre le commandement de 
cette armee queje luy ai offert, et auquel il eft auto- 
rise par le double de mes expeditions que la cour luy 
avoit remis, ilfaudra que malgrevous, avec le confeil, 
vous vous en chargiez, Je m'engage feulement a vous 
la ramener foit a Arcatte, Ibit a Sadrafs, envoyez y 
vos ordres, ou portez vous y vous meme pour la Com- 
mander, car je la quite en y arrivant." 

Tranflation of an intercepted letter from M Lally to 
M. de Leyrit. 

From the camp before Madrafs, the 14th 
of February 1759. 

" A good blow might be ftruck here : there is a 
fhip in the road, of twenty guns, laden with all the 
riches of Madrafs, which it is faid will remain there 
till the 20th. The Expedition isjuft arrived, but M. 
Gorlin is not a man to attack her •, for fhe has made 
him run away once before. The Briftol, on the other 
hand, did but juft make her appearance before St. 
Thomas, and on the vague report of thirteen fhips 
coming from Porto Novo, fhe took fright ; and after 
landing the provifions with which (he was laden, (he 
would not ftay long enough, even to take on board 
twelve of her own guns, which fhe had lent us for the 

" If 

1755^. COAST OF CoROMANDEL* 227 

" If I was the judge of the point of honcrir of the 
Company's officers, I would break him like glafs, as 
well as fome others of them. 

*' The Fidelle, or the Harlem, or even the a^ore* 
faid Briftol, with her twelve guns reftored to her, 
would be fufficient to make themfelves maflers of the 
Englifb fhip, if they could manage fo as to get to 
windward of her in the night. Maugendre and Tre-^ 
m.illier are faid to be good men ; and were they em- 
ployed only to tranfport two hundred wounded men, 
that we have here, their lervice would be of impor-* 

" We remain flillin the fame pofition : the breach 
made thefe fifteen days •, all the time within fifteen 
toifes of the wall of the place, and never holding up 
our heads to look at it. 

*' I reckon we fhall, at our arrival at Pond ichery, 
endeavour to learn fome other trade ; for this of war 
requires too much patience, 

" Of fifteen hundred Sepoys which attended our 
army, I reckon near eight hundred are employed upon 
the road to Pondichery, laden with fugar, pepper^ 
and other goods ; and as for the Coulis, they are all 
employed for the fame purpofe, from the firft day we 
came here. 

" I am taking my meafares from this day to fet fire 
to the Black-town, and to blow up the powder-mills. 

*' You will never imagine, that fifty French defer-* 
ters, and one hundred Swifs, are actually flopping the 
progrefs of tv/o thouland men of theKi'ng's and Com- 
pany's troops, Vv'hich are Hill here exifling^ notwith* 
ftandirg the exaggerated accounts that every one ' 
makes here, according to his own fancy, of the 
Daughter that has been made of them ; and you will 
be (till more furprized, if I tell you, that, were ft not 
for the two combats and four battles we Villained, and 
for the batteries which failed, or, to fpeak more pro- 
perly, which were unfkilfully made, we Ihould not 

P z have 

228 W A R ON TH« 1759, 

have loft fifty men, from the commencement of the 

" I have Vi^rote toM. de Larche, that if he perfifts in 
not coming here, let who will raife money upon the Poly- 
gars for me, I will not do it : and I renounce (as I in- 
formed you a month ago I would do) meddling, dire6\!y 
or indiredtly, with any thing whatever that may have 
relation to your adminiftration, whether civil or milita- 
ry. For I had rather go and command the Caffres of 
Madagalcar, than remain in this Sodom ; which it is 
impoflible but the fire of the Englifh muft dellroy, 
fooner or later, even though that from Heaven Ihould 

I have the honour to be, &:c. &c. 

Signed, LALLY. 

P. S. I think it neceffary to apprize you, that, as 
M. de Soupire has refufed to take upon him the com- 
mand of this army, which I have offered to him, and 
which he is impowered to accept, by having received 
from the court a duplicate of my commillion, ycu 
muft of neceflity, together with the council, take it 
upon you. For my part, I undertake only to bring it 
back, either to Arcot or Sadrafs. Send therefore, 
your orders, or come yourfelves to command it ; for 
I fhall quit it upon my arrival there. 

Upon the receipt of this letter, which was imme- 
diately fent to Madrafs, Major Caillaud marched 
back again, to be near the fort, and to be ready for 
what fervice might be required of him. M. Lally 
had not time to execute his intentions of burning the 
Black-town, for on the i6th in the evening, at length 
arrived our long expetled reinforcement : on their firft 
appearance he got ready for his march, and the next 
morning he was near out of fight. He left behind 
him all his heavy cannon, about forty pieces, and a 
large quantity of flores. And thus Madrafs was fav- 
cd, after a fiege.of nine weeks, to the great honour 


1759- COAST ot CO ROMAN DEL. 229 

of all thofe who were concerned in its defence. Co- 
lonel Lawrence, who commanded, had the fatisfadti- 
on to fee all his fervices in the country crowned by a 
moft honourable defence of the capital. His judg- 
ment and experience were nobly fecon^ed by the fpi'^ 
lited conduct and bravery of Colonel Draper and Ma- 
jor Brereton, The Governor, Mr. Pigot, contributed 
alfo greatly to their fuccefs, by his prudent manage- 
ment of the ftores, and the regularity which he en- 
forced : he frequently vifited all the pofls, and was 
very liberal to thofe who diftinguifhed themfelves up^ 
on the works. 

The fum of fifty thoufand roupees had been pro- 
mifed, as an encouragement and reward to the garri- 
fon for their good behaviour, in cafe they fhould, by 
their refiflance, oblige the enemy to raife the fiege. 
Immediately upon the going off of the French the 
money was iffiaed, and two thirds diftributed among 
the Europeans, and one third to the Sepoys and Lai- 

A fiege which occafioned the exertion of fo much 
judgment, ikill, and indefatigable a(5livity, as were 
fhewn by the Governor and military officers, deferves 
to be recorded in the moflcircumftantial manner j ef- 
pecially as the minute operations for the defence of 
the works will be inftrudtive to all who either praftice 
or delight in the art of fortification. It is very fortu- 
nate that a particular detail of all the operations has 
been delivered, in a journal taken upon the fpot by 
the principal engineer : fuch a curiofity muft be the 
more acceptable, as it is certainly rare -, there having 
been few inftances, of late years, of any place which 
has been fo fcrioufly attacked, and fo obflinately and 
fuccefsfully defended. 




O F T H E 

Siege of Fort St. George, 

Begun the 12th of December, 1758. 
Ended the 17th of February, 1759. 

By J. C A L L, Chief Engineer; 

Thurfday, Dec. 14. 1758. 

DURING the fally, the enemy fired feveral 
fhot from fome field-pieces into the fort, but 
did no damage ; they were quiet the remain- 
ing part of the day, and we only fired a few cannon 
on thole places where we imagined they were at work. 
No Europeans, were to be had this day for a working 
party ; but I luckily coUeded a few Cooleys, brick- 
layers, and other artificers, and fet them to make a 
dam in the gut, to (hut up the communication 
between the water in the river and ditch, left the 
enemy fhould cut the dam, which kept up the wa- 
ter two feet or more, and thereby drain fo much off, , 
This was a piece of work on which much depended, 

P 4 and 

5133 J O U R N A L OF THE 175S. 

^nd which, with difficulty, I got finifhed before night. 
I alio fet up a paliifaJoe in an opening under the fouth 
flank of the royal baftion, and removed fome gabi- 
ons, faicines, and other materials, w;:ich were in the 
way on the ramparts. 

Dec. 15.] Several deferters have come in from the 
enemy this day andyefterday ; who all agree in their 
reports, that the enemy lofl many men and officers in 
yefterday's a6tion. The enemy fired not a (hot this 
day from cannon or fmall arms, nor have they been 
perceived any where at work ; though we have many 
inform.ations of their eredina; batteries, and fire now 
and then at the fufpedled places. By the enemy's re- 
connoitring and fiaia? ion, itfeemsasif they intended 
to attack the north front by the north-eaft angle ; I 
therefore confidered what was moil necclTary to be 
done to oppofe them, and reiolved to co,mi^.leat the 
blind which I intended before the old north-eall baftion, 
and to erect a faicine battery on the glacis, before the 
fhoulder of the eafl: lace of the north-eaft baftion ; 
which battery is to reach quite down to the furf, and in- 
tended to fvveep under the bank of the glacis, which 
had been cut down by the fea, and afforded good cover 
for an enemy. It was alfo determined to fet up a pal- 
lifadoe before the fea gate, and to dole up with ftones 
the fmall gate on each fide the large one A Captain, 
two fubaherns, and one hundred men, belides all the 
blacks I could colled, wereoidered on the above fer- 
vices, with MefT. Leigh, Eifer, and Stevenfon, engi- 

16.] A party of forty volunteers, and forty Se- 
poys, were this night ordered out, about eleven 
o'clock, to give the enemy an alert, and, ifpofTible, 
nail up fome pieces of cannon which it was faid were 
in the Black-town -, but they had not proceeded much 
be"jnd the glacis, before the enemy's advanced ccn- 
tinels gave their fire, and alarmed their whole force ; 
lo that our party, on hearing the drum beat to arms, 



retired. A party of one hundred foldiers, and fixty- 
five Sepoys, were this morning paraded for working, 
and dillributed chiefly to the woiks mentioned yefter- 
day, which were nearly finiflied by night ; and the 
pallifadoe round the fea gate Viranda entirely com- 
pleated. Fafcines were alfo laid round, to form a pa- 
rapet on that part of the lea gate battery which had 
none ; and fome fand bags laid for the fame purpofe 
in part of the barbet battery towards the fea : earth 
was alfo laid on the arch over the magazine under the 
old weft: curtain, and over part of the hofpital ad- 
joining _ ) 

Dec. 17.] Laft night, about eight o'clock, the ene* 
my gave an alarm, by a few men coming near the gla- 
cis and giving their fire : nothing remarkable happen- 
ed afterwards. This day one hundred men, two Ser- 
jeants and one corporal, were on a working party, but 
the weather being very rainy, little was done ; they, 
and about two hundred blacks, were chiefly employ- 
ed on the two batteries mentioned the 15th, to the 
north-eaft, in thickening the parapets of the old north- 
eaft baftion, compleating the barbet battery with fand- 
bags, laying earth on the hofpital arches, fixing a pal- 
lifadoe to clofe the communication from the covered 
way on each fide to the north ravelin, and repairing 
fome cheeks of the embrafures on the demi-baflion, 
befides other trifling repairs. The enemy was not for 
certain perceived to be any where at work, though 
fingle guns fby way of fecurity in the night, I fup- 
pofe) were perceived in fome of the ftreets. Very 
few fhot were fired by us, and fewer fhells, during 
diis day. Several deferters came in lafl: night and this 
evening; from whom we learnt the enemy had fome 
mortars arrived at St. Thome. The Governor this 
day gave it out publickly, that he would diftribute fifty 
thoufand roupees among the garrifon five days af- 
ter the fiege was raifed, or the French beat off. 


234 JOURNAL OF THt 1758. 

Dec. 18J This morning it was perceived that the 
enemy had thrown up a bieaft-work from the houfes 
on the beach near the Old-town, to the lea fide ; but 
whether intended for a battery, or to prevent any at- 
tempt of ours on their flank, cannot be faid, though 
I believe the latter j becaufe the trench from whence 
the faad has been taken is on the fide of the enemy, 
contrary to the method of making batteries -, fome- 
thing of the fame kind was perceived in the ftrcets 
next the fea, but no guns or mortars have yet been 
.fired, or appeared ready for that purp('{e On our 
fide, a very fevv Ihot or (lie Us were thrown. The 
gentlemen of the fquadron, and marines, who had been 
on board a Dutch fnow the i 2th, with an intent to go 
and take the French fhip which is coming up with their 
.ftores, were this morning landed, being very unwil- 
Jing to undertake the expedition •, and having been 
detained by bad weather fo long in the road, that it 
was fuppofed they were difcovered. Captain Jafper, 
who was to have commanded them, appeared much 
chagrined at his difappointment ^ and indeed with rea- 
iba, for had he lucceeded (and I think he had great 
reaibn to expect fuccefs) nothing could have done us 
more fervice, or the enemy greater prejudice. A great 
many people were perceived to day moving from the 
Mount towards the Black-town, which we apprehend- 
ed were bringing up the enemy's llores. It is very 
remarkable, that thirty-three deferters have come in 
from the enemy hnce their arrival, and not one man 
has deferted irom the garrifon, or been feen in li- 

A Peon came in and informed us, that Cap- 
tain Prcilon had fent out a party, under Lieute- 
nant Airy, from Chengalaput, which had intercepted 
a convoy of th'e enemies (lores, confi'ling of tents 
furHcient for the covering <'f three thoufand men, a 
laige mortar, uhich he f[:iked up, and burnt the bed ; 
two guns, which he alfo Ipiked, and burnt the car- 
riages i 

;■ 5 


riac^es; and fome ammunition, which he carried off, 
uidi all the bullocks. No deferters lad night ; which 
i6 owing, I luppofe, to fome extraordinary care or or- 
ders of iM. Laily's, The working party was this day 
about one hundred men, without officers -, they, and 
the black artificers, were chiefly employed in fixing a 
palliiadoe before the new battery by the Tea fide : 
opening another embrafure in that battery ; cutting 
down the high bank which the furf had made by 
wafhing away the glacis ; thickening the parapets of 
the old north-eafl ballion ; repairing the embrafures 
with palmeiras, which had been blown away by our 
own guns-, laying earth on the hofpital ; fixing a palli- 
fadce on the gorge of the north ravelin, and repairing 
a dam which had been made in the gut to the 
north-weft to keep the water in the ditch ; but the wa- 
ter had rofe fo high by the lad four day's rain, that 
half the dam was deflroyed, and the water confider- 
ably funk. 

Dec. 1 9.] This morning we perceived that the enemy 
had thrown up another breaft-work, about fixty feet 
in length, and one hundred yards, or more, advanced 
before that thrown up the preceding night •, both thefe 
retrenchments terminate on the furf, the latter at the 
diftance of about five hundred yards from the north- 
eaft faliant angle of the covered way, and feem ra- 
ther intended to cover a guard ported there to 
prevent a furprize, or defertion, than for any annoy- 
ance to the fort ; however, from the proceeding of 
the enemy it appears as if they intended to advance 
along the beach, and attack the demi and north-eaft 
baftions ; it is therefore refolved that platforms fhould 
be raifed in the covered way, fufficiently high for field- 
pieces, on covered way carriages, to fire over the pa- 
rapet. It is further refolved to raife a parapet of 
the demi baflion, near the faliant angle, two or three 
feet higher than the relt, and to ered a traverfe on 
the eaft wing, to prevent an enfilade ; to raife the 


2^5 JOURNAL OF THE 1758. 

blind before the north call baflion, Co high as will 
Jul admit the guns to fire over it at the enemy's 
works ; that the palTage between the upper and lower 
flank of the demi-ballion fhould be cloied in the fe- 
cureft manner ; and that the north ravelin fhould be 
put in the beli condition of defence we might have 
time or workmen to do. The working party, of 
about one hundred men, with fuch Cooleys, Pallan- 
keen boys and others, as I could colledt, were fet 
about the ffveral articles above mentioned. The 
firiiig on our fide was little to-day, except from wail 
pieces j and not even a mufket Ibot came from the 
enemy, tive Chelingas were feen this morning go- 
ing out of St. Thome bar, and failed to the fouthward, 
as we apprehended for floics. 

Dec. 20.J Lall night the fubaltern on duty in the 
north eaft angle of the covered way, with twenty-one 
men and fome Sepoys, was ordered to fally on the re- 
trenchment and v/orks, which we fuppofed the enemy 
was carrying on ; but it being rather too light they were 
difcovered, and the Sepoys taking a pannick at a party 
of fix horfe which appeared, ran away, which intimi- 
dated the Europeans, and they, after giving their fire, 
retreated alfo. We had one European killed and two 
dangeroully wounded : the Sepoys fuffered in the fame 
manner. The Commandant of Sepoys, Jemaul Saib, 
being defirous of attacking St. Thome laft night, 
was fent out with ten companies of Sepoys ; but tak- 
ing the dirc(ft road over the Long-bridge, he was dif- 
covered by a few French Sepoys, at Mr. Powney's 
houfe, who gave him their fire; upon which mofl of 
his people threw down their arms, which induced him 
to return. The enemy, we could perceive this morn- 
ing, had been at work lafl night, and to appearance, 
had drawn about fifty yards of a parallel weftward 
from their mofl advanced breafl-work. They alfo 
had got a gun behind their firfl bread-work, and 


1758* SIEGE OF FORT St. GEORGE. 237 

from thence fired feveral (hot at the fnow \ YaAi '^y 
in the road under dutch colours : the (hot mofUy fell 
fhort, one or two entered a ;d killed a Lafcar ; the 
velTel therefore w.=3iu!;hed and f!;ood a little farther >'fF, 
as well to avoid any annoyance from thence, as to pre- 
vent a fur prize. A boat appearing off St. Thome, 
a party of marines was fent in three moiiulas to ft^tch 
her in, which thev effected, and found her to be a 
boat going from Sadrafs to Pulliacat. The working 
party was this day one hundred men, and employed 
as yefterday, except on the old north-eaft baftion, 
the parapets of which were (inillied. This afternoon 
the artillery ferjeant on the north-eaft balfion, intend- 
ing to fire a difcharge of grape at fome of the ene- 
my which appeared at their breaft-works, unfortu- 
nately fome fcattering (hot fell into the covered way, 
and miferably wounded three Cooleys who were rolling 
gabions upon the work there carrying on. 

Dec. 2 1 .] Laft night we (ired fhot or (hells every eight 
or ten minutes, on the place where we fufpeded the e- 
nemy would work, and by that means prevented them 
from doing any thing more than throwing up an im- 
perfedt communication from the firft to the fecond 
breaft-work. Advice being brought in laft night, 
that the enemy had two guns at Trivelcane, and vf,- 
ry few troops at St. Thome ; about ten o'clock in 
the morning near one thoufand Sepoys, with twenty 
Europeans, commanded by Town-Major Bannatyne 
and Enfign Crawley, went along the beach to the 
fouthward, crolTed the bar, and marched through the 
village beyond the Governor's gardens, where they 
furprized two or three fmall Sepoy guards, intei* 
cepted fome letters, took a trooper's horfe and arms, 
and one foldier prifoner ; but on advancing down 
the road towards Mr. Turing's Houfe, they perceived 
a body of Europeans and blacks which they were not 
a match for, and therefore returned by the way they 


238 JOURNAL OP THE 1758. 

went. From the fort-houle we perceived, in the mean 
time, two guns perhaps eighteen or twenty-four 
pounders, the one drawn by bullocks, fifteen or eigh- 
teen yoke, and the other by bullocks and Coolcys, 
palhng from Chindadree pagoda acrofs the plain to- 
wards the Potters village ; but being near enough for 
our great guns to reach them, fome fhot were imme- 
diately fired from the Nabob's baftion, and Law- 
rence's, which loon made the Cooleys and bullocks 
halt, and one of the guns finking almoft to the axle- 
tree at the fame time, it was propofcd to fend a party 
of three hundred Sepoys, with a promife of a great 
reward, to nail up the cannon ; they were according- 
ly fent out at the weftern gate, on the fight of which, 
and our firing, the bullocks were caft off from the 
guns, and the Cooleys ran away, leaving the guns a- 
lone. Our firing, and the motions of the fcepoys, 
alarmed the enemy in the Black-town, fo that about 
two hundred European horie were fent in all hade to- 
wards the guns, and their foot marched to the weft 
fide of the Black-town to fupport them ; this we per- 
ceived, and fearing the Sepoys might be cut to 
pieces, fent orders for them not to advance beyond 
the little bridge leading from the ifland to Egmore. 
The enemy, by thefe motions, were entirely alarmed, 
and we had an opportunity of firing many fhot at 
their horfe and foot, but the execution was uncertain. 
About four or five in the evening more Cooleys and 
bullocks were fent to fetch their guns, and, in fpite 
of our fire carried them off towards Mr. Turner's 
garden -houfe ; where, I believe they were left for 
that night. The working party the fame number, 
and employ, as ycllerday. Mr. Lally, by a letter 
to Count D'Eftaing yellerday, complained that Ifouf 
Cawn was committing areat devaftations to the fouth- 
ward, near Pondichery ■, and that he iTiould in con- 
fequence, be obliged to make reprifals round Ma- 


1758. SIEGE OF FORT St. GEORGE. 239 

drafs. As to that, he cannot well depopulate the 
county more than he has ; for, though he may be 
obliged to rrtreat, it will be long e'er iVliidrafs re- 
covers its inhabitants, aid uetomts a place of 

The Nabob and his family were laft night fent on 
board the fnow in the road, with Mr. Norris, a coun- 
fellor, and fai'ed this mp)rning for Negapatam, where 
it is propofed the Nabob fhall land, and proceed to 
Trichinopoly, from whence he may have an oppor- 
tunity of ditturbing the enemy. 

Dec. 22.] Laft night the fire of fhot and fhells on the 
enemy was as the preceding nights; the working 
party was one hundred men, and employed, in ge- 
neral, as before, except thofe on the demi bafcion, 
where the traverfe being finifhed, they were fet to 
repair fome part of the face and front of two mer- 
lons, which had fallen down in the late rains. 

23] The cannon or mortars fired laft night every 
ten minutes on the enemy, in order to difturb their 
workmen, who by morning had deepened and length- 
ened their parallel a few feet ; they had aho been at 
work on their line of communication betw een Mutali 
Pettah and Peda Naigues ; but had not finilhed either 
that, or the work they had been on eliewhere. About 
eight or nine in the morning a fail appeared to the 
northward, and anchored about eleven o'clock ; fhe 
faluted with nine guns, which we anfwered with nine 
fhot into the Black-town. This fhip was the Thames, 
from Vizagapatam in four days ; and brings us ad- 
vice of Colonel Forde having given the Marquis de 
Conflans, and the French forces under him, an entire 
defeat ; the further particulars of which muft be de- 
ferred till the letters are landed, the wind blew fo 
frefh, and the furf ran fo high, that no boat could get 
off. However, that the enemy might not wait fo 
long, we had all the troops in the covered way, and 


240 JOURNAL OF THE 1758. 

gave them a Feu de Joye from our mufketry, and 
three times Ctven twenty-four pounders >vith Ihot into 
the Black-town. The working party confifted of one 
hundred men, and were employed on the blind be- 
fore the old north -eall baftion^ and on raifing the fa- 
ces of the royal to the diftance of forty feet on each 
fide the faliant angle, to prevent the eifedl of (hot en 
ricochet ; for which purpofe the firft embrafures on 
each fide were clofed. The black artificers and Coo- 
leys were employed on the north lunette, raifing the 
parapets, lining the embrafures with Palmeira trees, 
and clofing the communication with the covered way 
by a traverfe an each fide. 

Dec. 24 ] The wind blowing very hard laft night, it 
was apprehended the Thames, which had only one an- 
chor and cable, and drove, would have been obliged 
to quit the road, however, fhe rode it out •, but on 
feeing the veflel to the northward weigh, and ftand 
towards the road, fhe weighed alfo, and ftretched off 
tofea; in the afternoon fhe attempted to fetch in 
again, but by the evening washout of fight to the 
fouthward. The French veflfel came oppofite the 
north end of the Black-town and anchored. The 
fire of fhot and (hells lad night, on fiich places as the 
enemy was fufpecfted to be working at, was (bmewhat 
more frequent than the preceding evening: and, 
by what we could difcover, they had only enlarged 
their parallel a little, and placed a few timbers within 
to keep up the earth. The working party was about 
one hundred men, and was employed on the blind 
before the old north-eaft baftion, and in raifing the 
parapets of the royal baftion. The blacks, in facing 
the embrafures of the northern works, and finifliing 
the traverfes of the north ravelin. This evening a 
foldier was executed for attempting or threatening to 
Ihoot his ferjeant. Finding that the foldiers on the 
working parties were fomewhat unruly, the Governor 
gave out immediate orders, that all people fo em- 

1758. SIEGE OF FORT St. GEORGE. 241 

ployed fnould ftridly obey my own, or afliftant's or- 
I ders i and, in cafe of negled, be feverely punifhed. 
Mr. Catsford, a Company's fervant, was appointed 
a pra'ititioner, and to rank as Enfign. 

Dec. 25.] The fire from our cannon and mortars was 
kept up laft night as in the preceding. The enemy, 
as far as we could perceive, had done very little work, 
and that only in deepening and thickening their pa- 
rallel. Our working party was one hundred men, 
befides fome few Lalcars, about thirty Coolces, and 
fifty or fixty Sepoys : they were in general employed 
as yefterday, except in removing the fafcine parapet 
on the fea gate redoubt, and making another of ga- 
bions. The traverfes of the north lunette were this 
day finifhed, and the platforms of the demi baftion 
were lengthened eight feet with fleepers and plank. 
The Governor, Colonel Lawrence, and the principal 
officers having aflembled this evening, and confidered 
fome intelligence they had received of the enemy's 
erecting batteries, agreed that the moft neceflary 
work at prefent was finiChing the traverfes on the 
royal baftion, and then clofing the opening between 
the north-well curtain and the blind before the Mint 
fally-port ; alfo ereding a traverfe in the covered 
way, before the north face of the royal baftion. Laft 
night, as a Corporal was patroling on the glacis to the 
northward, a Sepoy fired at him, and ftiot him dead. 
In the forenoon a iloop appeared to the northward, 
ftanding this way ; but the French ftiip hoifting her 
colours when the floop came a-breaft, and firing two 
guns, the floop anchored, and foon after ftood in un- 
der the fhips's ftern ; fhe had white colours, but ap- 
peared to be a Moors floop. 

26.] The fire of our artillery and mortars was laft 
night pretty fmart, and v/e could not perceive that the 
enemy had done any thing on the north-eaft ; on the 
weft, in the ftreet near the old hofpital, we perceived 
they had placed fome green gabions, and made a 

.0^ work ; 


work -, but it appeared to be rather a retrenchment 
a-crofs the ftreet than a battery. The working par- 
ty was one hundred foldicrs and about three hun- 
dred Sepoys, who, with the Lafcars and Cooleys, 
were employed on the works determined on yefter- 
day, and on thofe in hand before. 

Dt'C. 27.] Lad night a pretty brifk fire was made 
from the cannon and morrars on the north front, on 
fuch places as it was imagined the enemy were at 
work in. The working party was one hundred Euro- 
peans and tsvo hundred and fifty Sepoys, employed 
as vefterdav. 

28.] Jn the morning we difcovered that they had 
thrown up fome earth among the ruins of the houfe* 
a little to the north of the old hofpital, and that 
they had thickened and heightened their work to the 
north fo much, that it had more the appearance of 
a battery than a parallel. The working party, of 
one hundred Europeans and three hundred Sepoys, 
^ was employed on the works already mentioned. 

29.] The fire of (hot and fhells, to the north and 
weft, was pretty brilk in the night ; however the 
enemy had been hard at work, for in the morning 
we perceived they had formed a ftout parapet to the 
weftvvard, and, to appearance, had three embrafures 
in it, though they were not opened ; the intent 
feems to be to fire on St. George*s lunette, the bridge 
of communication to it, and on the bridge leading 
to the ifland. Their work to the northward ap- 
peared now very plainly to be intended for a batte- 
ry, in which 1 oW'erved five rows of pickets, placed 
at equal dirtances as centers of embrafures, and by 
the length of the work there might be room for four 
more ; the diredion feems to be againft the north 
face of the old north -eail baltion, and the north 
face of the demi ballion. About ten in the morn- 
ing we perceived a red flag on the Mount, inftead 
©f the vvliite there before j fo that we concluded 


1758. SIEGE OF FORT St. GEORGE. 243 

Captain Prellon had pofTeflion of that pofl. The 
enemy this afternoon appeared to be working on 
their battery to the northward, and feveral pieces of 
timber and plank were feen carrying thither for 
platforms towards the evening -, I alfo difcovered a 
large mortar placed in the communication between 
the two breaft-works firfl begun by the enemy near 
the fea-fide, from which it is to be fuppofed they 
will foon falute us. About fun-fet a deferter came 
in from the enemy's works to the northward. The 
working party of Europeans was one hundred men, 
and about three hundred Sepoys, employed as yef- 

Dec. 30.] The fire of our artillery and mortars was 
laft night pretty brisk, and, 1 believe, prevented the 
enemy from working much ^ for I could not per- 
ceive any great addition to the northern battery. To 
the weft ward I obferved they had thrown up a good 
deal of earth behind fome old walls, which feems to 
be intended as a battery to enfilade the north face of 
the royal baflion, and the covered way before it ; 
but the form is as yet very incompleat. In the 
night a boat came from Sadrafs, and brought fome 
letters of the 1 8th from the French army to Pondi- 
chery, which Captain Prefton had intercepted. From 
thefe we learn, that the enemy loft by our Tally on 
the 14th two hundred and twenty men and thirty of- 
ficers, killed or wounded. In ihort, they acknow- 
ledge themfelves to have been thrown into the great- 
eft confufion, and that they muft have been entirely 
ruined had our party advanced more regularly on 
them, and been fupported by another body to the 
northward. A letter from one of M. Lally's Aid de 
Camps to the council of Pondichery, complains 
much for want of money, and defnes they would 
fupply him with fome, if it be but one hup.dred 
roupees, and that too chearfully ; for their affairs 
were in a fair way, and the conquefl: ol Madrafs 
0^2 certain. 

244 JOURNAL OF THE 1758- 

certain. In the morning we perceived a great fmoke 
a: the Mount, from whence we concluded Captain 
Preilon at.d Ifouf Cawn, with their whole force, 
were there. This was confirmed by an Hircar 
coming in at noon, with advice that there had been 
a skirrnilli, and fome French troopers taken. A 
great number of black troops, horfe and foot, with 
large herds of cattle, were oblerved to come from 
the Mount and St. Thome to Egmore, and two 
guns were lent fcom the Black-town thither. Ano- 
ther dekrter came in this afternoon, and in the 
evening a flag of truce with a letter from M. Lally, 
complaining of our firing at his head quarters, and 
threatening to burn the Black-town in return : but 
of this he had no right to complain, becaufe he is 
the firft General, perhaps, that fixed his head quar- 
ters within point-blank fhot of the fort, and lodged 
a regiment, and his ammunition at the fame place. 
The working party, of one hundred men and three 
hundred Sepoys, employed as before, except on the 
blind before the old north-eaft baftion, which was 
finilhed yeflerday. 

Dec.3 1 .] Laft night, and towards the morning parti- 
cularly, the fire from the cannon and mortars was 
rather fmarter than before. At day-break a large 
body of Sepoys, the firfh company of grenadiers, 
and the troop of horfe, went over the bar to the 
fouthward, and into Trivelcane village, where they 
furprized a Imall guard or two of Sepoys, and inter- 
cepted feveral letters -, from which we learn, that a 
frigate . was arrived from the iflands to Pondichery, 
and had brought about two hundred thoufand dol- 
lars ; but no mention was made of any forces. The 
going out of our Sepoys gave M Lally the alarm, 
io that three or four piquets of Europeans, and 
fome European horfe, with guns, were feen march- 
ing from the Black-town to Egmore. A party of 
forty Europeans and as many Sepoys, in eight boats, 


1759- 'lEGE OF FORT St. GEORGE. 215 

were {ent off in the night to ftretch a chain out to 
the eaftward, left the boats to the louthw ard, which 
had brought the enemy ammunition, fliould flip by 
and land it to the northward. Letters came in, a- 
bout ten o'clock in the evening, from Captain Prel- 
ton, acquamting us, that in the morning the enemy, 
in number about one thoufand, black and white, 
under Colonel Kenelly, had about day -break ad- 
vanced four guns near the Mount, and cannonaded 
him, which our people anfwered fo briskly that the 
Fre'nch retreated ; afterwards they came on with 
two guns, which our people made a pulTi at and 
took, killing fifteen of the French on the fpot, and 
wounding Colonel Kenelly, one Captain, and twen- 
ty five men. 

An artillery man and huffar came in lafl: night. 
In the afternoon a large fhip appeared to the north- 
eaft, and by fun-fet was near eaft of the fort, 
with her hull jull appearing. The French fhip 
hoifted firft Englifli colours, then French, and fired 
two guns ', but the other fhip flood on to the fouth- 
ward, and fhewed fome colours which had a white 
field, perhaps Portuguefe. The enemy's works to 
the northward appeared to have received no additi- 
on this morning, but that to the weftward plainly 
appeared to be defigned for two batteries ; one, in 
which three or four embrafures were formed, ap- 
parently to fire in the north-wefl lunette, and the 
other, of five or fix embrafures, not yet traced, to 
enfilade the face of the royal baflion, and covered 
way before it. The working party confifled of one 
hundred Europeans, about forty Cooleys, thirty 
Lafcars, ten Peons, theMeflry bricklayers, and about 
fixty Sepoys; who were all employed on the feveral 
woiics before-mentioned. 

January i. 1759] Lad night, about ten o'clock, 
came in two deferters, and informed us that Mr. Lally 
propofed to ufher in the nevv year by a bombard- 

0^3 nientj 

246 JOURNAL or the '759. 

ment \ however the night and morning pafTed vvith- 
out any fire but what was on our fide. The enemy 
having made large detachments to oppote Captain 
Prefton and Itbuf Cawn, was the reafon, I fuppofe, 
of their working very little laft night ; for I could 
not perceive in the morning any material alteration 
in their works to the north or weft. Letters laft 
night from Sadrafs inform us, that a Moors veflel, 
from the Nicabars to Porto Novo, brought advice 
of twelve t'.nglifti fhips being at thofe iilands, and 
ready to fail for this place. The fhip which appear- 
ed in the offing was from Macao, had touched at 
Madlilipatam, where a fhip of ours (the Hardwick) 
had prevented her from felling any thing ; fo that 
fhe intends to break bulk at Negapatam, and come 
up the coaft. Ifouf Cawn, we hear, ha lef: the 
Mount, and is gone to Trevambore, about a league 
ibuth of St. Thome ; and the French, apprehen- 
five of that poft, have fent all their black troops 
from Fgmore, and a ftrong body of Europeans to 
fupport them. The working parry was one hun- 
dred Europeans, one hundred Sepoys, and the fame 
Cooleys and Lafcars as mentioned yefterday : they 
were employed as before, except in making traverfes 
before the magazine doors of the Nabob's baftion, 

Jan. 2. J Our fire of artillery and mortars was laft 
night very brisk; but asfoon as the light appt-ared, the 
enemy began to fire from four or five pieces of can- 
non on their wellern battery, and one" mortar; they 
alfo threw twelve inch fhells from four or five large 
mortars plat ed near the weft end of their battery to 
the northward. This early falute furprized us, but 
as we had ten or twelve heavy cannon which bore 
on the enemy's battery to the weftward, two of 
their guns were foon knocked to pieces, and their 
me! Ions fo much damaged that they withdrew their 
guns before eight o'clock. From their mortars they 


i/59^ SIEGE OF FORT St. GEORGE. 247 

threw (hells till pad feven at nighr, commonly four 
in a flight, which were in general aimed at the 
fort-houle, and fo well thrown, that two tell on 
the top and pierced the firft and fecond roof ; ma- 
ny others fell within the fquare, and ruined Ibme of 
the rooms ; other houfes were alfo much damiged : 
but, what is mod remarkable, not one European or 
Sepoy was wounded by fhot or (hell, nor any other 
peribn hurt but a Dubafh and a child or two. By 
letters from Captain Prefton, and alfo by five de- 
ferters which came into us in the evening, we 
learnt, that early in the morning, M. Soupire, Ma- 
jor-general, who commanded at St Thome, had 
maiched a ftrong body and attacked him and Ifuuf 
Cawn, who lay near Trevambore, in three divifi- 
ons ; that the enemy had put our firil divifion in 
(bme diforder, taken their two guns, and fome pri- 
fbners ; but that the broken troops, having joined 
the fecond divifion, fell on the enemy in their turn, 
and put them to flight, killing about fifty Europe- 
ans on the fpot, with two officers, and, if we may 
believe the deferters, the troop of M. Aumont was 
very roughly handled, a troop of hulTars cut to 
pieces, and three companies of grenadiers greatly 
difordered ; our guns and prifbners were retaken. 
It was to favour this attack of M. Soupire that the 
enemy began their fire earlier by fome days than 
they would otherwife have done, to withdraw our 
attention from what palled to the fouthward. We 
had advice to-day that M. La Tour, under pre- 
tence of a vifit in marching from Pondichery this 
way, had feized on * Sadrafs, and put a garrifon 
therein ; and that M, Lally had given orders tor 
the fame fineffe to be pradifed on *" Pouliacat. His 
defign on thefe places was the reafon, we fuppole, 
that, in a paflport granted fome of our ladies, he 

* Both belonging to the Dutch. 

Q 4 excepted 

248 JOURNAL OF THE 1759. 

excepted their going no Pouliacat or Sadrafs ; how- 
ever, three boats, with feveral ladies in them, 
were fent off to Sa irafs without paflpoi ts before 
this news arrived j Co that we fear they will all be 

Jan. 3.] Lad night we threw many fhells, and 
fired many fhot at the enemy's works, but they 
ceafed firing after eight o'clock. In the morning 
we obferved they had clofed up the embrafures of 
their weftern battery, which was much difordered by 
our cannon •, they had alio added fomething in 
height and thickne(s to their northern battery, but 
did not fire from either cannon or mortars. We 
obferved this day about fixty or feventy European 
horfe returning in a ftraggling manner from the 
fouthward towards the Black town, and among 
them thirty or forty led horfes, which we imagine 
loft their riders in the adtion yefterday againil Cap- 
tain Prefton and Ifouf Cawn. The working party 
was one hundred men and about two hundred Se- 
poys, who were employed in finifhing the work a- 
crofs the gut to the northward, in making traverfes 
before the doors of the Nabob's baftion, and a-crofs 
the Itreets leading to the fouth curtain, where the 
guards are in future to parade. 

4.] Our artillery and mortars made a brifk fire 
laft night on the enemy's batteries, but neither fhell 
nor ihot was returned from them i however, in the 
morning I obl'erved they had opened the epaulment 
of their northern battery, and let in fafcines for the 
facing of the embrafures; they alfo had repaired 
part of the weftern battery, where we difcovered 
two guns in the morning; but on our firing a few 
fliot they were withdrawn, and the embrafures 
choaked with fafcines. Yefterday I drew out the 
following inftrudions for my alfiftants, dividing 
them inio two reliefs ; and this morning MefT Leigh 
and Cotsford went on duty, to be relieved by Lieu- 

1759- SIEGE OF FORT St. GEORGE. 249 

tenants Eifer and Stevenfon to-morrow. The work- 
ing party was one hundred men and two hundred 
and fifty Sepoys, employed as yefterday. 

" Thac (he bufmefs dependant on the engineers 
may be conducted with greater regularity and care 
it is ordered, 

*' That Captain-Lieutenant Lee, Engineer in or- 
dinary, and Enhgn Cotsford, practitioner, do at- 
tend on the front attacked, together ; and Lieute- 
nant Eifer, of his Majefty's fixty-fourth regiment, 
engineer extraordinary, and Lieutenant Stevenfon, 
Sub-engineer, do alfo attend the front attacked, to- 
gether i and that thefe four gentlemen do relieve 
each other, two and two, every twenty-four hours, 
at the fame time as the guard is relieved. 

*' That the fenior Engineer on duty, every 
twenty-four hours, do make a report to me if any 
very extraordinary occurrence ha} pens ; that he ac- 
quaint the fenior Engineer who relieves him, with 
fuch obfervations as he has made while on duty, and 
with the nature of the work carrying on •, and alfo 
reports to me, by writing, in general terms, what 
has been executed during his tour of duty. 

" That the fenior Engineer going on duty every 
evening or morning, do attend the parade, and re- 
ceive the working party, which he is to diftribute 
according to the orders he has received •, or, if he 
has none in particular, in fuch a manner as he thinks 
the fervicc may require. 

*' That the fenior Engineer on duty, on appli- 
cation being made to him by any military or artille- 
ry officer, tor the repairing or fecurity of any work, 
do give them all the afliflance he can •, and he is to 
take care that the parapets, embrafures, platforms, 
and the works in general, are kept in the beft con- 
dition poflible. The mafter bricklayer, and mafter 
carpenter, have orders to follow the diredions of 


fi^o JOURNAL OF THE 1759. 

the Engineers on duty, and give all the airiftancc 
they can in their branches.'* 

Jan. 5.] Our artillery and mortars fired pretty 
brifkly laft night on the enemy's batteries, but they 
neither fired (hot nor fhell, in the night or to-day ; 
they were not idle, however, having finifhed the 
facing and almoft opened feven embrafures in their 
northern battery, where I perceived three guns in 
the evening, and in the morning three in the welt 
battery, which were foon mafked or removed. To- 
day I again propofed to the Governor and Colonel 
Lawrence ereding a battery behind the covered 
way in the ialiant place of arms before the demi 
baflion, and had permifiion about fix in the evening, 
and a working party of one hundred frefh men ; 
which I immediately let to work under Lieutenants 
Eifer and Stevenlon. This battery, of at leaft five 
guns, I thought abfolutely neceflary to render our 
fire equal to the enemy's i for their battery of feven 
or eight guns, fronting diredly the face of the old 
north eaft baftion, will fire on the north face of the 
demi obliquely. To oppofe this fire we have only 
three guns on the old north-eall bailion, which bear 
dired ; two in the north ravelin, fire in an oblique 
line ; and three or four from the royal baflion, 
which alfo fire obliquely, and therefore have no 
great chance of ruining the enemy's guns. Now 
the new battery I propofe will be a dired grazing 
fire, and can neither be enfiladed nor beaten down, 
becaufe the glacis is the parapet, and the embrafures 
will be cut through it. The working party was one 
hundred men, befides two hundred Sepoys, em- 
ployed as before. 

6. J Our fire from the cannon and mortars was 
not laft night very brifk. The enemy, in the 
morning, as foon as they could well fee, threw five 
riielis into the town, ^s a fignal for their other bat- 

1759- SIEGE OF FORT St. GEORGE. 251 

teries to begin ; and about feven began to fire from 
fix guns and as many mortars from their north bat- 
tery, and from their weft battery, with three guns 
pointed on Pigot's baftion v and four with an howitz 
firing on the flank of the demy baftion, and enfi- 
lading the covered way before the north tace of 
the royal baftion ; from thefe batteries they continu- 
ed to fire till about five in the evening, and threw 
near one hundred and fifty ftiells, befides ftiot, 
chiefly into and over the town. The damage 
done the works is very trifling ; but the 
houfes in the town, where fhells or ftiot fell, 
have fuffered much. Our fire of artillery and 
mortars was much fuperior to the enemies, and, 
to appearance, greatly difordered their mer- 
lons. We al(b learn by a deferter from the ene- 
my's artillery, that our ftiells dil'mounted one of 
their mortars, and killed three men in the north 
battery. The working party was one hundred men, 
and chiefly employed in forwarding the battery in 
the north-eaft angle : as to Sepoys or blacks, we 
had littk or no work from them. 

Jan. 7.] Laft night the enemy threw but few 
fhells, and we only a ftiot or ftiell now and then. 
About four in the morning we were furprized with 
the arrival of three- boat.*', with a Frenchman in 
each : they were the boats which had been fent the 
third inftant with the ladies to Sadrafs. The French 
having feized that place, alfo feized the boats, and 
loading them with one hundred and fifty ftiot of 
twenty -four pounds, one thoufand empty cartrid- 
ges, fifty fteel caps, fifty barrels of powder, and 
fifteen hundred fand-bags, fent them back with 
a foldier in each, to the Black-town. The boat- 
fellows, towards the morning, being oppofite 
Madrafs, feiz'd the arms of the fleeping foldiers, 
poured water on the locks, then tied the men, and 

landed the boats at our fea gate. 


252 JOURNAL OF THE 1759. 

The enemy's fire was very brilk, till five in the 
eveing, from their cannon and mortars, and then , 
they were filent ; in order, I fuppofe, to repair their 
works. Our woiks, though not much damaged, 
bear, however, a rough afpect, and the demi bafti- 
on, as well as Pigot's, is fluck pretty full of fh ot. 
The fhells the enemy threw have greatly damaged 
thehoufesin the town, but have not hurt many peo- 
ple ; three Europeans only being killed this day. 
Our working party could do nothing in the day ; a 
few indeed attempted to work in the north-eafl: fi- 
liant angle of the covered way ; but the enemy ha- 
ving dilcovered them, fired fobrifKiy, that Lieute- 
nant Stevenlon, who direded them, was knocked 
down by the wind of a fhor, but only flightly hurt 
on the cheek ; Co the party returned. The enemy 
opened a new battery near the burying ground. 

Jan. 8.] As I found the foldiers, iinufed to fuch 
duty, were in general extremely aukward in repair- 
ing the damaged works, I conceived that the fervice 
would be miuch better carried on by appointing a 
Pioneer company, compofed of volunteers drawn 
from the feyeral corps, and to do no other duty but 
repair the works ; fo that by conftandy employing 
the fame people, they might more readily execute 
the fervice they were fet about, I accordingly made 
application, and fucceeded. The company to con - 
fiftoftwo officers, Lieutenant Meyers, and Enfign 
Weft, fix lerjeants, fix corporals, and eighty-eight 
private. Two companies of Sepoys were alfo form- 
ed, with proper officers, on the fame plan. The 
working party was this evening one hundred foldiers 
and as many Sepoys -, employed in repairing the 
embrafures, platforms, and forwarding the battery 
in the covered way before the demi baftion. 

9 J This morning the enerny opened two em- 
brafures more from their battery near the burying- 
ground, and feme earth appeared to be caft up neir 

1759- SIEGE OF F O R T St. G EORG E. 253. 

a little upper room houfe beyond the Pettah bridge. 
Jn the night they threw a good many fhot and (hells 
aft;er eleven o'clock. During the day their fire was 
very brifk from their cannon, tho' but few fhells 
were thrown by them. Ten grenadiers were ported 
in the north-ead angle of the covered way, to fire 
into the enemy's embrafures ; and two twelve-poun- 
ders were fired from the new battery. The work- 
ing party, of one hundred men and one hundred Se- 
poys, with fix artificers, were employed in repair- 
ing the embrafures, platforms, and other damages 
done the leveral works ; alfo in cutting up a da- 
maged flone platform on the old north-eaft baftion, 
and laying one of wood : a blind of twelve feet thick 
and feven feet and a half high, was begun thirty-five 
feet behind the flank of the demi-ballion, to cover 
the people on that work from the enemy's fhot which 
might come in at the embrafures of the flank, or en- 
ricochet over it ; the merlon next the fhoulder was 
rofe for the fame purpofe. In the evening two fail 
appeared to the fouthward, and anchored near St. 
ThomC; with white colours, being both of them 

Jan. I O.J Lafl: night the enemy threw very few 
fhells, and fired not many fhot : on our fide we were 
almoft as filent. The two fhips which appeared to 
the fouthward ffill remain at an anchor near St. 
Thome, and, as far as we can difcover, are French 
fhips from Pondichery. Our working party was lafk 
night one hundred pioneers, andfixty grenadiers, be- 
lides one hundred and fixty Sepoys. They were 
employed in compleating the covered way battery to 
four pieces of cannon, which were mounted before 
morning; in filling bags ot earth at the toot of the 
demi-baftion, and clearing what the enemy had beat 
down; in repairing the parapets of the demi, north- 
eafl, 'ro)al, and Pigot's baftions, and laying two 


254 JOURNAL OF the 1759, 

W(xxlen platforms on the firft baflion, in the room 
of two (lone ones, damaged. In the night the ene- 
my carried on part ot a zig-zag about one hundred 
feci lo;^g, neaily weftward from their northern bat- 
tery, and taking a turn, earned another two hundred 
feet long, back towards the fea fide. They alfo 
drew part of a trench from the little houfe in the 
Pettah towards the bridge ; and repaired their fhat- 
tered merlons with fand bags. 

Jan. 1 1.] Lad night the enemy were almoft wholly 
filent with their artillery and mortars, but were not 
idle with their fhovels j for in the morning we dif- 
covered that they had deepened their zig zags begun 
the preceding night to the northward, and lengthen- 
ed that which ftretched towards the fea almoft to the 
beach : they had alio drawn their trench from the 
houfe, quite to the Pettah bridge, and opened a bat- 
tery of two guns from the kitchen ot the new hof- 
pital, which fired on the north-weft curtain and the 
blind before the mint fa!ly port ; but I fup>pofe were 
intended to plunge into the royal baftion, and bat- 
ter the eaft flank in reverfe. Our working party 
was ninety men of the pioneer company, and fixty 
voluntiers, grenadiers, befides one hundred and fix- 
ty Sepoys employed in repairing the damaged mer- 
lons, and platforms of the north-front ; difmount- 
ing fome dilabled guns, and making tjlinds before 
the doors and windows of the arched hofpital under 
the old weft curtain : alfo in filling fand bags at the 
foot of thedemi baftion, and clearing the eartii beat 
down. This atternoon I examined the works, as to 
their ftate, and obferved that the parapets of the 
north face of the demi-baftion are a good deal fliat- 
tered -, that the brick parapet of the north face of 
the old north-eaft baftion is wholly ruined ; but the 
wall being well covered by the blind of gabions made 
before it, is not much hurt. The weft face of tiie 
royal baftion is but little hurt below the cordon, and 
the right-hand face of Pigot's baftion being built to 

1759- siegeofFORT St. GEORGE. 255. 

a great (lope, the enemy's fire has had no other ef- 
fe(5t than beating the earth to its natural dope, which 
is from the extremity of the berm to the top of the 
parapet. The old curtain wall to the northward is a 
good deal (hattered about the parapets, and mod of 
the pallifadoes of the caponniere broke, by the plun- 
ging fhot from the enemy's weft battery. 

Jan. 12.] The enemy having yefterday brought a 
field piece or two near the bar, and fired a few (hot 
on the people and bullocks which had taken fhelter 
to the Southward of the fort ; and there appearing 
to be a breaft-work and guard of the enemy near the 
fea fide, it was determined to attack that poft early 
this morning > accordingly, as ioon as the moon was 
gone down, the grenadiers of the third battalion un- 
der Captain Campbell, and near one hundred men 
more, with three hundred Sepoys, all under Major 
Brereton, marched by the fea fide to the bar, and 
there received the fire of the enemy's advanced 
poft -, by which we had one of the grenadiers killed, 
and two wounded. Our people, without firing, 
marched on to the Governor's garden-houfe, and in a 
finall lane or ftreet on the fouth fide of it found the 
enemy drawn up with two fmall field-pieces, and 
about fifty men. The enemy fired two difcharges 
of grape on our party within fifty paces ; but the 
gunners being killed they made no other ufe of their 
guns : on the contrary, the piquet broke, and ran 
each his own way. The guns were taken and 
brought in, one officer and fix men were alfo taken 
prifoners, and about ten or fifteen killed or left 
wounded on the fpot. On our fide we had one kil- 
led, one officer (Lieutenant Robifon, of the grena- 
diers) mortally wounded, and nine men. This lit- 
tle affair has doubtlels given our people great fpirits, 
and damped thofe of the enemy. A party, with an 
officer, was alfo fent out in the night at St. George's 
gate, which advanced on ihe bridge leading to the 


gs5 J O U R N A L OF THE 1759. 

Pettah, and fired into the enemy's trench, but could 
not perceive any people at work. About feven in 
the evening a party of the enemy advanced towards 
our north-eafl laliant angle of the covered way, and 
gave a fire thereon. In the night alfo a party of our 
men, with an officer, was fent out to difturb the 
workmen of the enemy's zig-zags to the northward, 
who advanced to their work, fired on and killed their 
centine), and took a ftand or two of arms, without 
any lofs. The fire of the enemy's cannon was pret- 
ty brifk yefterday, but they threw very few fhells, 
and thofe not large. I could not perceive that they 
had done much to their approaches lafl night ; but 
the merlons of their batteries feemed to be tolerably 
well repaired with fand bags. The working party 
was the pioneer company, and about one hundred 
and feventy Sepoys, who were employed in making 
a traverfe on the north face of the demi baftion ; car- 
rying off the earth at the foot of it •, fetching palli- 
fadoes to fet up in the dry ditch before the north 
face, and repairing the damaged platforms and para- 
pets. On the royal baflion old north-eafl, and co- 
vered way battery, the parapet, the platforms and 
embrafures were repaired. 

Jan. 13.] Lafl night about feven o'clock, the ene- 
my advanced pretty near the covered way on the 
north eafl, and gave a fire of mufquetry on our peo- 
ple there at woik. They alfo fired in the night, 
from their approaches, on a fmall party of ours, 
pofled on the faliant angle under cover of a boat, 
and wounded three men. From the covered way 
and north lunette, we could plainly perceive the 
enemy at work near the fea-fide, which we endea- 
voured to prevent by frequent difcharges of grape, 
mufquetry, and fhells. Our working party was fe- 
venty-eight men of the pioneer company, and one 
hundred eighty Sepoys, who were chiefly employed 
in removing die earth at the foot of the demi bafli- 


f759- siEGE OF FORT St* GEORGE. 257 

on, and the rubbifli before the old north -eaft balli- 
on, which works I was determined to repair, and 
fecure as much as poflible, fince the enemy Teemed 
to bend mod of their fire againfl them, and diredl 
their attack that way. I therefore raifed, and thick- 
ened the blind before the north-eaft baflion, whofe 
parapet was much fhatteredj and begun a pallifado 
at the foot of the demi baftion fix feet within the 
lunette, which I propofe to carry quite round the 
flank and north face, I alfo propole another, be- 
tween the blind and north face of the old north eaft 
baftion. The enemy, in the night, had covered the 
head of their zig-zag near the fea, by a fmall return 
or crotchet beginning near the beach, and ftretching 
Weftward parallel to the north front. To the weft- 
ward, the enemy fired with four guns from the 
new hofpital, but did nothing to their trench near 
the Pettah bridge. Their Sepoys, to the fouthward 
of the bar, were at work all day in raifing a breaft- 
work for their defence, in cafe we ftiould make ano- 
ther attempt on that fide. 

Jan. 14.] Laft night, as we imagined the enemy 
would be at work again at the crochet belore their 
zig-zag, we began a pretty fmart fire of mufquetry 
from our covered way, and frequently gave them 
difcharges of grape from the north lunette and cover- 
ed way battery. From the royal and demi baftions 
we threw fmall and large ftiells into their approaches 
and batteries, fo that they were prevented from doing 
much work. By the morning, however, they had 
run on their return about twenty yards, and complea- 
ted what they nad roughly traced the night before* 
Our working party, belides feventy-five men of the 
pioneer company, was aflifted by one hundred and 
twenty men, out of the two battalions, and one hun- 
dred (eventy Sepoys. The earth, near the ftjoulder 
of the demi baftion, having formc-d an afcent almoft 
pradticable, about an hundred Europeans, and as 

R many 

258 JOURN A L OF THE 1759!. 

many Sepoys, were fet to carry it off in bafkets of 
fand bags, to repair the parapet of the baftion a- 
bove. 1 he paHifado, begun at the foot of the baf- 
tion, was continued near an hundred feet more. 
The parapet of the north-eafi: baftion being quite 
deftroyed, and that work being of the greateft con- 
fequence to be kept in good repair, about one hun- 
dred fixty Europeans, and the reft of the Sepoys 
under Lieut. Stevenfon, were fet to clear away the 
mined parapets, and erecl others with fand bags, 
gabions, and fafcines, two merlons of which were 
finillied before the morning. An old fally port in 
the ealt curtain, near tbe fouth flank of the old north- 
caft baftion, was opened' for the more ready com- 
munication with the north-eaft part of the covered 
way, and a door placed in it. 

Jan. 15.] Laft night a brilk fire of mufquetry^ 
cannon and mortars was kept up froftiour covered 
way and the works of the north front, on the ene- 
my's approaches, and prevented them from doing 
more than lengthening their crochet a little, and 
opening it in the middle, from whence they placed 
fifteen or twenty gabions in an oblique direction to- 
wards the Tea fide. Our working party confifted of 
the pioneer company, the firft company of grena- 
diers, and ninety men of the two biattalions, be- 
fides two companies of Sepoys. They were em- 
ployed in finiftiing the parapet of the old north-eaft 
baftion, which was put in very good condition, 
and tliree guns mounted thereon i in clearing the 
earth from the face of the deray-baftion, repairing 
the parapet, and fixing pallifadoes at the foot of it. 
On the royal baftion a bHnd was begun to cover the 
tliree guns in the eaft flank next the curtain from 
the fire of the enemy's battery near the new hofpi- 
tal, which takes it in reverfe. The embrafures of 
St. George's, and the north- weft lunette, being much 
©ut of repair, a party of twenty men, and a ferjeant, 


175^. SIEGE ot" FORT St. GEORGE. 259 

was fet to repair them. The fire of the enemy's 
cannon was this day very brifk, and theri- north bat- 
tery was augmented to ten pieces of cannon, with 
which they fired in falvos on the old north- eall baf- 
tion, and foon difmounted two of the three guns. 

Jan 16.] Lift night a piquet of the enemy's ad- 
vanced to the boacs, and drove an advanced party 
oi ours from thence. The fire of the mufquetry 
from the covert way, and the cannon and mortars 
from the baftions and north lunette, was well kept 
Up on the enemy's approaches. They, in return, 
threw a few fhells, and fired a fev/ fhot into the 
town and works, by which one of the working par- 
ty was wounded. Our working party, of fixty four 
pioneers, fixty grenadiers of the fecond battalion, 
and one hundred and thirty Sepoys, were employed 
in repairing the parapet of the old north-eaft bafti- 
on, which wa;s again compleated for three guns. In 
repairing, and covering by fome gabions, the palli- 
fadb before the fafcine battery near the fea ; ia 
clearing the earth from the foot of the demi-baftion, 
and therewith thickening the blind before the old 
north-eaft baftion ; repairing the parapets and em- 
brafures above, and carrying on the paliifado below. 
This day the enemy threw a great many ftiells into 
the town, particularly the north end, and killed or 
wounded us mOre men than in any preceding day ; 
amongthereft, twoof the pioneer company were kill- 
ed at thfeir barrack door. The enemy laft night 
had augmented their north battery to twelve embra- 
fiires, and fired from thence very brifkly on the 
old north eaft and demi-baftion. They alfo filled 
the gabions they had left empty the night before, 
and advanced their work in the fame diredion about 
twenty yards. About ten in the morning a fnow ap- 
peared to the north-eaft, and anchored, on which 
the French frigate chafed, and all their ftiips threw 
out Englifh colours. 

R 2 Laft 

a6o J O U R N A L OF THE '759- 

Jan. 17.] Laft night an inceflant fire was kept up 
with mufquetry from the covered way, and abou^ 
twelve o'clock, an officer with twelve men were fent 
out to fall on the enemy's workmen, which he fired 
on Teveral times, but a large body advancing, he was 
killed himfelf, and three of his men wounded. Not- 
withftanding the interruption we gave them, the ene- 
my carried on the remaining part of their zig-zag, 
and covered it by a crotchet or boyau. Our work- 
ing party was feventy fix of the pioneer company, 
the firll' company of grenadiers, and twenty four 
ferjeants and corporals off duty, befides one hun- 
dred thirty Sepoys. They were employed in re- 
pairing the parapet of the old north-eaft baftion, 
which was put in order, and a platform lengthened 
for three guns, the fame number as at firft. The 
blind below was thickened, and the rampart of it 
enlarged. The covered way battery being deemed 
no longer ufeful, the guns were drawn off in the 
afternoon, and the platforms taken up. In the 
night we ciofed the embrafures, and lowered the 
merlons into a regular flope. Many of the pallifa- 
does which were fixed in the dry ditch, having been 
deftroycd by the enemy's (hot and lliells, were re- 
placed, and others fixed round the flanks of the de- 
mi-baftion •, the embrafures ot the demi-baflion next 
the faliant angle were filled up, the merlons of the 
the three embrafures next the flioulder were repair- 
ed, and tlie parapet flrengthened. The earth at 
the foot of the face was entirely carried away* 

Jan. 18] Laft night the enemy brought two guns 
down to the bar, and fired a few fhot at fome Se- 
poys of ours pofled on the oppofite fide. Yefterday 
and this night the enemy threw a great many fhells 
into the town, and fbme into the works, which did 
us more damage than any they threw before. The 
enemy, yefterday in the afternoon, worked at thick- 
ening the fand-bank to the right of their batte- 


, ry clofe to the fea, and this morning they opened 
three embrafures through it, which in the afternoon 
fired on the north-eaft face of the north lunette ; fo 
that their north battery now confifls of fifteen em- 
brafures. The enemy extended their parallel or 
crotchet at the foot of the glacis weft ward about 
fifteen yards, but in a rough unfinifhed manner, as 
Jndeed their whole work appears to be. Our work- 
ing party laft night confifted of feventy-fix pioneers, 
the fecond company of grenadiers, and one hundred 
and thirty Sepoys, who were employed in clearing 
the earth at the foot of the demi baftion, finifhing 
the pallifadoes in the dry ditch, levelling the earth 
in the north-eaft angle of the covered way, raifing 
and thickening the blind before the old north-eaft 
baftion, and giving the parapets of that baftion an 
entire repair. To day the enemy did not fire from 
their battery near the old hofpital, and the embra- 
fures appeared clofed up. 

Jan. 19.] Notwithftanding the fire which we kept 
up laft night from our mufquetry, cannon and mor- 
tars, the enemy advanced by a third zig-zag acrofs 
the faliant angle of the glacis. In the forenoon, the 
enemy fired pretty fmartly from their mufquetry be- 
hind their firft crotchet. They alfo brought two 
heavy guns to the fouth of the Bar, and threw ibme 
fhot into the town. Our working party laft night was 
one officer, threeferjeants, and fifty fix pioneers, the 
firft company of grenadiers, and thirty-two ferjeants 
and corporals, who were employed in levelling the 
earth raifed for the guns in the north-eaft angle of 
the covered way, clearing the earth from the toot of 
the demi baftion, carrying a pallifadoe acrofs the 
dry ditch before the eaft wing, thickening and rai- 
fing the blind, and repairing the embrafures of the 
north-eaft baftion. The enemy's ftiells thjs day 
fet fire to the forting warehoufe, to a warehoufe in 
Gloucefter-lane, and to fome falt-petre in Middle- 

R 3 gate 

a62 JOURNAL of the '759. 

gate ftreet, fo that the town was on fire in three 
places at once. 

Jan. 20.] Laft night the enemy threw very few 
fhells or fhot into the works or town ; nor did they 
advance their works more than by producing the 
third zig-zag from the ridge of the glacis obliquely 
to the fea-fide, where they crowned it by a fmall re- 
turn of four or five gabions. In the afternoon, I 
obferved a few Europeans working at a barbet para- 
pet near the fifhers huts to the fouthward of the 
bar, where the enemy had brought two large can- 
non, or one cannon and one mortar ; for fuch they 
appeared to me. Qur working party was the pio- 
neer company and one hundred and twenty Sepoys, 
employed in the fame manner as yefterday, except 
driving rows of picquets ia front of the fafcine bat- 
tery, and making a bread-work before the pallifa- 
doe which feparates the demi baftion from the fe- 
cond curtain. 

21.] Laft night the enemy threw few or no fhells, 
and fired lefs than in any night of the fiege ; nor did 
they make any apparent approach in their works. 
They thickened their fecond zig zag and crotchet, 
and laid fome fand bags for their mufquetry. Our 
working party confifted of the pioneer company, 
and one hundred and twenty Sepoys, who were 
employed in repairing the parapets and embrafures 
of the old north-eaft baftion ; in finiftiing the blind 
for mufquetry ; in clearing the face ot the demi 
baftions, and driving pickets in the front of, and 
laying fafcines on the fafcine battery ; repairing the 
parapet and embrafures of the left face of the north 
baftion, and in clearing the fea gate of rubbift), 
and making a traverfe before the gate of the re- 
daibt. The enemy's batteries were this day very 
filent ; but they fired pretty brifkly from their 
trenches on fuch of our people as appeared at the 
embralures or over the parapets. The enemy's 


I7S9- siEGE OF FORT St. GEORGE. 2.63 

method of proceeding, by fimple fap, in Co con- 
fined and unfupported a manner as their approaches 
are formed, giving great room to believe a Tally 
might ealily drive them from their w^orks, and over- 
fet fbme of the gabions, it was determined to fend 
out thirty foldiers and forty pioneers, to try what 
could be done. A little paft five in the evening ten 
men and a ferjeant went out by the Tea fide, and an 
officer and tv/eniy men went out by the barrier in 
the porth-eaft angle of the covered way ; an cngi 
neer, with the Captain of pioneers and forty men, 
followed. The foldiers were to polTefs the enemy's 
fecond crotchet, and cover the pioneers while they 
deftroyed the lodgment forming on the ridge of the 
glacis. Every thing fucceeded as we could wifh ; 
the enemy ran out of their fap in an inftant, and 
our pioneers, for about eight minutes, worked hard 
at deflroying gabions, and fuch things as the found. 
The enemy then began to colled in their firft crot- 
chet, and a fignal was made for the return of our 
party. We loft two Serjeants killed, and three or 
four pioneers wounded : what the enemy (who had 
moftly Sepoys in their works) loft, we can't guefs •, 
but as our cannon, mortars, and fmall arms played 
brifkly upon them, before and after the fally, 
they no doubt fuffered. It was apprehended they 
V^ere carrying a gallery under the glacis, in order 
to open the covered way by a mine ; but nothing of 
that kind was difcovered. 

Jan- 22.] Laft night the enemy did not advance 
their approaches, but worked at thickening their le- 
cond crotchet, third zig-zag, and raifing the head 
of their fap on the ridge of the glacis. They fired 
few fhells, and thofe chiefly into the works. During 
the day the enerny fired very few cannon, particu- 
larly from their northern battery, where moft of 
the embrafures feem to be blinded. Our pioneer 
company having been out on a fally we could only 

R 4 get 

264 JOURNAL OF THE 1759, 

get a Serjeant and twelve men to work in the night, 
who were employed in repairing the parapets of the 
old northeaft baftion, and one hundred Sepoys,- 
who worked at the traverfe before the pallifadoe 
which ferves as a barrier between the royal baftion 
and low curtain ; they alfo carried pallifadoes down 
to the fafcine battery. 

Jan. 23.] Laft night a briflc fire of mufquetry was 
kept up on the enemy's approaches •, however, they 
advanced a few gabions on the glacis, almoft paral- 
lel to the eaft face of the covered way ; and they 
opened a battery of four embrafures in their third 
zig-zag, with an intent to fire on the right face of 
the north ravelin ; but it did not anfwer their ex- 
pedations in bearing well on that work. Our work-r 
ing party, of fixty-three pioneers and one hundred 
Sepoys, were employed in repairing the north-eaft 
baftion, in making a traverfe before the gate lead- 
ing into the caponniere from the low curtain ; ano- 
ther before each of the gates which clofe the com^ 
munication to the royal and demi baftions ; alfo in 
filling fand-bags in the north eaft angle of the co- 
vered way, and carrying them to the leveral worlds. 
Two embrafures were repaired, and one platform 
on the demi baftion ; and one platform on the north 

24,] Laft night the enemy attempted to pufh 
their gabions clofe to our covered way, but fbme of 
our men poftcd there overfet many, which rolled \i\- 
to the fea, and pulled others in between the pallifa-s 
doe. A fmart fire of mufquetry commenced on 
this occafion, and continued two or three hours, i^ 
which we loft ten or twelve men, killed or wounded. 
From the north eaft baftion and fafcine battery the 
field- pieces fired grape in Inch plenty, that feventy 
dilcharges were made out of one gun ; the enemy's 
lo(s, from fiich a fire, muft doubtlefs have been 
great, and their work appeared this morning rough 


1759- SIEGE OF FORT St. GEORGE. 265 

and incompleat. Our working party was fixty pio- 
neers and one hundred Sepoys, who were employed 
ill repairing the old north-eaft baftion ; the embra- 
fures of the north ravelin, and making a blind be* 
hind the flank of the royal baftion ; but the pioneers 
being lent for to go and overfet the enemy's gabions, 
little work was done. We loft of that party one 
killed and two wounded. 

Jan. 25.] Laft night the enemy pufhed on their 
approaches in a line parallel to the eaft face of the 
covered way, as far as the Palmeira pallifadoe, 
which runs quite into the fea ; parallel to which 
they made a return. In the night a fmall party of 
our pioneers went and pulled feveral of the enemy's 
gabions into the covered way, and a fmall party of 
grenadiers alarmed them in their trenches. Our 
working party confifted of fifty-three pioneers and 
one hundred Sepoys, who were employed in repairing 
the embrafures of the old north-eaft baftion, in re- 
pairing the parapets and embrafures of the north 
ravelin ; filling in the ftiell holes in the caponniere, 
and making a banquet behind the traverfe leading 
to it. About two o'clock in the afternoon it was 
determined to make a fally, with twenty men of 
the guard behind the blind, and twenty of the pio- 
neer company, with an intent to deftroy the work 
the enemy had done the preceding night : they ac- 
cordingly went out and drove the enemy from their 
approach behind the ftockadoe, and our pioneers 
endeavoured to demolifti their work by overfetting 
the gabions, and throwing the tools they found into 
the fea, or our covered way. After maintaining 
their ground near fifteen minutes, the enemy began 
to grow very numerous in their crotchet on the ridge 
of the glacis ; on which our people were ordered to 
retire. We had Captain Black, who commanded 
the twenty men, wounded through the leg, and 
Lieutenant Fitzpatrick of the grenadiers (of whorq 


2.66 JOURNAL OF the 1759. 

twenty went out) through both his arms, two or 
three men and one Serjeant killed. The enemy 
muft have fuffered confiderably from our fire, which 
was kept up very brilkly from the works above an 

Jan. 26.] Laft night the enemy pufhed on their 
approaches in a line almoft: parallel to the north face 
of the covered way before the demy baftion, and 
iTiade a return at the end of it, to cover their flank ; 
{o that by the work of this and the preceding night 
they wholly embraced the faliant angle of our cover- 
ed way, and confequently made it too hazardous 
for us to keep troops therein. Our working party 
lad night confifted of fifty-three pioneers and eigh- 
ty-eight Sepoys, who were employed in repairing 
the north-eaft baftion, the parapet and embrafures •, 
in repairing the embrafures and parapets of the faf- 
cine battery, and lengthening it towards the fea ; and 
at the fea gate redoubt, in (hutting up the great 
gate which was damaged and very difficult to pafs, 
by the falling of the viranda ; and opening the fmall 
gate on the fouth fide •, alfo in clearing the rubbirti 
from the north flank of the battery, and filling the 
gabions placed on the face. To-day the enemy 
fifed moft of their fliot from their feveral batteries 
into the town ; but threw their fliells chiefly to- 
wards the works on the north front. 

27.] The enemy, laft night, did nothing but wi- 
den and raife the work of the preceding night ; 
which we in fome degree impute to the detachments 
they made to oppofe Captain Preftpn andlfouf Cawn, 
vyho we heard were at Ponamalle. Our working 
party confifted of forty-feven pioneers and ninety Se- 
poys, who were employed in repairing the north-: 
eaft baftion ; in repairing the embrafures of the 
flank of the royal baftion -, and in repairing the pa- 
rapets and embrafures of the north lunette j they 
alfo worked, during the day, at the fea gate re- 
' ' doub^ 

^759- siF,GF OF FORT St. GEORGE. 267 

doubt, when the north flank was entirely repaired, 
And embrafures formed for four guns. In the after- 
noon Captain Preflon's fignal, of a great fmoke, 
was feen weft of Egmore, and an Hi rear came in, 
with a report that the French had been entirely 
routed by our troops. 

Jan. 28.] The enemy did not laft night, to ap- 
pearance, work much at their approaches, owing, 
I fuppofe, to the extraordinary guards they were obr 
liged to keep, on account of Ifouf Cawn, whofe 
horfe were yefterday very near Egmore. This 
morning, the French black horfe, foot, and their 
European cavalry, were drawn up in a line, between 
Egmore and Capt. Mafkelyne's gardens, and by 
their motions to the right and left, we expeded that 
Ifouf Cawn was near them, efpecially as feveral 
fmokes were feen that way •, however, nothing ap- 
peared. In the forenoon, we obferved that the ene- 
my, with feveral yoke of oxen, intended to draw 
off the guns they had to the louthward of the barj 
but on our firing a few fhot, the bullock drivers and 
bullocks difappeared. The enemy having now fur- 
rounded out north:eaft faliant angle, and probably 
intending to jnake a battery on the glacis, it was 
determined to try laft night if we could pufti a mine 
from the counterfcarp that way. An engineer and 
eight men were accordingly fet to open an arch, 
which had been turned in the counterfcarp for that 
purpofe. The reft of the working party, being 
thirty -two pioneers and eighty Sepoys, were em- 
ployed in repairing the parapet, and embrafures of 
the right face of the north lunette, and making a 
ditch before the fouth flank of the fea gate battery, 
in which a pallifadoe was fixed. 

29.] Lafl night the enemy drew off one of their 
guns to the fouthward, but we could not perceive 
that they had worked any thing at their approaches 
'till two o'clock iq the afternoon, when they were 


a68 JOURNAL or THE 1759. 

difcovered throwing up earth through a fmall hol^ 
juft within the banquet in the covered way oppofite 
the ftockadoe, which was placed on the eaftern gla- 
cis •, which makes me imagine they were working 
by covered fap, with an intent to open the counter- 
fcarp under cover of the faliant angle of the demi 
baftion, where they could not be feen from the flank 
of the royal, but having come too near the furface, 
the earth fell in, and they were difcovered. Some 
grenadiers were immediately fent out to fire into the 
hole, and throw granades, which they did, and 
thereby flopped the enemy's working. Our working 
party was lalt night thirty-feven pioneers and fixty 
Sepoys, who were employed in carrying on the gal- 
lery, and in raifmg the right fide of the caponniere, 
to cover our people parting and repafling to the north 
ravelin. Twelve men and a ferjeant, with fome 
boatmen, worked in the day at the fea gate, in rai- 
fing the fouth flank of the battery, and filling up 
the ufelefs embrafures. 

Jan. 30.] The enemy were lafl night quite filent 
in their trenches, but threw plenty of fhells into the 
town, and at the north ravelin. By their filence, 
and other appearances, we concluded they were 
making a battery fome where on the face of the 
covered way, or carrying on a gallery towards the 
blind. Our working party confided of forty five 
pioneers, and about fevcnty-five Sepoys, who were 
employed in pufhing on the mine, compleating the 
right ilde of the caponniere, and in repairing the 
parapet and embrafures of the right face of the 
north ravelin. A fail, which had been in fight to 
the fouthward all day, came into the road towards 
the evening, under Englifh colours, and proved to 
be the Shaftfbury, from Bombay, having been left 
by the other four India-men, and two twenty-gun 
(hips, which came as a convoy, the feventh inft:ant 
off Ceilon, and expedled to have found them here. 


1759- SIEGE OF FORT St. GEORGE, 2^9 

This (hip, being the worft failor, had been an hof- 
pital-fliip, and therefore brought us only the fick, 
and thereby added to our diftrefs for room. 

Jan. 31.] The French frigate, lad night, came 
near and received a broadfide from the Shaftfbury, 
and then failed to the (buthward, and to-day in the 
afternoon returned into the road again. A little 
before her return, feveral boats were feen going with 
men to the Haarlem, a Dutch Indiaman feized by 
the French, which fhip immediately weighed and 
flood towards the Shaftfbury, who flipped her cable 
and flood quite under our guns. The Haarlem fired 
feveral (hot at our (hip, and followed her foclofe, that 
we tryed to reach her with our guns from the fea 
line, but fhe was at too great a range to fire with 
any certainty. The enemy, from their battery of 
two guns to the fouthvvard, and one from the north- 
ward, flruck the Shaftfbury feveral times, but night 
coming on, faved her from the damage fhe muft o- 
therwife have received. Early in the morning, the 
enemy opened four embrafures on the north face of 
the covered way before the demi baftion, and be- 
gan to fire with three guns, but the earth in the 
cells of their embrafures was fo high, and the bat- 
tery fo ill conflrufted, that, after firing twenty or 
thirty (hot, none of which came within feveral feet 
of the top of our parapets, the battery was filent, 
not only from its inutility, but, I imagine, fome of 
the guns were difmounted by the fire from our north- 
eafl baftion. The working party lafl night was for- 
ty-eight pioneers, twelve ot which were employed 
in pufhing t)n the mine, the refl in clearing the 
earth from the demi baflion, and repairing the faf- 
cine battery. It being alfo imagined that the enemy 
were pufhing on a gallery behind the counterfcarp 
under the narrow covered way to the eaflward, with 
an intent to deftroy our blind, or blow up the co- 
vered way, it was determined to open another gal- 
. lery 


lery from the covered pafTage under the blind, and 
carry it on to meet the enemy, in cafe they fhould 
advance that way. 

Feb. i] The enemy lafl- night repaired the da- 
maged merlons of their battery, and endeavoured 
to lower the cells of th'^i^ embraflires, from whence 
in the morning they fired three guns, bilt with little 
effect, and were foon obliged to clofe their embra- 
fures, as in the preceding day. The Haarlem, the 
enemy's battery to the foutliward, and one gun to 
the northward, fired on the Shaftfbury, at intervals, 
all day, and have fent feveral fhot through her ; we, 
in return, fired at the fhip, and the enemy's fouth- 
ern guns; in the evening, a twenty four pounder 
burft on St. Thome baftion, and wounded (it men,' 
of which four were mortally hurt. The Governor 
being there, very narrowly efcaped with a flight 
icratch. The Cuddalore fchooner came near the 
road in the evening, and then flood away to the 
northward again. Our working party lad night was 
fihy-four pioneers and thirty-five Sepoys, who were 
employed as follows : twenty-four pioneers, pufhing- 
an our gallery, relieved each other every fix hours, 
the reft, with the Sepoys, were repairing the pallifa- 
doe in the gorge of the north lunette, repairing the 
embraflires in the eaft flank of the royal baftion, and 
levelling the earth beat down on the banquets of 
the lower curtain. 7"he enemy threw but few ftiells 
iaft night or in this day. 

2.] Laft night the enemy worked at repairing the 
parapet, and lowered the embrafures ol their batte- 
ry on the creft of the glacis, in which they opened 
again this morning five embrafures, and fired with 
tv/o guns on the angle of the demi baftion, which 
rarely ftruck the top of the parapet. Our working 
party was fifty one pioneers, and a hundred Sepoys, 
who were employed in repairing the fafcine battery, 
in letting up pallifadoes in the gorge of the north ra- 


1759- SIEGE OF FORT St. GEORGE. 271 

velin, and in repairing the parapets of the north-eaft 
baftion •, twenty-feven men were employed in pufh- 
ing the gallery under the north covered way, and 
under the covered way near the blind. The ene- 
my's battery, which fired a fhot now and then from 
one gun, was filent before noon. About three in 
the afternoon. Captain Prefton, Ifouf Cawn, and 
the enemy, feemed to be engagad in (bme topes 
four or five miles north-weft, and continued firing 
till five o'clock. The Haarlem and the French fri- 
gate drew off laft night, and anchored to the north- 
ward, fo that the Shaftfbury had only two guns 
from the fouthward and one from the northward to 
fire on her. 

Feb. 3] This morning, about day -break, the e- 
nemy fprung a mine behind the counterfcarp of the 
ditch, oppofite the eaft-end of the cuvette, and 
opened the wall about twenty or twenty-five feet, 
but did no other damage than wounding three or 
four men and an officer in the demi baftion with 
bricks. The intent of this opening is not very 
clear, becaufe if it was defigned as a defcent into 
the ditch, it is fo injudicioufly made, that four guns 
from the ftank of the royal baftion fire directly into 
it ; but Colonel Lawrence is rather of opinion, it 
was intended to deftroy the entrance to our mine, 
which was but twenty feet from theirs, or that they 
fprung it, thinking we were at work on the outfide; for 
the engineer and people at work on our mine h^ard the 
enemy very diftindtly at work within the counter- 
fcarp about two o'clock in the morning, and alarm- 
ed them by knocking, and calling out to bring the 
match that we might fpring our mine. Our work- 
ing party, of fifty-four pioneers and forty or fifty 
Sepoys was employed on the mine and counter- 
mine, and thickening the parapet of the demi bafti- 
on near the faliant angle, which part the enemy's 
battery feems to be intended againft. 


27* JOURNAL oif TttE 1759. 

Feb. 4.] Laft night, the enemy endeavoured to 
make their guns on the glacis bear on the demi and 
north-€afl ballions, by lowering the embrafures ; but 
after firing a few (hot in the morning, they clofed 
them as before. In fhort, the fire from the flank 
of the royal baflion oblique, and three guns in the 
north-eaft dired, is fo fuperior to the enemy's, that 
they cannot poflibly fland that and our (hells above 
an hour or two every morning. Our working party 
confifled laft night of fifty-three pioneers and fifty 
or fixty Sepoys, who were employed in thickening 
the parapet of the demi baftion, and carrying on 
the two galleries. The enemy's large (hells being 
all expended, is the reafon, we imagine, that they 
only throw from time to time thofe of eight or ten 
inch from two mortars in the crotchet at the foot 
of the glacis. The fire of their artillery from the 
feveral batteries, except that at the burying-ground 
of four gims, was alfo very flow. The two large 
guns at the bar were this morning withdrawn, and a 
iield-piece brought thither. 

5.] This morning early we were iurprized with 
the fight of fix or feven ve(rels under fail, and con^ 
eluded them at once to be our fhips from Bombay, 
but the advance of the day foon difcovered to our 
view the enemy's two (hips, and five fmall vefifels, 
going out of the road, and ftanding eaftward, and 
as foon as the fea wind came in, they ftood to the 
fouthward. This extraordinary motion we can no 
ways account for, but by fuppofmg the enemy have 
had advice of our fhips being fomewhere on the 
coaft, and fearful of theirs falling into our hands^ 
have fent them to take fhelter under Pondichery, A 
red flag was feen at the great mount in the morn- 
ing, and a great fmoke, fo that we conclude Cap- 
tain Prefton and Ifouf Cawn are got thither, and 
hope they will foon get nearer to us. The enemy, 
la(l night, fired a good deal of Mufquetry, and this 


1759- SIEGE OF FORT St. GEORGE. 273 

morning fired three or four rounds from two guns 
on their breaching battery, but were obliged to dole 
it immediately, and fcarce fired a mufquet fhot all 
day. The four guns at the new hofpital were filent 
or withdrawn, and only two fired flowly at the old 
hofpital. our working party, of fifty-three pioneers 
and forty Sepoys, were employed en the demy baf- 
tion, north ravelin and galleries: yeflerday that un- 
der the north covered way fell in, and had like to 
have difcovered us to the enemy, but being no fur- 
ther advanced than the banquet of our covered way, 
we turned to the right till we got into the center of 
the old town wall, and then advanced forward to- 
wards the enemy's battery. Indeed we imagined 
the gallery to have been under the parapet, and 
were furprized to fee, by the face of the covered 
way, that we werq not fo far. 

Feb. 6.] This morning fix embrafures of the ene- 
my's battery to the northward appeared to be repair- 
ed ; and by their withdrawing the guns from the 
new hofpital, it is fuppofed they intend to reflore 
their firfl grand battery. Nothing elfe appeared to 
have been done as to their works, and their battery 
on the glacis was filent. Our working party, con- 
fifting of fifty pioneers and as many Sepoys, was 
employed in repairing the parapets of the demi baf- 
tion, and carrying on our two galleries ; thirty fai* 
lors were landed from the Shaftfbury to aifift the ar- 
tillery ; and the fhip, no longer apprchenfive of the 
enemy, v;ent out into deeper v/ater. 

7 ] Earl\ this morning the enemy faluted us with 
four guns ard one mortar from their old grand bat- 
tery, which cannot be much to the credit of the at- 
tack, thus to retreat, after having had four guns in 
battery five days on the glacis. The old north-eafl 
baftion, which with three guns has been maintained 
the whole fiege, feems to be the bbjecft of their old 
(but once more new; battery. The angle of the 

S demi 

274 J O U R N A L OF THE '759« 

demi baftion is alfo battered from the(e four guns, 
and as many from the burying-ground fire on the 
face : fo that the enemy have now, as it were, gone 
back to the fixth of January, and have on us the fol- 
lowing batteries •, at the old hofpital two guns plung- 
ing into and enfilading the whole north front ; at the 
burying-ground four guns battering the face of the 
demi balliion ; at the grand battery tour guns, firing 
on the faliant angle of the demi, and on the old 
north-eaft baftion, and one mortar, throwing fhells 
of ten inches into the town. On the zig-zag which 
crofies the ridge of the glacis, three mortars, 
throwing eight and ten inch Ihells into the demi and 
north-eail baftions, the blind and fafcine battery. 
Our working party, of fifty pioneers and as many 
Sepoys, were employed in raifing and repairing the 
left face of the north ravelin, repairing two embra- 
fures on the north face of the royal baftion, and in 
carrying on the galleries. 

Feb. 8.] The enemy this morning fired with four 
guns from their grand battery ; but the greateft part 
of the fhot from thence and the burying ground go 
over our parapets. Nothing new appeared in their 
approaches. Captain Barker and myfelf this morn- 
ing went off in a Moffula boat on board the Europe 
fhip, and rowed from thence a little to the north- 
ward, v/ith an intent to come back along fhore, and 
"take a view of the enemy's works in reverfe. We 
gotfo far north, and fo near, as to fee plainly behind 
their grand battery, which at firft appeared very ill 
manned •, but in an inftant it was filled, and a gun or 
two turned againft us, with which they fired five 
rounds at the boat. This obliged us to make an 
hafty retreat, and prevented us from feeing fo much 
of their works as we propofed. A deferter who had 
formerly been in our fervicecame in from the ene- 
TU) this evening; and informs us, that the reafon 
they abandoned their battery on the glacis, was, 


1759- SIEGE OF FORT St. GEORGE. 275 

becaufe they loft many men from the fuperiority 
of our fire, had feveral guns difabled, and were 
conftantly apprehenfive of being blown up by our 
mine, which they heard we were making under it. 
He alfo allures us, that they are not making any 
mines on their part, as we apprehended. Our 
working party, of fifty pioneers and twenty-leven 
Sepoys, were employed in repairing the embrafures 
on the north face of the royal which fire on the 
enemy's grand battery ; and thofe of the old north- 
eaft baftion ; alfo in pufhing on our galleries, one 
of which is now under the enemy's battery, and 
the other fo far advanced as to prevent any poflibi- 
lity of deftroying the blind by a mine. We had 
certain advice this afternoon of Major Caillaud's ar- 
rival at the Mount, but no account of the forces 
with him. One of the enemy's fhips anchored this 
afternoon in St. Thome road, which it was deter- 
mined the Europe fhip fliould attack ; for if fhe is 
loaded with heavy fhells, as we apprehend, we 
ought to hazard gready rather than let them be 
landed -, becaufe the damage they will do the works, 
now the enemy is fo near, will be irreparable, and 
give them an opportunity of effetlually eftablilhing 
the battery on the glacis. 

Feb. 9 J Early this morning we heard a fmart 
cannonading towards the Mount, which continued at 
intervals all day, and was renewed very brifkly to- 
wards the evening. The adtion was, no doubt, be- 
tween a tfrong party of M. Lally's European forces, 
w ith his black army, and our troops under the com- 
mand of Major Caillaud, who hadjuft joined Cap- 
tain Prefton and Ifouf Cawn, from Tanjore ; how 
it ended is hard to fay, but we hope, from the repeat- 
ed reinforcements which the enemy fent out, that our 
people had the advantage. In the afternoon two 
companies of Sepoys were fent out to the bar, and 
from thence proceeded to the garden-houfe, whicli 
S 2 pofts 

2n6 JOURNAL of the I759. 

ports the enemy had abandoned ; they found fome 
ammunition, fard-bags, &c. which they brought a- 
way, and fet fire to the enemy's gabion"^. It was 
intended that our Europe fhip fhould make an at- 
tempt in the night on the (hip which anchored off 
St. Thome yefterday ; however it was not done, 
and to-day many (lores was unloaded and carried to 
the Biack-town, The enemy's fire was not very 
brifk to day, and moft of their (hot flew over the 
town. Nothing appeared to have been done at their 
approaches. Our working party was laft night fifty- 
one pioneers and twenty-feven Sepoys, employed in 
repairing the demy and north-eaft haftions, and car- 
rying on the galleries. 

Feb. lo ] The enemy laft night did nothing ap- 
parently to their approaches, and were pretty filent 
in their batteries. During the day they fired fmart- 
ly from their northern battery, but moll of the fhot 
feemed to be diredted for the houfes in tl->e town, 
among which they made great havock -, they alfo 
threw all their fhellsinto the town, fo that the fiege 
Teems to be begun a-frefli, and the attack intended 
againft the houfes rather than the works. Our work- 
ing party, of pioneers and forty-eight Sepoys, were 
employed in repairing the old north-eall baftion, the 
demi baftion, clearing the earth below, and in car- 
rying on the galleries. The enemy's fhip went off 
in the night. 

1 1.] The enemy laft night fired little mufquetry, 
and did not, that we could difcover, make any ad- 
dition to their approaches. Our working party, of 
fifty-fi.K pioneers and one hundred and thirty-three 
Sepoys, were employed in repairing two embrafures 
and thickening a traverfe on the demi baftion •, in 
clearing the rubbifh from the mint baftion, in laying 
a platform and making another embrafure near the 
beach at the fafcine battery. The gallery under the 
counterfcarp being advanced about ninety-five feet, 


1759. SIEGE OF FORT St. GEORGE. 277 

two chambers were made, and loaded with two 
hundred and fifty pounds of powder each ; that 
before the blind, was opened by a pit up through 
the glacis, and a branch carried on a parallel to.the 
covered way, towards the enemy at the ftocka- 

Feb. 12.] Lafl night the enemy advanced, or ra- 
ther repaired, a fmall bread- work they had at the end 
of the ftockadoe, near the fea-fide -, but made no 
other alteration in their approaches. Our working 
party, of fifty-feven pioneers and thirty-three Sepoys, 
were employed in repairing the north-eaft baftion 
and the demi, and in lengthening out the fafcine bat- 
tery quitie into the furf, by means of caiks filled with 
fand ; placing a barricade of palliladoes, cheveaux 
de frize, and trees in front, and raifmg the parapet. 
The pioneers employed under the north count-erfcarp 
continued to flop the mine, and the Blacks to ad- 
vance the new fhaft. A deferter came in this after- 
noon over the enemy's lodgement on the glacis, and 
afTures us, that the enemy are making no mines, but 
are much afraid of ours. The fire of the beiicgers 
artillery and mortars has not been fo briflv to-day as 
it was yefterday. 

13.] This morning, between two and three 
o'clock, we were alarmed by an attempt of the 
enemy, with thirty Europeans and fifty CofFrees, to 
nail up our guns at the fafcine battery : they ad- 
vanced along the fea fide from the flockadoe, to 
within thirty yards of our work ; when being difco- 
vered, they made an halt, and after receiving a fire 
or two from a fix-pounder placed near the beach, 
they went to the right about in fome confufion, and 
returned within their works. The drums having 
beat to arms, the whole garrifon repaired to their 
pofls, and plenty of fhells and grape Ihot were thrown 
into the ememy's approaches. We had a Captain 
and one foldier wounded, and the enemy left five 

S3 or 

278 JOURNAL or THE 1759. 

or fix men dead on the beach •, and in the morning 
a ferjeant of the Lorraine regiment, being mortally 
wounded, crawled into our covered way, and died 
foon after : from him vve learnt the force and inten- 
tion of the enemy. Our working party confifted 
offifty-feven pioneers and forty-eight Sepoys, who 
were employed in repairing the north-eaft baftion, 
and the demi-haftion ; clearing the rubbifli from 
the north curtain, and clearing the earth from the 
right face of the north ravelin, with which banquets 
were made above. The flopping of the mine under 
the north counterfcarp was compleated to-day, and 
intended to deftroy the enemy's battery, if ever they 
artempted to re-eftablifh it. The fire of the ene- 
my's north battery was to-day very brilk, and that at 
the old hofpital filent. 

Feb. 14.] Having obferved that the enemy, be- 
fore the rifing of the moon laft night, had placed 
fome gabions near the fea fide, a little advanced be- 
yond the ftockadoe, a brilk fire was kept thereon 
from the fafcine battery, and a fally refolved to be 
made in the morning. Accordingly, about fix 
o'clock, a lubaltern and fifteen men were fent 
along the covered way till they got on the flank of 
the flock adoe ; forty more, with two Cap- 
tains, went dire(5lly in front of the ftocka- 
doe ; and twenty, with an Engineer, went with- 
out arms. The enemy ran from their pofl im- 
mediately, and our people took pofiTelfion, which 
they maintained till the gabions by the fea fide were 
overturned and thrown into the furf, the earth level- 
led, and the enemy's tools gathered up •, our party 
then returned, having only two men flightly woun- 
ded. The enemy being fired on by the north rave- 
lin, royal bailion, demi-baflion, and fafcine battery, 
with grape, befides all the works with mulketry, 
muft have loll many men. \\"e could 'have kept 


1759- siEGEOF FORT St. GEORGE. 279 

pofleflion of the ftockadoe if we pleated ; but it 
was not thought necelTary. The intent of the ene- 
my advancing by the fea fide, rauft be with a view 
to bring cannon againft our fafcine battery ; or un- 
der cover of the beach, which is fteep, to advance, 
by means of traverfes, till they got beyond our 
place of arms, and then make an attempt on that 
and the fafcine battery together. The enemy were 
remarkably quiet all night in their trenches and bat- 
teries, the only diflurbance they gave us being by a 
fhell or two now and then j thus they generally adl: 
when they are carrying on any work. Our working 
party conffted of twenty-four pioneers and thirty 
Sepoys, who were employed in clearing and repair- 
ing the embrafures of the north-ealt baftion, repair- 
ing the embrafures on the demi, and repairing the 
caponniere before the blind. 

Feb. J 5.] Lad night, before the rifing of the 
moon, the enemy replaced the gabions which had 
been overfet yefterday morning, and endeavoured 
to compleat the traverfe ; but the fire of a twelve 
pounder from the fafcine battery, and the (hells from 
the demi-bafhion, made fuch deftrudion among their 
gabions, that they advanced their work but little. 
Our working party, of thirty-five pioneers and for- 
ty Sepoys, were employed in repairing the north- 
eaft baition, the embrafures of the demi, one em- 
brafure on the royal, the demi caponniere before the 
blind, and driving the pickets in front of the fafcine 
battery. The mine being loaded, three pioneers at- 
tended it by turns, and were covered at night by 
ten grenadiers. 1 he enemy's fire to-day was very 
brifk in the morning from fix guns on their grand 
battery, three at the burying-ground, and two at 
the old holpital ; but at five in the evening they on- 
ly fired from three at the grand battery and two at 
the burying ground ; a great quantity of artillery in- 
deed to deftroy defences ! The French frigate hav- 

S 4 ing 

28o J O U R N A L OF THE 1759- 

ing returned the 14th at night, and anchored in St. 
Thome, road, the Tailors which we had on fhore, 
and thirty marines, were fent on board the Shaftef- 
bury, which failed to attack her about eleven at 
night ; but the frigate was gone out of fight by the 

Feb. 1 6.] Though the enemy laft night did not 
again attempt to pufli on their fap by the fea fide, 
we kept a biil'k fire till moon-light, and by their 
filence fufpeded them to be fomewhere at work. 
Our people were employed in laying large 
timbers and fand-bags on the beach, to make a 
platform at the fafcine battery for afliort iron twelve- 
pounder of a new make, weighing eleven hundred 
weight, of which two came on board the Shaftfbury ; 
in driving pickets in the front, and fecuring the 
flank of the fafcine battery by trees laid in the furf. 
A party of Sepoys were fent to level the earth at the 
foot of the demi-baftion ; but, the moon rifmg 
early they were difcovered and fired on by the ene- 
my, who killed one man, and the relt thereon aban- 
doned the w(;rk. The embraiures of the north- 
cart anddemi-baltions were repaired. The enemy's 
fire to-day was very brifl^ from their artillery, but 
they threw very few fliells. We got the platform 
ready on the beach for the iron twelve pounder by 
noon ; fo that we had two twelve and one fix poun- 
der to prevent the enemy's approach. About noon 
a tmall floop anchored in the road, and acquainted 
us, that our fhips were feen by her a few days be- 
fore in the latitude of fourteen north, and about 
five in the evening we perceived fix fail to the north 
ward, which we concluded to be ours -, and appre- 
hending the enemy, on fight thereof, might attempt 
fomething, the whole garrifon was ordered to lay on 
their arms at the feveral pofis during the night. 

17.J The whole garrifon being at their pofls laft 
n!ght,a brilk fireof mufl<:etry was kept up againfl the 
enemy's works. About ten o'clock the fix (flips feen 


1759- SIEGE OF FOR T St. GEORGE. 281 

in the evening anchored in our road, and were 
known to be thofe we expeded from Bombay. A 
few pioneers only were employed to lay plank, with 
nails drove through ihem, in front of the fafcine 
battery. About two in the morning the enemy fired 
pretty fmartly from musketry, but their fhot flew 
high i fires appeared at the fame time in their 
trenches, and, by morning, we difcovered that the 
approaches were evacuated, and the enemy were 
quitting the Black-town, having nailed up all the 
guns they could fire from, and deftroyed the car- 
riages which they thought ferviceable. The troops, 
about fix hundred in number, were landed this 

Thus terminated the fiege of Fort St. George, af- 
ter the garrifon had been fhut up fixty-feven days, 
and the enemy's batteries had been open forty-fix. 
The arrival of the fhips from Bombay with fuccours, 
doubtlefs, haftened the enemy retreat, and faved 
the Black-town. 

As nothing very different from what is met with 
in all fieges, or laid down as general maxims, was 
pradtifed in our defence, it will be unnecellary to en- 
ter into a particular recapitulation ; but I cannot 
withjuftice omit the following circumftances. To 
the credit of our artillery let it be remarked, that 
two twelve-pounders from the north ravelin difmoun- 
ted four twenty four pounders oppofed to them •, and 
that, of thirty- two pieces of cannon found on the 
enemy's batteries, thirty-one were difabled by our 
fhot, which are many more than we had hurt by the 
enemy, notwithftanding our works were enfiladed, 
■ plunged into, and taken in reverfe. I mud alfo 
mention, as a thing not common in fieges, that the 
works, by a few men, were kept in extraordinary 
good repair, and three guns, with a flout parapet, 
were maintained on the north er. ft baflion from 
the firfl to the lafl day of the fiege. An additi- 
on was alfo made of a battery by the fea fide, and 


282 JOURNAL OF THE 1759 

and two pieces more were fired the i6th of Februa- 
ry than the 14th of December. Nor muft I forget 
to obferve, that a few raw men, taken from the pi- 
oneer company, greatly out-did the much boafted mi- 
ners of the French, who were to blow whole baftions 
into the air : for, after the breaching battery was e- 
re(5ted, thofe men, without having feen any thing 
of the kind before, and without any previous pre- 
paration of ftantions or tools, were fent to open the 
counterfcarp, and, by continued hard labour, car- 
ried a fhaft ninety five feet in length under the ene-- 
my's battery, where two chambers were made, and 
loaded with two hundred and fifty pounds of pow-. 
der each. This work was executed within a few 
feet of the enemy, and in fight of their lodgment 
on the glacis. They faw, and dreaded, but could 
not interrupt it, though we loft many men. Who- 
ever confiders the nature of the foil, and that 
the fhaft was carried on under the explofion of 
the enemy's guns, which every day made the earth 
fall in, muft allo^v this to have been a moft laborious 
and hazardous undertaking. 

I will now proceed to a particular view of the ene- 
my's approaches and batteries, as they were the day 
the fiege was raifed , beginning with that on the 
creft of the glacis. 

This battery opened with five embrafures ; three 
of which were uitended to breach the faliant angle 
of the demy baftion, and two to fire againft the 
blind and north-eaft j but the conftrudion and pofi- 
tion was fo ill contrived, that the enemy were ob- 
liged to clofe the embrafures every day, after firing 
a few (hot, which in general flew over. The ha- 
vock made in this battery by our (hells and (hot, 
muft certainly have been very great j for feven guns, 
eighteen and twenty-four pounders, with their car- 
riages, lav difablcd. 



The lodgment on the eaft fide of the covered 
way, and behind the ftockadoe, inflead of being 
raifed with a thick parapet well faced with /afcines, 
and banquets made below, was nothing more than a 
little loofe earth, thrown up into fome gabions pla- 
ced without order. Nor were the crotchets or de- 
mi parallels, which ought to have been capacious 
and we'll made works, formed in any other manner 
than the common zig-zags,which were a kind of flying 
fap about four feet broad ; fo that, undoubtedly, 
•had it ever been necefl'ary to refolve on attacking the 
enemy's trenches with a body of ftair or five hun- 
dred men, we could not have failed to drive them 
from their grand battery, and nail up all their guns. 

Near the foot of the glacis, on the face of a zig- 
zag, was a battery of four embrafures, intended to 
ruin the parapet and difmount the guns of the right 
face of our north ravelin ; but the alligment of the 
parapet was fo far from parallel to its objed, that it 
was hardly poflible to twift the embrafures into an 
opening that the guns might fee our work. Here lay 
four twenty-tour pounders difabled. 

On that part of the fecond crotchet to the right 
of the zig-zag, the enemy had fired three eight and 
ten inch mortars, and left behind them two dilabled 

In the grand battery, which opened fifteen embra- 
fures (of which three were direded to the north ra- 
velin, and twelve on the demi and north eaft bafti- 
ons) were fix guns mounted on their carriages ; and 
though the enemy had fired from four of them the 
1 6th in the evening, yet all but one had received 
confiderable damage' on the muzzles, and might, in 
fadt, be reckoned difabled ; there were, befides, five 
guns with their carriages, and lome Ipare ones diP 
mounted and ruined. Behind the right wing of this 
battery the enemy had fix mortars of twelve French 


2841 JOURNAL OF THE 1759- 

inches, but removed them to make room for guns, 
leaving two difabled beds. 

In the battery a little to the left of the burying- 
ground, which was tolerably well built, and opened 
four embrafures, were three guns mounted on their 
carriages, which had been fired the preceding 
evening, but were all damaged on their muzzles. Five 
guns in the battery, and one more, near, lay dif- 
mounted, and three carriages by them ruined. This 
battery, to appearance, was built with a defign to 
enfilade the right face of the north ravelin and the 
covered way before it ; but it was placed a ccmfider- 
able diftance to the left of the face produced, and 
confequently could not anfwer that purpofe ; its 
greateft execution was on the face of thedemi bafti- 
on, near the fhoulder, againft which two guns con- 
ftantly played. 

On the fide of the old townditch, behind a deep 
bank oppofite the Portugueze church, were the re- 
mains of four mortar platforms and two difabled 
beds ; and from hence the enemy threw their heavy 
fhells after they had made their lodgment on the 
creft of the glacis. 

On the battery to the left of the old hofpital, I 
could not difcover any guns ; but imagine fome 
mufl have been difabled and buried, as that battery 
was filent feveral days before the enemy's retreat. 
It was built among the ruins of houfes, and had fix 
embrafures, from two of which the enemy for ibme 
days battered the left face of the royal ; but after- 
wards with four only enfiladed the right face and the 
covered way before it, took the right flank in re- 
verie, and plunged into the demi baftion. Adjoin- 
ing to this battery on the left was another in a diflfe- 
rent diredion, which opened four embrafures, and 
from whence three guns were fired on the right face 
oi" Pigot's bailion for a few days, after which it was 
filent j but w iih what view the enemy direded any 


1759- siKGE OF FORT St. GEORGE. 285 

fire on that work, no one ever could conceive, be- 
caufe that baflion could neither be attacked nor of- 
fend them. 

The battery built in the front of the new hofpital, 
near the place where the Company's garden-houfe 
formerly flood, had four embrafures, and as many 
guns were conflantly fired from thence, till a few 
days before the fiege was raifed. It was intended, I 
fuppofe, to ricochet and plunge into all the works 
of the north front ; and indeed it might have pro- 
ved the moft troublefome battery to us of all which 
the enemy eredled : but I do not think they had can- 
non enough on it, nor that thofe they had were ma- 
naged with the greatefl addrefs. There were nei- 
ther guns nor carriages found on this battery, and 
perhaps none were difabled on it; becaufe, as the 
guns always fired en ricochet, the embrafures were 
choaked in front, and the guns not to be feen. 



O N T H E 

Coaft of Coromandel. 


TH E enemy when they raifed the fiege the 
17th of February, marched off with (b much 
precipitation that the Black-town efcaped the de- 
ft rudion with which it had been threatned by M. 
Lally. He marched diredtly to the Mount, where 
he left marks of his refentment unworthy of a 
foldier. Among the reft of his devaftations, he 
ordered three barrels of gunpowder to be lodged in 
Colonel Lawrence's country houfe, and blew it up. 


1759- AV A R ON THE, ISc. . 287 

The next morning he reached Conjeveram, and 
immediately began to fortify it againfl: a fudden 
attack ; but the want of bullocks, Cooleys 
and other necelFaries, made it impradicable 
for our army to take the field till the beginning 
of March. We had then repoffelTed Poonomal- 
Jay and TrepalTore, having about thirteen or four- 
teen hundred Europeans, for the reinforcement 
which arrived the feventeenth of February, amoun- 
ted to fix hundred men compleat, and with thefe 
were the Black army of Ifouf Cawn and the Na- 
bob's brother. 

Colonel Lawrence who commanded, being de- 
firous of bringing on an adion, marched towards 
Conjeveram, and moved round it, expofing his 
flank \ but as he found nothing could provoke 
the enemy to ftir, and being in a very bad (late 
ot health, he prudently refolved to quit the 
command rather than fubjed himfelf to certain 
fatigue (which he could not bear) without a pro- 
fpedt of performing the fervice he was defirous to 
accomplifh, he therefore returned to England, 
leaving the command to Major Brereton, a gal- 
lant officer, and next in rank to Colonel Draper, 
whofe ill ftate of health obliged him likewife to 
leave a climate which was fo prejudicial to him, 
that he found it neceffary to take the firfl op- 
portunity of withdrawing himfelf from the bad 
effedl of it. He accordingly took his paffage in 
a China fhip, and left the garrifon full of regret 
for the lofs of a brave officer who had endeared 
himfelf to them by every other part of his con- 
dudl and behaviour. 

Major Brereton, to draw out the enemy if pof^ 
fible to an engagement, made a motion towards 
Wandewafh, and opened ground before that place. 
The French marched to relieve it, and came 


28S W A R ON THE ^7 $9' 

within nine miles of our army, who advanced 
between three or four miles towards them, where 
they remained two days under arms. Major 
Brereton finding the enemy had taken a poft 
which from its ftrength, it was not prudent for 
him to attack, and being informed that they 
had left but a fmall force in Conjeveram, made 
a forced march in the night of the 12th of April, 
and the day aft^r entered the town. It was gar- 
rifoned by fiv'e hundred black troops commanded 
by Muftapha Beg, an enterprizing partizan, who 
left our fervice, withdrawing himfelf from Captain 
Prefton, during the fiege of Madrafs. Muftapha 
Beg retired with his party to the Pagoda, where 
he made an obftinate refiflance till he was killed, 
with the greateft part of his followers ; but not 
till they had made the beliegers fufFer in their 
turn, by the lofs of four officers, though fcarce 
any men in proportion. Major Monfon, as he 
was reconnoitring, received a wound which en- 
tered near his ear, pafTed through his cheek, and 
came out near his nofe, but he never found any 
great inconvenience from it. Major Brereton, in 
the attack, received, a contufion on his knee which 
laid him up for fome time, and Major Caillaud 
was wounded in the cheek. 

Thefe accidents loft them the critical time 
of adion, for the enemy were never in a worfe 
condition ; being ready for a general mutiny for 
want of cloathing and pay. The defertion of 
the infantry v/as very great, and fifty HufTars 
coming over to us were an addition of a 
very uieful corps, and of moft particular bene- 
fit at this jundure, as they helped to over- 
come a very falfe prejudice which our people 
had hitherto entertained, that fuch troops were 
ufelefs ; whereas in fadt though exceedingly 
cxpenfive, they are abfolutely necefTary for 


>759- Coast of COROMANDEL, zSp 

/ome particular fervices, and the Sepoys are always 
in the greateft dread of them. Upon thefe confi- 
derations it was at length refolved to raife a body 
of between two and three hundred HuiTars, 

Being in polTeirion of Conjeveram we remained 
there a month, as did M. Lally at Cauvery-pauk, 
till having contrived to cloath his men, and perfuad- 
ing himfelf that they would be inclined for adion, 
upxjn intelligence that Ifouf Cawn was returned to 
Trichinopoly, and that the Nabob's brother had 
alfo left the army, he moved towards Conjeveram. 
About this time the regiment grew very fickly, and 
it being thought that a change might be of fervice 
to them, Major Brereton marched them towards the 
enemy at the fame time that the French alfb had juft 
put themfelves in motion, fo that tlie tv/o armies 
unexpededly found themfelves near each other Ma- 
ny of Draper's battalion being recruits unufed to* 
fervice, and ftrange to the climate, were (6 affeded 
by it, that in a march of eight miles, fix of them 
fell down dead, and ninety were taken ill, and by 
the inclement heat, rendered unfit for fervice. 

Thp r e was no hefitating in a cafe of this nature, 
for M. Lally being informed of thefe extraordinary 
accidents, was in full march ; therefore a retreat was 
immediately made to Conjeveram. M. Lally ad- 
vanced within three miles of the place, and the En-^ 
giilli could not reconcile it to their fenfe of honour 
to be fhur up within walls. Major Brereton being 
greatly affeeted by the climate, they marched out 
under Major Monfon, who though he was prevailed 
on not to rifque a general ad\ion againft eighteen 
hundred Europeans, had the good fortune to be 
fuccefsful in feveral fldrmiilies, faftained two fmall 
attacks which M. Lally made on him, in both which 
he repulfed the enemy ; and having killed a Captain, 
a fubaltern, and eighteen grenadiers, rendered his 
fmall force fo refpeftable to the enemy that M. Lally, 
convinced that there was no real difpofition in his 

T array 

2go War on the, &e. 1759 

army for an engagement, prudently decamped and 
marched in the night to Trivatoor, which is twenty 
miles diflant. He then fent his army into canton- 
ments and went himfelf to Pondichery, heartily tir- 
ed of his command and of the country, as he would 
not fcruple frequently to declare. The fame com- 
plaints were univerfally made by all his ofhcers, and 
moft furprizing it is that they could fo long keep 
together, unpaid, a body of troops continually cla- 
mouring for their arrears. At length the whole re- 
giment of Lorraine mutinied to a man, and taking 
pofiellion of four guns, marched out of the garrifon 
^yith their colours to a confiderable diftance, where 
they declared their refolution to fupport themfelves, 
and put the neighbouring country under contribution 
for their maintenance. The officers followed them 
and by entreaty and promifes endeavoured to prevail 
with them to return to their duty. The intention 
of the foldiers was not to defert to the Englilh ; but 
only to declare off from ferving without pay ; there- 
fore the officers were never able to get from them 
any other anfwei? but that they would agree to re-r 
turn, provided their arrears were paid in three days, 
Gtherwife they would, from that moment, begin to 
fubfift themfelves in the country. Advice of this 
being difpatched to PcMidichery, a fupply of money 
was immediately fent out, and difpatched on the 
third day, with a promife that the remainder of their 
arrears fhould be paid in a week. Upon this the 
regiment returned to their quarters, and it is remark- 
able, that not a man. of them deferted. 


1758. ( 291 ) 

Colonel FORDE's Expedition 

T o 

G O L C O N D A. 

[i758.]^^T^HE events which preceded, and which 
JL immediately followed the fiege of Fort 
St. George, being thus continued to the prefent ftate } 
of inaction, the great and glorious undertakings, and * 
providential fuccefs which bieft the Englifh arms in * 
other parts of the country, may here find a place 
without impropriety or interruption. 

M, Lally, as foon as he refolved on the fiege of 
Fort St. George, fent orders to Golconda for M. Dc 
Buffy and M. Moracin to join him with part of their 
forces, leaving the command of the army at Ma- 
fulipatam, with the Marquis De Conflans. Soon 
after the departure of IVj. De BulTy, the country 
powers, heartily tired of the French yoke, embraced 
this opportunity to throw it off The Raja of Vifana- 
pore colled^ed an army of about three thoufand men^ 
marched to Vizagapatam, imprifoned the French 
chief, plucked down their colours, and horfted En- 
glifli in their ftead, and at the fame time plundered 
the faClory. The Marquis De Confians, in order to 
punifh this infult, marched his army from Mafulipa- 
tarn, purpofing to reduce the Raja, and take his 
capital Vilanapore. The Raja not being able to make 
liead againft the French army, applied to Colonel 
Clive at Calcutta, acquainting him with what he had 
done at Vizagapatam, and reprefenting that M. De 
SutTy had taken moft of the European forces out of 
the country. He affured him, that all the country 
powers were unanimous in defiring to be freed from 
the tyranny of the French ; and that with a fmall 
ajfiflance of Europeans, he would engage to drive 

T :i them 


292 Expedition to 175^. 

them entirely out of thofe parts. Colonel Give 
weighed every part of this precarious enterprize with 
that coolnefs and found judgment, which few men 
polTefs in the deliberation on great and perilous un- 
dertakings. The council, to whom he communica- 
ted his plan, confidered it in no other light than as 
hazardous in the execution, and fubjeft to the moft 
fatal confequences in cafe of ill fuccefs. Thefe did 
not efcape the attention of Colonel Clive, but he vvas 
at the fame time juftly prepoireffed with the idea of 
what had been fo familiar to him on the coaft of 
Coromandel, where he had fo often feen an army 
of French flying before an handful of Englifh ; and 
he knew that fuch an event, which he confidered as. 
more than probable, would greatly contribute to the 
prcfervation of Madrafs. Animated by the expedla- 
tion which he with reafon entertained, and confiding 
in his own experience, he took upon himfeif to influ- 
ence the council in an affair of fo great difficulty, 
and preferring the feciirity of Madrafs to any ho- 
nours or advantages he might acquire to himfeif by 
a larger command, chofe rather to weaken his own 
army by detaching two-thirds of his force, than not 
prevent the Marquis De Conflans from reinforcing 
M. Lally at fo critical a eonjundure.. 

If the dangers incident to the profecutiori of this 
enterprize were fo alarming, thofe alfo merited atten- 
tion which threatened Calcutta, if this expedition had 
not been undertaken. For it fhould be remarked, 
that at this very time the Shaw Zadah was preparing 
to march againfl: the Soubah, our ally ; and it was 
neceflary, for the prefervation of all our fettlements 
in thofe parts, to lead an European force to repulfe 
him. Therefore it fhould be explained, that had 
M. Lally fucceeded againft Madrafs, the fuperiority 
of our fleet would have been no fecurity to Bengal, 
and our vi(fiorious troops at Patna might have ex- 
perienced a fiital reverfe of fortune, by finding them- 
felves cut off from all polTibility of a return, it being 


Z758. GOLCONDA. 293 

nearer by land to Calcutta, from thofe parts of Gol- 
conda, which were polTeft by the French, than it is 
from Patna to that Settlement, 

Preparations were made with the greateft ex- 
pedition, and Colonel Forde was ordered for the com- 
mand of the army, confifling of five hundred Euro- 
peans, including a company of artillery, and fixteen 
hundred Sepoys, with fix fhort fix-poundcrs, and a 
howitzer for the field artillery ; four twenty-four 
pounders, four cighteen-pounders, one eight inch 
mortar, and two royal mortars, as a battering train. 

The troops embaiked the 12th of Odtober, and 
on the 20th arrived at Vizagaparam. Mr. Johnflone 
who was fent before to the Raja, to inform him of 
.their failing, and prepare for their reception, waited 
on Colonel Forde, to acquaint him that the Raja's 
army, confifling of between three or four thoufand 
men^-were encamped about thirty miles diftant, but 
that the French were much flronger than they were 
reprefented, and that the M de Conflans, with his 
army, was on this fide Rajamundry river, diftant 
from Vizagapatam about one hundred and twenty 
miles ; and that by the beft intelligence he could 
procure, they amounted to near fix hundred Euro- 
peans, five or fix thoufand Sepoys, and many coun- 
try forces, who had joined them on their march. 

The remainder of this month was taken up in 
landing the troops, and providing bullocks, cooleys, 
and other requifites for their march ; and on the firft 
of November they moved from Vizagapatam towards 
the Raja's army, which they joined the third, and 
marched together for forae days. 

Mr. Andrews, who was fent from Madrafs with 
orders from the governor and council to take charge 
of the factory at Vizagapatam, together with Cap- 
rain Callinder, and fome of the company's fervanis, 
joined the army the fifteenth. They paid their court 
to the Raja in form, introduced by Colonel Forde. 
T 3 Here 

g!94 Expedition to 175^. 

Here the Colonel (while Mr. Andrews was prefent) 
fettled articles of agreement between the company 
and the Raja. 

I. The Raja to pay the extra expence of our 
army during the time they fhould adl together, al- 
lowing the officers double batty, which was to be 
paid when we rtiould put him in polTeilion of Raja- 
mundry, (a large town and fort then in polTellion of 
the French.) 

II. The Raja to poflefs all the inland country that 
belongs to the country powers in the French intereft, 
and at prefent in arms. 

III. The company to poflefs all the conquered fea 
coaft from Vizagapatam to Mafulipatam, E^c. 

Thefe articles being agreed to and figned, Mr. 
Andrews took his leave of the Colonel, and returned 
to his fettlement at Vjzagaparam : Captain Callinden^ 
as fenior officer, commanded as fecond in camp. 

The army marched for feveral days till they came 
"within fight of the enemy's camp the third of De- 
cember, which was near the village of Tallapool, 
llrongly fituated about forty miles on this fide Ra- 
jamundry ^ they had upwards of five hundred Eu- 
ropeans, thirty-fix pieces of cannon, and fome mor- 
tars, eight thoufand Sepoys, and a great many of the 
country powers. On the fixth, Colonel Forde march- 
ed nearer the enemy, and gained an eminence at 
about three miles diftance from their camp. The 
French feemed not inclined to quit their ftation, and 
the Colonel did not approve ot attacking them to fo 
great a difadvantage, therefore determined cither to 
draw them from their prefent fituation, or march 
round them and get between their army and Raja- 
mundry. About fix o'clock in the evening the Colo- 
nel waited on the Raja to inform him of his intenti- 
ons, and orders were given out late for the army tq 
march at half an hour after four in the morning, no 
morning-gun to fire, and no beating of drums, but 
fhe greateft filence to be obferved. The M. de 

Con flans 

175?- GOLCONDA. 295 

Conflans expecfling the Colonel would wait at his 
ground, and being informed by one of our defer- 
ters, that the troops were all raw, and unexperienced 
in difcipline, determined to -cannonade our camp, 
and the deferter undertook to fiiew the enemy where 
they might mofl: annoy our people. Their whole 
troops were under arms at one o'clock in the morn- 
ing, and a large party was detached with fix pieces 
of cannon conduced by the deferten 

Our army ftruck their tents, an-d marched at the 
iiour appointed, not knowing of the enemy's inten- 
tions. The Raja's army being not fo alert, was 
left on their ground. A little before day-break, the 
French began their cannonade, not being informed 
of our march ; this greatly difconcerted the Raja, 
who difpatched a meflenger after the Colonel, ac- 
quainting him with his diRrefs. Our men were 
ordered to halt, and the Colonel returned and brought 
up the Raja's army. They then marched on toge- 
ther till they came to the village of Golapool, and 
there they halted on a fmall plain, about three miles 
from their encampment : In the mean time the 
M. de Conflans obferving our army had moved, and 
perceiving our intentions of ftealing a march round 
him, ordered his troops immediately in line of march, 
and proceeded towards us, keeping between our 
army and his own camp. Wechad not halted above 
half an hour before we difcovered the enemy's Se- 
poys, and prefently after their whole line, about 
ten or twelve hundred yards diftant on cur left 
flank : In a few minutes after they clofed, and mov- 
ed down towards us in good order. 

About nine our line was frrmed, but the Indian 
army not recovered of their morning fright, were 
ail in confufion. The Raja, confcious of the ill be^ 
haviour of his troops, and alfo of his own negled, 
upon Colonel Forde's remonfl:rances, fubmitted the 
difpofal of them for the future entirely to him ; 
upon which the Colonel ordered all the Ir^dians, 
T 4 with 

29^ EXPEBITION TO 1758. 

with fire arms, to form upon the right ?nd left of 
our Sepoys on each wing, as the enemy's line ex- 
tended much further than ours. Captain Eriftol, 
a European in the Raja's fervice, commanding a 
fmall body of European deferters, with four jie^es 
of cannon, was ordered to join our artillery on the 
left of the battalion. 

The enemy began a cannonade about ten o'clock,- 
which was continued by a fiiarp fire from both ar- 
mies for upwards of forty minutes, at which time 
we obferved the enemy's battalion, and their right 
wing of Sepoys, with a body of horfe moving up, 
in order to fall upon our left ^ank, for they miftook 
pur battalion of Sepoys on the left wing for Euro- 
peans, being cloathed in red cloth jackets The 
French drawing near, poured in their whole fire 
upon them, which was returned by our Sepoys 
pretty fmartly, though they were iii fome confufion, 
giving v.'ay at the fame time, while the enemy kept 
?^dvancing. On feeing this. Colonel Forde ordered 
the European battalion to make a quarter wheel as 
quick as pollible. They had but jufl time to make 
their proper front, before the enemy's European 
battalion were advanced very clofe. Our people 
gave them their whole fire, which made a great 
ilaughter, and giving two or three huzzas at the 
fame time, advance^ brifldy in order to pufh bayo- 
nets. This motion being fo fudden on the enemy, 
they had not time to recover their mifiake ; at the 
fame time our cannon galled them greatly with grape 

As our troops advanced, tlieir men gave way, and 
foon fell into diforder, going to the right about. 
Our Sepoys on the left wing, that had before given 
way, renewed their charge ; and thofe on the right 
wing behaved with uncommon refolution, and foon 
made the enemy's Black forces on the left give 
ground, by which means about eleven o'clock the 
retreat became general. The Raja's troops, except 


1758. GOLCONDA. 297 

the few Europeans commanded by Captain Briftol, 
all this time were idle fpedtators, only firing a few 
rockets. Had the Raja's horfe, which were at moft 
five hundred, purfued at this jundure, few or none 
of the French could have efcaped ; but there was 
no poffibility of getting them to charge, or even ad- 
vance beyond our European battalion. The other 
part of his army were more intent upon plunder 
than fighting. The enemy attempted to rally again 
at their camp, but were fo clofely purfued, that they 
were obliged to difperfe in fmali bodies, making the 
beft of their way for Rajamundry. We took pof- 
feflion of their camp, with all their ordnance, am- 
munition, ftores, tents, and camp equipage -, the 
enemy not having time to carry off any thing but 
four fmali field-pieces, and two camels loaded with 
money and papers, which the Marquis de Conflans 
had ordered away on the firft diforder of their army 
to Rajamundry, there to wait his further orders. 
The Marquis, with the commandant of artillery, 
and their attendants, on finding we had got polTef- 
fion of their camp, made off without waiting for 
any of their fcattered troops, and getting to Raja- 
mundry th^t night, proceeded the next day to Maf- 

Our army being much fatigued, the Colonel halt- 
ed in the French camp for the remainder of the 
day. After placing the proper guards of the camp, 
and fecuring our prifoners, all the pallankeens be- 
longing to the officers, and the covered chairs (which 
they call dooleys) were fent back to the field of bat- 
tle to bring the wounded of both armies. The 
French officers taken prifoners had their paroles gi- 
ven, and leave to go along with our fick and wound- 
ed to Cockanara, a Dutch fettlement about twenty 
miles from the field of battle. 

We had forty -four Europeans killed and wounded, 
Simong which were two Captains and three Lieute- 
pants i and the French, one hundred and fifty-fix, 


29S Expedition to ^75^. 

officers included. Great numbers of the Black for- 
ces fell on both fides. 

It was a mod compleat vidory, for the enemy loft 
their whole camp, baggage, ammunition, and all their 
artillery, except the four field -pieces above mention- 
ed. Our people took thirty-tvvo pieces of cannon, 
and the Indian army alfo took fome guns. Though 
the enemy had fuch a number of guns, they were 
ill manned, by which means, when their line ad- 
vanced, the artillery became ufelefs, being all left in 
the rear, while our guns moving with the battalion, 
were conflantly in play. 

Captain Knox, with the firft battalion of Sepoys, 
was ordered that evening to purfue the enemy as far 
as Rajamundry, and there wait the arrival of the 
army ; and the next day, upon receiving intelligence 
that the French were very ftrong at Rajamundry, 
having colled^ed together moft of the fcattered parties 
of Europeans, and fome Black forces, the Colonel 
detached Captain Maclean, with two battalions of 
Sepoys, to reinforce Captain Knox ; being joined, 
they marched, and came upon the enemy in the 
duik of the evening, while they were crolling the 
river in boats. They killed fome Europeans, and 
took fifteen prifoners ; as for the Sepoys, they threw 
down their arms and difperfed. Captain Knox took 
poflfeflion of the fort of Rajamundry, and from thence 
cannonaded the enemy acrofs the river, which obli- 
ged them to abandon the four field-pieces left in the 
boats on the oppofite fide. 

Rajamundry is a barrier and key to the Vizagapa- 
tam country ; the French held it as their own pro- 
perty, and always kept a governor, and a fmall body 
of troops to garrifon it. 

In this fort were taken more artillery, ammuniti- 
on, and {lores, with about five hundred draught and 
carriage bullocks, fome horfes and camels, and a 
sood deal of rich furniture. The Colonel referved 
"^ - all 

J758. G O L C O N D A. 299 

all the military {lores for the company, and the re- 
mainder of the efFeds were fold by aiidion, and 
.divided as a reward to the troops for their good 
behaviour. The army encamped without the tovvn 
by the river's fide j one company of Sepoys doing 
duty in the fort, and another in the town, to prevent 
any difturbance. 

Colonel Forde now called upon the Raja to fulfil 
the terms of agreement, and pay the extra expences ; 
but the Indian Chief, like all his countrymen, could 
not bear the thoughts of parting with money, and 
pleaded, as ufual, the impolfibility of doing it with- 
out going about the country to collect the revenues. 
As it was impradicable to carry on any military ope- 
rations without money to pay the troops, and pro- 
vide for their march, the Colonel was obliged to in- 
lill upon the Raja's complying with the articles which 
were fo folemnly agreed to by him, who after many 
frivolous excufes, and even endeavouring to lay the 
blame on the interpreter, convinced at length by the 
juftice, neceflity, and intereft he had in enabling the 
troops to take the field about the middle of January, 
he paid the money, and at the fame time Colonel 
Forde dehvered up the fort of Rajamundry. The 
Raja appqinted Captain Briftol, a European in his 
fervice^ governor of this fortrefs ; and under his care 
were left the fick and wounded, and alfo the fpare 
artillery, and fome baggage. Both armies now march- 
ed towards MaiTulipatam, Colonel Forde taking the 
diredl road, arrived at Elore the fixth of February, 
where he waited for the Raja, who went out of the 
hne of march to raife contributions. 

The French had a fadory at Narfipore, about 
twenty miles from Elore, at which place there were 
a hundred Europeans, and fome Sepoys ; and M. 
Panneau the Chief feemed determined to defend it. 
Captain Knox with the firft battalion of Sepoys, was 
detached againft him, and letters were fent by the 
folonel's orders to the Raja of Narfipore and his 


300 Expedition re 1758. 

brother, that in cafe they offered to molefl Captain 
Knox's party, or give the French the lead afljflance, 
they might exped to lee their whole country ruined ; 
at the fame time offering him proper encouragement 
to induce him to enter into our alliance. The Raja 
of Narfjpore having received the Colonel s letter, 
met Captain Knox on the march, offering him af- 
fiftance, and promifing to join the army in a few 
days with what forces he could raife. On the ap- 
proach of our party, iVl. Panneau fent away all the 
company's goods in boats to Mallulipatam, and car- 
ried the garrilbn to join the army of obfervation, 
which was encamped about forty miles m our front, 
confifting of two hundred and fifty Europeans, two 
thoufand Sepoys, and four pieces of cannon. This 
flying army always kept a day or two's march be- 
fore us, obferving our motions, and harafling the 
country in order to diftrefs us, and retard our march. 

There were found in Narfipore two four and 
twenty pounders, three twelve pounders, and fome 
fmall guns, with feveral veilejs, boats, and marine 
ilores. All the ammunition M. Panneau had funk 
jin the river. 

The Raja's army coming up the eighteenth, and 
being joined the next day by the Raja of Narfipore, 
marched together with Colonel Forde, and encamp- 
ed near a fmall fort, called Concale, on the twenty- 
fixth. Here the French had placed a ferjeant, with 
tliirteen Europeans, and two companies of Sepoys, 
giving him ftrict orders to maintain the place to 
the laft extremity. Captain Maclean, with fix com- 
panies of the fecond battalion of Sepoys, was de- 
tached againft it. The French commandant of the 
army of obfervation had (ent the ferjeant word, 
that if he could maintain the fort till the following 
day, he v/ould fend him a large reinforcement. On 
the approach of our detachment the enemy fired 
fmartly upon them from the cannon of the fort, 
however, by the help of a rifing ground, and the 


i>75S. GOLCONDA. 301 

adjacent hoiifes of a village, our Sepoys in veiled 
it clofe round. Captain Maclean attempted to force 
the gate, but was twice repulfed with lofs, having 
feveral of his men killed and wounded ; and find- 
ing it impollible to gain an entrance without can- 
non, he wrote to the Colonel, acquainting him with 
what had been done, and requefting a fmall re- 
inforcement, and two guns, which were immedi- 
ately fent, with an officer of artillery, v/ho advanced 
iiis guns clofe up to the gates, and blew them open. 
Our Sepoys entered, and made a great flaughter 
among the enemy's Sepoys : as for the Europeans, 
they hid themfelves ti'l our people ceafed firing. 

Some few hours after we had been in poiTellion 
of the fort, a country fellow brought intelligence of 
a party of forty Europeans, and fomc Sepoys, ad- 
vancing to the relief of the place, upon which Cap- 
tain Maclean marched his detachment out of the 
fort, on a fmall plain to the weft of them ; but the 
French party hearing that the fort was taken, re- 
turned back to their own army. 

The Marquis de Conflans was encamped in the 
Pettah, or village, diftant about two miles from the 
walls of MaiTulipatam. Here the army was fup- 
plied with water, for it is to be obferved that there 
are no frefh fpringa in the garrifon, and here they 
were pofted to fo great advantage, that it is furpri- 
fing the Marquis de Conflans did not chufe to keep 
poffeffion of that ground, from whence, if he had 
been obliged to retire, his retreat would have been 
covered by the guns in the garrifon. However, he 
did not chufe to hazard an adion at any rate ; but 
when Colonel Forde appeared on the fixth of March, 
he mgved into the fort, and our army encamped on 
the ground he quitted the fame afternoon. 

The French had an army of obfervation, confift- 
ing of about two hundred and fifty Europeans, and 
two thoufand Sepoys, who lay for fome time between 
cur army and Rajamundry, to cut off our fupplies 


302 Expedition to 1759. 

from thence : at length they fummoned Captain 
Briftol, who was obliged to furrender, having firft 
conveyed away by fea to Cockanara all the money 
which was lent him by Mr. Andrews from Vizaga- 
patam, for the iife of the army, and alfo the fick 
and wounded. The advantage which the enemy 
reaped from the taking of Rajamundry was the dif- 
appointing our army of the money, the feizing fuch 
baggage and effects of the officers as were left there, 
and making prifoners twenty Europeans, and forty 

MalTulipatam was invefled the fjventh o March, 
the fame day on which the news arrived that M. 
Lally had raifed the fiege of Fort St. George. 

From the feventh of March, to the feventh of 
April, the befiegers were conftantly employed in car- 
rying on the ufual and neceffary approaches. They 
bombarded the town, and deftroyed a great many 
houfes : they battered and made feveral breaches 
in the baftions, which the befieged, by their num- 
bers, very eafily repaired. On the fixth of April, 
breaches being made in two baftions, great hopes 
were entertained of our being able to attack the 
next day, but notwithftanding our continual fire all 
night, by the morning of the feventh, the enemy 
had repaired them ; and now the commander of 
artillery reprefented to the Colonel, that there was 
only two days ammunition remaining, having ex- 
pended upwards of four hundred barrels of powder, 
with fhot and fhells in proportion, that with briflc 
firing all day, the breaches might be opened again 
as before, but that was all that could be done fur- 
ther by the batteries. Upon this report, Colonel 
Forde knowing the confequence which muft una- 
voidably attend the raifmg the fiege, determined to 
attempt it by ftorm the fame evening. Accordingly 
the difpofition was fixed, and the army ordered to 
be under arms at ten o'clock at night. Depending 
wholly upon his Europeans, he deftined them for 


1759. COLCONDA. 303 

the effedual fervice : and to amufe the enemy with 
two falfe attacks, he ordered Captain Knox, vvith 
the firfl battalion of Sepoys, to march at dufk of 
the evening, round the town to the weftward, with 
diredions to draw as near the walls as poHible, and 
begin his fire exatflly at twelve o'clock. At the fame 
time the Raja of Vifanapore was to make another 
falfe attack by the gate way, and front of the de- 
tached ravelin, with orders to follow Captain Knox's 
fire, making as much noife as polTible by firing of 
cannon, fmall arms, and rockets, and uhng every 
other means to alarm and perplex the garrifon. The 
European battalion,, with part of the gunnery taken 
from the batteries, and fome feamcn from the Hard- 
wicke, and the fecond battalion of Sepoys, with two 
field-pieces, formed the main attack for the bafti- 
ons, where the breaches had been made. The 
firfl: battalion of Sepoys began their fire exadly 
at twelve o'clock, the hour appointed, which was 
followed by the army of the Raja according to his 

In the mean time the party for the grand attack 
eroffed the Morafs which furrounds the whole city, 
and came to the ditch before they were difcovered. 
The grenadiers and two battalions of Sepoys, 
puflied for one of the baftions where the breach 
had been made, and the battalion of Europeans with 
the gunners and feamen made' for the other. 
While the men were croffing the ditch, the enemy 
poured in upon them their fmall arms and grape- 
ihot from the flanks of the baft ions, which was 
fdon returned by our mufquetry. The enemy were 
driven from the breaches, but fhill kept up a fmart 
fire from the other works. As the two field pieces 
could not be got over the main ditch, the officer, and 
men belonging to the artillery, left them, and entered 
the town with the reft: of the troops, where they 
were of great fervice by turning the enemy's own 
guns again fl: them. In this manner they fought the 


304 EXPEDITIOJ? TO 1759' 

enemy, gaining baftion after baftion, till they ap- 
proached the gateway, and cut off their communica- 
tion from the detached ravelin. 

At this time a French officer came to the Colo- 
nel, from the Marquis de Conflans, afking quarter 
for the Garrifon. The Colonel fent a Captain with 
the French officer to the Marquis, with the follovving 
melfage, That he could not give quarter while re- 
fiftance was made in any part, and that unlefs the 
befieged would immediately ceafe firing, and fur- 
render themfelves, he lliould be obliged for his own 
fafety, to put the whole garrifon to the fword. 

The Marquis De Conflans difpatched his orders 
for the troops to quit their arms, and repair to 
the Arfenal, and fent the fame meflage to the out- 
pofts. The firing ceafed in about half an hour after, 
and the main body of our troops repaired to the 
Efplanade. A detachment of one hundred Euro- 
peans, tu'o companies of Sepoys, and two guns, 
were ported over the prifoners that night : the 
next day the gentlemen gave their paroles, and 
had liberty to walk about the town, and the 
Colonel fhewed them great lenity in granting all their 
effedls, except private trade, which was fecured for 
the captors. 

The enemy fuffered greatly, but it was never 
known exadtly what numbers they loft, but by com- 
paring their mufter rolls, with our number of pri- 
foners, which were four hundred and nine, they 
muft have had above a hundred Europeans killed 
during the fiege, their wounded being included 
amongft the prifoners. 

The ftrength of the Englifh in the grand attack 
was three hundred and twelve in battalion, thirty 
gunners, as many feamen, and feven hundred Sepoys. 
On the falfe attack of the gateway four thoufand of 
the Raja's forces, and feven hundred on the other, 
but neither of thefe entered the town. The ftrength 
of the enemy in garrifon according to their mufter 


1759- GOLCONDA. 30s 

rolls the 6th of March, was five hundred and tv.en- 
ty-two Europeans, and two thouiand and thirty nine 
Coffrees, TopaiTcs, and Sepoys. There were taken 
abov6 one hundred and fifty pieces of cannon, one 
thirty-two, and five tWenty-four pounders, and a 
great quantity of ammunition. 

Salabatzing advanced with his army v^'ithin about 
forty miles of Mafulipatam, fome days before it 
was taken, and there waited like a true Eaftern 
Politician tiie event of the fiege. Our fuccefs 
both there and at iVIadrafs, freed him from the flavifli 
dread of the French, which had too long influenced 
his councils. 

About the fame time his brother Nizam Allee, 
wh6 had fet up a feparate intereft, marched frorri 
Aurengabad, and arrived at Hyderabad. This was 
another circumftance that induced Salabatzing to 
wifh for the Alliance of the Englifli, and perhaps 
difpofed him the more readily to iign the following 

Treaty with Salabatzing^ Soubjl or Viceroy of the 

/The feal of\ 
y Salabatzing. J 

The whole of the Circar of MafTulipatam, with 
eight diftricts as well as the Circar of Nizampatam, 
and the diftricts of Codaver and Wacalmanner, 
fiiall be given to the Englifh Coir;pany, as an 
Enam (or free Gift) and the Saneds granted to 
them in the fame manner as was done to the 

Salabatzing will oblige the French troops which 
are in this country, to pafs the river Ganges with- 
in fifteen days, or fend them to Pondichery, or 
to any other place out of Deckan country on the 
other fide of the river Kriftna. In future he will 
DQ^t fufFer them to have a fettlenient in this country 


3o6 Exp EDIT TON to i"75^ 

on any account whatfoever, nor keep them in^ 
his fervice, nor aflift them, nor call them to his 

The Sonba will not demand- or call * Gauzapetty- 
rauze to an account for v/hat he has collected out 
of the Circars belonging to the French, nor for tha 
computation- of the revenues of his own country, 
in the prefent year, but let him remain peaceably in 
it in future, and according to the computation of 
revenues of his country, before the time of the 
French, agreeable to the cuftom of his grand-father 
and father, and as was then paid to the Circar, {o 
he will now adt and pay accordingly to the Circar, 
and if he (the Raja) does not agree to it, then- 
the Sou ba may do what he pleafes. In all cafes the- 
Souba will not affft the enemies of the Englifh, nor 
give them protection 

The Englifli on their part will not aflift the Souba's- 
enemies, or give them Protection. 

Dated Moon Ramadan, i6thHegira, 1172, which 
is the 14th of May, 1759. 

In the Souba's own hand". 

I fwear by God and his Prophet, and upon the 
Holy Alcoran, that I with pleafure agree to the re- 
quells fpecified in this paper, and ihall not deviate fronv 
it even an hair's bread-th. 

The French fhewed how greatly they valued this 
country, by detaching from Pondicherry four hun- 
dred men to reinforce an army which before was 
almolt double the number of Colonel Forde's. 
They fent this reinforcement on board the Harlem,, 
which they taok from the Dutch, and the Brillol. 
Thefe fhips arrived in the road of Maftulipatam tlie 
»5th of April, a very few days after the town was in 
the hands of the Englifh. 

The Hardwicke Indiaman, which was there at an- 
chor when fhe firft faw the French colours, got 

* The name of the Raja of Vifanapore. 


1759- GOLCO'ND^A. 367 

iinder-way, and made ready for an Engagement, 
which continued about an hour, during which time 
Mr. Samfon, the firft mate (the Captain his brother 
being afhore) had the addrefs to get to the wind- 
vard of the French, and came to an anchor. One 
of them alfo came to an anchof, but the other con- 
tinued beating up to windward about three hours, 
by which time Captain Samlim came on board. 
He was determined to fight his way through them 
and make for Bengd, where he wds to have carried 
a large number of prifoners, but had then only forty 
o'n board. The enemy's largefl: fhip got under fait 
at the fame time as the Hardwicke, and together with 
the other exciianged broadfides, till finding they 
were not able to come up with the Hardwicke, they 
returned and came to an anchor, and Vlr. Moracin,- 
who commanded the troops, not having heard the 
fate of the place, fent a boat afhore about midnight, 
with a letter to the Marquis de Conftans, to acquaint 
him that He had brought him fuccours, and that 
he fhoutld not difembark the men till he received 
his orders. The next morning difcovering his mrf- 
take, he failed for Ganjam, where he (laid till the 
beginning of November, as it was not poffible for 
them to return to Pondichery againft the Monfoon. 
There he loft forty men in an attack made on him by 
Narraindu, a Raja of thofe parts, who projedled 
every fcheme he could devife to cut them off by the 
fword, by famine, or poifon. Their numbers were 
greatly diminifiied by the above-mentioned diftreffes, 
and alto by dei'ertidn, and when all their proviilons 
and money were gone, the country people left 
them to the diftance of a league all round. 

Mr. Moracin then came away in a boat with his 
nephew and fecreiary, and arrived about the mid- 
dle of December at Pouliacat, in his way to Pon- 
dichery. There were about two hundred men left, 
who went to Cockanara, where fome of them landed, 
and were endeavouring to get- the people of ih? 

U 2 country 

3o8 S U R A T. 1759. 

Country to join them, but were attacked by Captain 
Fifcher, who took ten officers with one of the 
Rajas who had joined them, and fixteen Euro- 
peans, and killed feveral more, on wliich thofe 
that w^ere in the veflels tailed for Pondichery, and 
many of thefe were drowned. 

s u RAT. 

[i759.]TT being the defign of this work to treat 
J[ of fuch events as have been Ijrought. 
about by the military expeditions of the Englifh 
in India ; the lafl revolution in the government 
of Surat, muft be confidered as a neceffary part 
of this undertaking. 

To give the hiflory of the former ftate of this 
great commercial city, farther than it concerns 
the prefent change of government, would be here 
iinneceiTary, but without a reprefentation of fuch 
alterations in the jurifdidion of the city and caftle 
as have not only preceded, but conduced to bring 
about this revolution ; neither the caufes nor 
conduct of the tranfa6tions can be underftood. 

Surat has for fo many years been one of the 
moft frequented cities in the Eaft, that, from the 
concourfe of Mahometan pilgrims, who make it 
their road from India to vifit the tomb of their 
Prophet, it has been called the gate of Mecca. 
The caftle has always been held by a governor, 
appointed by the Mogul, to keep the city under 
proper lubjedion, but not to interfere with the 
government of it. 

The Indian feas having been infefted to an 
intolerable degree by pirates, the Mogul appoint- 
ed the Siddee, who was chief of a colony of Cof- 
frees to be his Admiral. It was a colony which, 
having been fettled at Dundee Rajapore, carried on 

a confidera- 

1759- S U R A T. .309 

a confiderable trade there, and had likewlfe many 
vefFels of force. 

The Mogul, being equally moved by zeal for 
the Mahometan religion, and a concern for the 
interefts of commerce, in order to keep the feas 
open between Surat, and the Perfian and Arabian 
gulphs, had been at the annual expence of a large 
(bip, purpofely fitted out to carry pilgrims to Judda, 
v/hich is no great diftance from Mecca. For the 
fecurity of this veflel, as well as to protect the 
trade of Surat, which was then very fiourifhing, 
he granted his Admiral, the Siddee, a revenue 
called the Tanka, to the yearly value of three lack 
of roupees, at the time it was firft fettled ; arifing 
partly from fome adjacent land, and partly from 
the revenues of Surat, which were paid him annually 
by the governor, while his officers were allowed 
to colled: his rents •, but he had not the leait 
title to any power independent of the marine. 

The ufual endeavours of all Mahometan chiefs 
to defraud or circumvent each other, are conti- 
nually producing revolutions. The government 
of Surat had for fome time been back- 
ward in their payments, and with-held great part 
of the fum ftipulated from the Siddee, who to 
make himfelf amends, took occafion to fend fome 
of his cruifers into the river of Surat, at a time 
when the Monfoon was fetting in, and then made 
a pretence of the feafon for remaining there. 
Siddee MufToot, the commander of that fqu;idron, 
made ufe of this opportunity to get fome kind 
of footing in the government, and to fcize on 
the caftle, which he held till his death, when he 
was fucceeded by his fon, in the year 1756= 

MuiToot not only retained the governmeni of 
the caflle, but gready encroached on that of the 
town, and appropriated to himfelf one third of 
its revenues ; anotlier third has long fmce been 
annually paid to the Marattas, and by ihem farm- 

U 3 ed 

3IO S U R A T. 17S9. 

cd out to an officer who refides in Surat. The 
walls of the town, with the afliflance of the Eu- 
ropeans who have fadories there, are a fufficient 
defence againft thefe plunderers ; but as they are 
at all times mafters of the whole country up to 
the very gates, it has been thought expedient tp 
pay them duly their allotment, rather than fub- 
]ct\ the inland trade to the many delays and diffi- 
culties with which it is in the power of the Ma- 
rattas to clog and interupt it. They are continu- 
ally hovering about the place, and watching for 
invitations which through the inconftancy and fluc- 
tuation of the governing powers of the city and 
caftle, they frequently receive, and though they 
know that their admiffion into the town would be 
the abfolute lofs of their revenue for the future, 
(for their government, wherever eftablifhed is f^- 
tal to trade) yet from their habitual paffion for 
plunder, they are ever feeding themfelves with 
hopes that fome governor in the dechne of his 
power will open the gates and invite them to a 
prefent booty, which no arguments of reafon or poli- 
cy can reftrain them from feizing. 

Meah A'^chund, had applied to them for their 
affiftance, to turn out Novas AUee Cawn from the 
government, who himfelf alfo entertained a fecret 
correfpondence with fome of the Maratta chiefs, 
Meah Atchund, was brought by a party of Ma- 
rattas frorn Poona, to the walls of the town ; 
having fo far availed himfelf of their affiftance, 
he difcarded them, for the Siddee preferring him 
to Novas Allee Cawn, whom he thought to be 
more dangeroufly connected with them, agreed to 
join Meah Atchund, and eftablifh him in the city, 
upon condition that he would abfolutely renounce 
their alliance : but as the government was con- 
tinually weakened by the incroachments of the 
caftle upon the town, it was daily expeded that 
ihe Marattas, would take advantage of this ftate 


5759- S U R A T. 51* 

of anarchy, to which it was in a manner reduced, 
•for the lavvlefs behaviour of the Siddee's fon filled 
•the city with riot and murders, while new exadi- 
■ons and additional burthens upon trade grew to be 

Jn the year 1758, ear-ne'ft application vvasmade 
to Mr. Ellis the Englifh -chief, by the principal 
merchants and inhabitants, de(iring him to -recom- 
mend it to the prefidency of Bombay, to fit out 
an expedition for taking poflefllon of the Caftle 
^nd Tanka. They enforced their felicitations by 
entering into an obligation to become refponfible 
for five years for any deficiency in the revenues 
•of the Caflle and Tanka, which were rated at two 
lack of roupees per annum. 

Pharras Cav/n, who had been Naib or deputy 
•governor to Meah Atchund, and properly (peaking 
the adiing magiflrate, had regulated the pohce to 
4he fatisfadion of the whole city ; therefore it was 
•propofed to have him for Governor, fmce he had 
Sufficiently fhewn how well he was -qualified for 
it by his condu6t and behaviour while he aded 
as Second. Thefe propofals were the more readily 
•approved and accepted, a^s the EnglilTi had been 
often gricvoufly oppreft by frauds, extortions, and 
many impediments thrown purpofely in the way of 
their bufinefs -, as aifo by frequent iniliks, violences, 
-and even murders committed on their Servants, 
v;'\xh a total d^fregard to the protedion of the 
;Company. It was alfo a confideration of no finall 
weight, that the polfeflion of the caftle would be 
a fecurity againft the apprehenfioii of the iMarat- 
tas. Thefe were arguments for undertaking fuch 
an enterprife at any time, but what determined 
the prefidency of Bombay to a decifive refolurion, 
and at laft caufed the expedition to take place, 
was the weight and influence of the fquadron which 
was at Bombay, in the year 1759. Mr. Ellis, as 
^t has been already obferved, had taken great pains 

U 4 to 

311 SURA T. 1759. 

to obtain a thorough knowledge of the ftate of af- 
fairs and interefts of the feveral perfons concerned 
in the government of the city and caftle during his 
refidence there, and had with no lefs Judgment con-- 
certed a plan for fettling it upon a better ellablirh- 

Mr. Spencer, who fucceeded Mr. Ellis, commu- 
picated tg the governor and council of Bombay, the 
beft information be could procure of the pollure 
of affairs in Surat, in the beginning of the year 

He found Meah Archund governor cf the tosyn, 

but with fo little power that the Siddee did net fo 
much as leave him the nominaiion of the officers 
properly belonging to him ; and thofe of the Siddee's 
party, who had been moll inilrumental in lowering 
the authority of Atchund, were apprehenfive of his 
entertaining a correfpondence with the Marattas. The 
dread of thofe rayagers, and the frequent murders, 
which were committed with impunity, fmce the 
government of the city ceafed to be refpedtabie, had 
intimidated the inhabitants to fo great a degree, 
that many confiderable traders and people of fub- 
llance had left the place, through apprehenfions of 
being plundered in the conteft between the two 
parties ; and thofe who {laid there were fincerely 
defirous that the caftle fhould be in the hands of the 
Company, from the confidence they had in the 
Englifh, and the opinion they entertained of the 
humanity and Juftice of their government, trufting 
that fo long as they poiTeft the caftle, they would have 
influence enough in the town to prevent the vio- 
lence and oppreflions which had too long raged 
without controul. 

Btfides the invitation from thp v/hole mercantile 
intereft, overtures were made to Mr. Spencer from 
two of the principal men in the government, Siddee 
Jaffier and Velley Ullah, who engaged to contribute 
all in their power towards fecuring the Caftle and 


1759' S U R A T. 313 

Tanka for the Company, on condition that they 
fhould agree to make Pharrafs Cawn governor of 
the town, or in cafe it fhould be found too great a 
difficulty to fet Atchund afidc, it fhould be determined 
for the Company to bring Pharrafs Cawn to Surat 
with their forces, and place him in the government, 
by agreement, as Naib to Atchund. This was meant 
for a fatisfadlion to all parties, there being feveral 
who would be lefs jealous of Atchund while Pharrafs 
Cawn v/as thus placed as a check upon him. 

The principal motive of Siddee Jaffier, was the 
prefervation of his large property, which he could 
not but apprehend to be in great danger under 
fuch a government, notwithftanding his influence 
with both parties. As for Velley Ullah, he adled 
upon very different principles. He had formerly 
been a dependant on Novas Allee Cawn, and had 
facrificed him to Meah Atchund, with whom he 
held the fame place, but with a greater degree of 
influence ; and this he was fuppofed to ufe without 
any fcruple, for the betraying his new mafler to the 
Siddee. Confcious of this, and aware of the diflrult 
which Atchund mud naturally have of him, from 
his known infincerity, he was for embracing any 
opportunity of fecuring himfelf by overthrowing or 
weakening that power which he had toojufl reafon 
to fear. 

From the chara(fter of thefe people, there was ve- 
ry little reliance to be had on their profeflions of 
friendfliip and promifes of affifrance, therefore it was 
of much greater confequence to the fuccefs of the 
defign to examine into the force that was to oppofe 
it, than to be vainly looking after that which was 
too precarious to be depended on for fupport. 

It was foon difcovered that the Siddee had about 
two thoufand men in pay, from v/hich, after deduc- 
ing fuch as were employed in domeftic fervices, or 
kept merely for parade, there might remain a body 
of feventeen hundred, compofed of various people. 


$1^ S U R A T. 175^, 

Moors, Gentoos, Arabs, Pattans, and others ; but> 
they were allowed to be a better corps than At^• 
chund's Sepoys, which amounted to four thoufand. 
To this body were to be added fuch a number, as 
they could be expected to raife upon the news of the 
preparations at Bombay for an intended attack. At 
the fame time it was confidered that a body of men 
To raifed, could be no great addition of real ftrengih, 
fmce they were not likely to behave themfelves as 
foldiers, on the meer conlideration of a few days pay, 
well knowing that they fliould be difcharged as foon 
as ever the affair was decided. There feemed there- 
fore to be but one thing to be apprehended, which 
was leaft Atchund, or even the Siddee, fhould in 
diftruft of their own ftrength, fly to the defperate 
refource of calling in the Marattas, 

The prefidency of Bombay, now fully apprized 
of all particulars, and being principally upon their 
guard againlb the laft mentioned fatality, in order to 
fccure themfelves from any danger of that kind by 
fea, and in other refpeds to give weight to the en- 
terprize, defired Admiral Pocock to accompany it 
with two fhips of his fquadron. The Admiral con- 
fenting to their requcft, gave orders for the Sun- 
derland and Newcaftle to countenance the expedi- 
tion, for it is to be obferved, that the Siddee who 
enjoyed the Tanka on condition of keeping up a 
Fleet for the Mogul, had fo far fallen oft' in the per- 
formance of that condition that his marine v.'as by 
no means capable of oppofing the fhips of the Com- 

Captain Maitland, of the royal regiment of artil- 
lery, being appointed to take the command of eight 
hundred and fifty men, artillery and infantry, and 
fifteen hundred Sepoys, was fent on board the com- 
pany's armed veflels, commanded by Captain Wat- 
fon, who failed on the ninth of February, and land- 
ed them the fifteenth. 


1759- S U R A T. 315 

When Captain Maitland approached the town, he 
found fome of the Siddee's people had taken poll in 
the French garden, from whence he diflodged them 
after a hot difpute of four hours, in which he loft 
twenty men. He then dired^ed the engineer, to 
look out for a proper place for a battery, which 
was erected in the night and the next day, and alfo 
the three following, a brifk fire was kept up from 
two four and twenty pounders, and a thirteen inch 
mortar. The enemy had taken polfeffion of the 
Englifh garden and Siddees * Bunder, and had 
fecured them with works and ftrong palifadoes. 
After this continued firing without any apparent 
effedt, Captain Maitland, called a council of war, 
compofed of military and marine officers, when they 
concerted a plan for a general attack, and refolved 
to carry it into execution the next morning. In pur- 
fuance of this plan the Company's grabs and bomb 
ketches warpt up the river in the night, and anchor- 
ed oppofite the Bunder early in the morning, and 
then a general attack began from the vefFels and a 
battery, with a defign to drive the enemy from their 
batteries, and fo facilitate the landing of the infantry, 
who were embarked on board the boats. The fir- 
ing lafted till after eight, when upon a fignal made, 
the boats put off, and landed under cover of the 
veffels, the military being greatly aflifted by the 
condudt and gallant- behaviour of Captain Watfon. 
They foon put the enemy to flight, and took pol- 
feffion of all the outer town. There ft ill remained 
the inner town and the caftle. In order to attack 
them both at once, three mortars were planted at 
the diftance of about feven hundred yards from the 
caftle, and five hundred from the inner town. 

About fix in the morning, the mortars began to 
play very brifldy, and continued to do fo till two the 
fiext morning. The cannonading and bombardment 

* Cuftom-houfe. 


3i6 S U R A T. 1759. 

put the befieged into fuch a confternation that they 
never returned one gun. 

Several meiFages part: during the attack between 
the principal perlbns in the town, and Mr. Spencer, 
who ufed his utmoil endeavours to place Pharrafs 
Cawn in the gov^ernment ; but it appeared that his 
friends, notwithftanding the hopes they had given, 
made noi the leall; effnr in his behalf, even after the 
Englifh had been two days in poifeflion of the outer 
town, but fignified to Mr. Spencer, that they chofe 
Pharrafs Cawn fnould be Naib, and that the govern- 
ment Ihould be continued to Atchund. Thcfe con- 
fiderations, the expence of ftores, and lofs of men 
by the cafualties of war and defertion, made it im- 
prudent to perfifl in bringing in Pharrafs Cawn againft 
the inclination of his former partizans, and the in- 
tereft of Atchund, who, fhould he be thereby pro- 
voked to unite with the Siddee, might frullrate the 
whole defign. It was therefore agreed to propofe 
this plan to Atchund and his party, offering to fe- 
cure the government to him, on condition of mak- 
ing Pharrafs Cawn, Naib, and eftablifhing the En- 
glifh in the poflefiion of the Caftle and Tanka. Mr. 
Spencer accordingly fet on foot a treaty with At- 
chund, and the following agreement was ratified on 
both fides. 

Agreeable to your defire, I fent a perfon to you, 
by whom you advifed me verbally of your demands, 
and with (inceriry of heart, I now write the particu- 
lars I can agree to, which are as follow. 

/^ Atchund's \ / Cootbodeen's \ 

\^ Seal. J \^ Seal. J 

Article I. That Phar- Article \. Agreeable to 
rafs Cawn fhall be ap- this article, I fully con- 
pointed to the office of fent to Pharrafs Cawn's 
Naib, in its greateil ex- appointment. 

tent, as in the time oi: 



II. Whatever Pharrafs 
Cawn has wrote or pro- 
mifed to do for the ho- 
nourable company, I uiil 
{land to v/ithout the leait 

1759. S U R A T. 

SutFdair Cawn, and no 
body but himfelf (hall in- 
terfere in the faid poft. 

II. That whatever ar- 
ticles Pharrafs Cawn has 
given in writing, or pro- 
mi fed to the honourable 
Company (the particulars 
of which cannot be drawn 
out at prefent, and muft 
be deferred till we can 
meet) fhall be fully com- 
plied with, without the 
leafl diminution. 

IK. That the Mecca 
gate dial I be opened, and 
our troops admitted, and 
we fliall join our forces 
to drive our enemy out 
of the tov/n. 

IV. The above arti- 
cles a perfon in your be- 
half demanded, all which 
I agree to and will com- 
ply with, and the govern- 
ment (hall be continued 
to me in full authority, 
and to the above I have 
put my own feal, and 
Meer Cootbodeen will 
fign and feal the fame, 
after which you muft 
fend a counterpart of this 
writing with the honour- 
able Company's feal af- 

A counterpart of the above articles were fealed 
with the honourable Company's feal, and fent to 
Atchund the fourth of March, 1759. 


III. The Mecca gate 
fhall be opened, your 
troops admitted, and join- 
ed by mine to drive out 
the enemy. 

IV. Agreed to, and that 
we fhall a:t jointly in 
turning the enemy out of 
the town. Whatever the 
honourable Company have 
demanded I agree to. 

3i8 S U R A T. 1759. 

As foon as thefe articles were executed, Atchund 
immediately opened the inner town gate, and order- 
ed a party of men to affift in bringing the Siddee 
to terms, who being acquainted with this junclion, 
uas convinced that it muft be impofiible for him to 
hold oiit againft their combined force, and the ge- 
neral voice of the people. After many repeated 
mefTages, with a variety of propofals, it was at laft 
granted, that the Siddee's people fhould have liber- 
ty to march out with their arms and accoutrements, 
and alio be permitted to take away all their valuable 
effects, and even the common furniture of their 
houfes. This was <lone with the greateft regularity, 
and the Englifh were peaceably put in polTelTion of 
the Caftle and Tanka. 

The guns and ammunition found in the caftle 
were fecured for the company, as alfo the velTels 
and naval ftores, till fuch time as the Mogul's plea- 
fure was known. As foon as the grants arrived from 
Pelli, appointing the Company Admiral to the Mo- 
gul, the (hips and ftores belonged to them of courfe 
as part of the Tanka. It fliould be remarked, that 
the above-mentioned grants, and all Phirmaunds 
hereafter inferred, were folicited and obtained before 
the murder of the Mogul, and the revolution at 
Delli ; and arrived fome time after the reduction of 
the caftle. 

The number of killed and wounded did not a- 
mount to a hundred Europeans, but the lofs by de- 
fertion was greater. Thus was accomplifhed a re- 
volution of general benefit : peace and good govern- 
ment was reftored to the city, and the Englifh ac- 
quired a valuable and mod neceflary poilellion, to 
the univerfal fatisfadlion of the inhabitants, and alio 
with the concurrence of the people in power. As 
the authentic papers hereunto annexed, will prove 
that this eftablifhment had the fandion of the Mo- 
gul, that which immediately follows will fhew that 
proper care was taken to have the affent alfo of the 


i-jSg. SURA T. 319 

Proposals from the Nanma Pundit Praden, Chief 
of the Marattas, 

I. As the Siddee at Surat has not only become 
troublefome for many years to the honourable Com- 
pany, the * Circar, merchants, &c. but has pofief"^ 
ied himfelf- of the caftle, and ufurped the govern- 
ment of the pkce, to the entire ruin of trade and 
the city of Surat, It is therefore agreed, between 
the Circar and honourable Company, to turn him out 
of Surat, that every body may be eafy there, to 
purfue his own advantage, and for the general bene- 
fit of the place. 

II. That the Englifh fhall have the fole power and 
authority to make any man f Nabob there, and the 
Circar fhall approve fuch election without hefitation ; 
and they (the Englifli) fhall have the fame power 
and authority to turn him out, by informing the 
Circar, (who will not have any objedion to it) fhould 
he prove a bad man, in any refpetl:, towards the 
merchants, or any body elfe. 

III. That the Nabob, &c. fhall make no alterations 
in the culloms on goods, f^c. but let that article, 
and every thing elfe remain as at prefent. 

IV. That the caftle when taken, fhall be poiTefiTed 
by the Englidi, and they fhall have the fole com- 
mand of it for the fafety of the place, and benefit 
of the government, and for which they fhall receive 

. the ufual allowance. 

V. That when the Siddee at Surar is turned out, 
the Tanka which he had for maintaining a fleet, 
rtiall be divided yearly in three (hares, viz. The 
Circar, the Company, and the Nabob, each one- 

VI. That the Circar, fhall receive, as ufual, from 
the government, what is juftly due to them., and 

* The Marattas's officers. 

f The Governor of the Town is called Nabob. 


320 S U R A T. 1759. 

pay out of it what is due to Damojee, but both the 
Circar's and Damojee's officers and people are to 
give affiftance for the greater import and export of 
goods, ^c. to and from Surat. 

VII. That the Nabob or government of Surat fhall 
receive, as ufual what is due to him from the Circar 
and Damojee, for the country without Surat gates. 

VIII. That fhould there be any quarrel or diflur- 
bance within the town, and there be an occafion for 
putting a fhop to any thing any where out of the 
gates of Surat, the Circar's people are to do or defift 
from the fame conformable to the defire of the En- 
glifh, and not otherwife, and thofe officers and peo- 
ple are not to offer to meddle in any affairs of the 
Surat government, or (hew any moleftation to the 

After thefe propofals it was extremely difficult to 
manage the Marattas, who were continually inter- 
fering. During the fiege a body of their troops ap 
proached Surat, and delired to be admitted to a6t in 
concert with the Englifh, but as Inch an affair would 
have difgufted the Moors in the town, Mr. Spencer 
managed fo as to wave it without offence, ufing at 
the fame time all poffible precautions to prevent their 
having any intercourfe with the Siddee or Atchund, 
with both of whom they had been tampering not- 
withftanding their profellions to the Company. At 
laft he found it neceffary to declare that he would 
not allow of any force appearing before the place, 
while the Englifh were carrying on their operations 
again ft it. 


1759- S U R A T. yit 

PE R IV ANN A *, under the fed of Nahoh Vizier 
Ulma Malech^ Afof ^haw Nizamel Muluck, Baha- 
dour, dated the ninth' of Shiival, in the fixih year 
of the reign of hn prefent Majejiy, (feventb of June ^ 


E peace and happinefs with the renowned Mr, 
John Spencer, Captain of the fadory in the 
city of Surat, by the hands of your vakeel, your 
prefent and arzee (or requeft) have been received, 
and the purport and particular thereof are under- 
ftood, and your arzee (or requeft) to his Majefty, 
has been delivered. The pains you have taken, and 
the fuccefs you have met with in keeping open the 
Door of Mecca, and delivering our fubjeds from 
oppreflion, we are pleafed and fatisfied with. As to 
the Phirmaund for the government of the caftle and 
faned for the fleet, which are requefled in the name 
of the EngliOi company, I have given your Vakeel 
an anfwer, who will particularly advife you thereof 
Let the Pifcah on this account be quickly remitted, 
that it may be prefented to his Majefty, and your 
requeft thereby granted. In the mean time it be-^ 
hoves you to carry on affairs with alacrity, and be 
affured that herein nothing on my part fhall be want- 
ing to countenance you. 

A REPRESENTATION made to the Mogul hy 
John Spenrer, in behalf of the Honourable Englijb 
Eafi-hidia Company. 

TH A T by virtue of Royal Phirmaunds of your 
M.ijefty's Predeceflbrs, the EngliCh hitherto 

* A grant given, or paper figned by the Mogul, is called a Phir- 

By the Mogul's Son, a Nuihavvn. 

By the Nabob, a Perwanna. 

By the Vizier, a Houfbul-hookum. 

^ enjoyed 

322 S U R A T. ^7 59 

enjoyed favour at Surat, and carried on their bufi- 
nel's in a reputable manner, till in thefe days that the 
Siddees ufurping an undue authority in the town, 
ufed it to the ruin of the city in general, the lives 
and properties of your Majefty's fubjetls being made 
light of by them, and they even proceeded fo far, as 
to take away the lives of our people, in dired breach 
of your Majefty's Phirmaund -, and in fhort, inftead 
of being the Protedors of the place, became the 
oppreflbrs of it to fuch a degree, that the juft orders 
of your Majefty, were no ways regarded in this city 
by their means, and things were come to this pafs, 
that though in confideration of the Tanka, the Sid- 
dee was to protect the bar, yet fo far was he from 
doing that, that for many months paft, a large fleet 
of Sancraiee Punt's, Ballajee Row's Naib, entirely 
fhut up the bar, as did a large land force by land, 
to the infinite detriment of the place, and inhabitants 
in general, without the Siddee's interfering therein, 
and was the greateft reafon to believe, that 
unlefs fome fpeedy and rigorous meafures had foon 
been purfued, your Majefty's famous city of Surat, 
the only port of good Muftellmen to the tomb of 
your Prophet, would have been brought to fhame. 
In fuch circumftances, the eyes of the whole town 
were caft on us, as the only perfons of force fuffici- 
ent to fave the city from the calamities that it then 
felt, and was ftill further threatened with, and in 
confequence of their felicitations to me, though our 
bufinefs in thoie parts of the world is only to trade 
and merchandize, and we are not defirous of taking, 
or governing cities or countries, yet as all the inha- 
bitants of this place great and fmall, were earneftly 
defirous of it, and I faw it was for the good of the 
place, I wrote to the General of Bombay on the 
fubjedl, in fuch manner, that at an immenfe expence, 
he fent hither in our King's fhips, a great force of 
good and experienced men, with a large quantity 
of artillery, and other warlike ftores, of all-fbrts, 


1759- S U R A T. 323 

with which I have had the happinefs to procure 
fafety to the city, and eafe to the inhabitants) 
and have procured an entire currency to your Ma- 
jefty's orders in the place ; and your Majefhy^s au- 
thority, by all ways in our power v/ill be prefer- 
ved in the place, as it ufed to be, and you will 
confider the Englifh as defirous of receiving your 
orders, fuch being the intention of the Governor 
of Bombay and myfelF, whofe whole power will 
be ufed to maintain the caftle, that we have pof- 
feffed ourfelves of, for your Majefly, and to preferve 
the bar and fea open againil: all oppofers, on your 
behalf, for we Hiall not apply the Tanka you 
have granted for this purpofe to others, as has 
hitherto been the cafe ; and fince our having done 
this, the enemies that furrounded the place both 
by fea and land, to its great prejudice, have been 
removed, we are always ready for the fafety of 
the caftle and city, with its inhabitants ; and there- 
fore hope for your Majefty's favour, in behalf of 
the Honourable Englifh Company, for whofe good 
fervices on this occafion I mull refer your Ma- 
jefty to the reprefentation of the inhabitants of the 

N. B. There accompanied this a letter to the 
Vizier, much to the fame purpofe, requefting 
his countenance ^ letters went alfo in the name 
of the Governor of Bombay on the occafion, 
to the King and Vizier, referring in general 
to the above, and the whole was attended 
with a reprefentation of the town in general 
on our behalf, under the feals of the Nabob, 
Naib, the head Siads, and Officers, and the 
Heads of the Merchants in general. 

X 2 PER- 

224 S U R A T. 1759, 

PERIVANNA under the Vizer'sfeal for * Sciad 
Moyncdeen Caun to a5l as Governor of Surat. 

BY the advices recei-ved here from Surat, it has 
been made known unto his Majefty, tliat 
you with the confent, and at the defire of the inhabi- 
tants, are arrived there,, and that afterwards the Ho- 
nourable Mr. Spencer, Captain of the Fadory at Su- 
rat, with the renowned Pharrafs Caun, came and 
turned out Siddee Amed, who had pofTefTcd him- 
felf of his Majefty's Caftle, and greatly opprefied- 
our fubjects, and that thereby the city is nov/ 
at eafe, and the inhabitants fatisfied. Therefore 
it behoves you to ad as may be mod conducive 
to the- good of the city and his Majefty's affairs, 
that every body may follow their calling without 
fear, and the city flourish. Let this be implicitly 
obeyed, on the fecond of Shaban, and the fixth 
year of the reign of his prefent Majefty. 

HOOKUM or ORDER, under the Vizier's 
feal, to Mr. Spencer, to ajfijl and advife with 
Sciad Moynodeen Caun, in the Government of 
bur at. 

E it known unto the Honourable Mr. Spen- 
cer,, Captain of the Factory in Surat, that in 
thefe days advice has been received that with the 
confent, and at the defire of the inhabitants of 
the Bunder of Surat, the renowned and brave Sciad 
Moynodeen Caun Bahadour came into the place, 
and that afterwards you, wi;h the renowned Phar- 
rafs Caun, came, and turning out the Siddee from 
the King's Caflle, which he had pofTefFed himfelf 
of, and given much trouble to the fubjeds by 
oppreffion and otherwife, gave eafe and fatisfadion 

* Another Name for Atchund 


1759' S U R A T. 325 

to the inliabitants of the place, with which we are 
well fatisfied, and it now behoves you to advife 
with, and in conjundion with the above renowned, 
fo to carry on matters, as may be mofl conducive 
to the good of the place, and the honour of his 
Majeily, by affifling one another. Let this be done 
on the fecond of Shaba n, in the fixth year of the 
reign of his prefent Majefty, 

HOOKUM or ORDER, under the Vizier's 
Jeal, to the fubjeds and inhabitants of Surat, to 
achioivkdge and ajjijl Sciad Moynodeen Caun as Gover- 
nor of Surat. 

BE it known unto all tlie prinpipai Sciads, 
Shaiks, and otherwife, and old men of un- 
dcrflanding, as alfo to all the merchants, and others 
our fubjeds, inhabitants of Surat, that his Majefty 
is made acquainted by advices from thence, that 
by your confenc, and at your defire, the brave 
and renov/ned Sciad Moynodeen Caun, is come 
there, and after him Mr. Spencer, Captain of the 
Fadtory at Surat, with the renowned Pharrafs Caun, 
came and turned out Siddee Amed, who pofTeffed 
himfelf of his Majefty's caftle, and greatly oppref- 
fed our fubjeCts, and that thereby the city is now 
at eafe, and the inhabitants fatisfied. Therefore 
it behoves you, in all refpeds, to aflift and advife 
the faid Moynodeen Caun, and with one accord 
to concur in every thing for the good of the place, 
which I would have ir.npHcitly obeyed on the fer 
cond of Shaban, and the fixth year of the reign of 
his prefent Majefty- 

HOUS BU L-HOO KU M, tinder the great 
feal of the 'Nabob Fizier^ Ulmak Maleck^ Nirzavt 
al Miduck Bahadour. 

E peace unto the high and renowned Mr. John 

Spencer. The courage and condud you have 

X 3 (hewn 

326 S U R A T, 1759, 

fhewn in his Majefty's fervice, for the good of our 
fubjefls the inhabitants of Surat, are made known 
to his Majefty, and their letter exprefling their 
faiisfadion therewith, has alfo been fhev/n, with 
which his Majefly is well fatisfied, and praifes you 
therefore upon this account. He has been plcaf- 
ed to order this Houfbul-Hookum to be fent to 
you, that you may take care of his Majefty's caftle, 
and take the prefervation of the trade of thefe 
Teas particularly upon you, fo that the inhabitants 
of Surat may carry on their bufinefs, and live in 
cafe and quiet, ar^.d the fnips and veiTels going to 
and coming from the moft remarkable ports, as well 
as others, be in no fear from rovers and pirates. 
The Pliirmaund for the government of the caflle, 
and Perwannah for the fleer, being given in 
charge to the Englifh Company, (liall be fent you 
from Court, on tlie firft of the month of Zickat, and 
the fixth year of the reign of his prefent Majefty, 
(the 24th of June, 1759.) 

N. B. The Houlliul-Hookum to the Governor, is 
in the fame words as the above. 

PERWANNA, under the Cocchuck, (or the f mall 
fed) of the Nabob Vizier Ulma Maleck, i\izam 
al Miiluck Bahadour, to Mr. John Spencer. 

TH E Arzee of the high and renowned^ with 
the prefent, and letter expreifing the mer- 
chant's fatisfa6tion, have been received by the hands 
of Hadee Caun. The conduct and courage you 
have fhewn for the good of the inhabitants of 
Surat, and his Majefty's fervice, liave been in a 
particular manner made known to him, with v/hich 
he is well pleaied, and praifes you therefore. It 
now behoves you with a fatisfied mind particularly 
to look to the peace of the inhabitants, and the 
prefervation of his Majefty's caftle, and to take 
care that the trade of the feas is kept open and 


1759* S U R A T. 327 

lafe, that the Hadjees (or Pilgrims) and merchants 
meet with no trouble or impediment, and that 
the (liips to and from the renowned and other 
ports, may be iafe from any fear of violation from 
rovers and pirates. The Phirmaund for the go- 
vernment, and Perwannah for the fleets, being given 
in charge to the Englifh Company, fhall be fent you 
from Court. 

PERIVANNA, nndcr the Coochuck, (or the 
Jtnall fed) of the Nabob Vizier Uhna Makck^ 
Nizam al Miduck Bahadour, to Mr. John Spen- 

HIGH and renowned, the Turns ufually re- 
mitted from Surat, are now much wanted 
at Court, and his Majefty is prefl'.ng for them. 
As yet what money the renowned Moynodeen Caun 
may have fent, is not yet received, therefore Per- 
v/annah's have been wrote to hallen him in that 
refped ; but it likewife behoves you to prefs him 
on this head, and procure the remittance of the 
Tohod by bills, as foon as pollible. Look upon this 
as abfolutely neceflary. 

PHIRMAUND or ORDER, under the great MoguV s 
feal, and under fealed by his Vizier, for the Ho- 
nourable Company's holding the government of the 
caftle of Surat. 


from the Koran, 

in Arabick. 

LE T the renowned among the people, the 
EngliQi Company hope for his Majefty's fa- 
vour, and be it known unto them, that in thefe 
X 4 happy 

328 S U R A T. 1759. 

happy and vidorious times, his Majefty has been 
pleafed, out of his great grace and favour, to grant 
unto them, the Killidaree, or government of the 
Caftle of Surat, on its being taken from iMuiToot 
Achmed Caun, it therefore is requifite, that they 
fhould be very grateful for this his Majefty's favour, 
and look particularly to the welfare of the caftle, 
keeping proper order and difcipline among the 
troops, and having provifions, ftores, and ammu- 
nition always in readinefs, as has been ufual, 
which is ftridly and efpecially required of them 
by his Majefty. 

Given on tlie eleventh day of i\Iohoram, and in 
the lixth year of his Majelty's reign, (or 4th of 
September, 1759.) 

At the back of the Pi-iivmaund is the Grand 
Vizier's Seal, and all his titles wrote at length. 

DUSTUCK or ORDER, under the Ojan Su- 
maiin^ or Steward's Jeal for the Hotiouralle Company s 
holding the King's fleet. 

TH E Duftuck in the name of the noble and 
renowned Englifli Company, is as follows. 
By his Majefty's Houftiul-Hookum, the office of 
Deroga of the great fleet, belonging to the Bunder 
of Surat, vacant by the difmiflion of Siddee Yacood 
Caun, is now delivered into your charge ; there- 
fore it behoves you, to execute the faid office, with 
great care and circumfpedion, and carry on the 
bufinefs of it juftly, and with moderation. Look 
on this as abfolutely required of you. Dated the 
fecond day of Mohoram, in the fixth year 
of his Majefty's reign, ("the 26th of Auguft 


At the back of this is the feai of Zecah al 

Doulat Tidaudin Caun Bahadour, who is Caun 
Samaun or Steward to his Majefty, whofe prero- 
gative it is to grant this Order. 


1759- S U R A T. 329 

Tranjlation of an ORDER, under the Fizier's 
feal, to Scwd Moynodeen Cmm, Governor of Surat, 
regarding the payment of the Tanka on account of 
the fleet to the Honourable Company., &c. 

TO the brave, noble, renowned, and careful 
Sciad Moynodeen Caun Bahadour, on whom 
is his Majefty's favour. The Vakeel of the En- 
glifh Company having reprefented, that as the De- 
roga, or poft of the great fleet, belonging to the 
Bunder of Surat, under the Subah of Amedabad, 
on the difmiffion of Siddee Yacood Caun, Killidar 
of Dunde Rajahpore, from the faid poft, had been 
granted his conllituents, he hoped that a Perwan- 
nah or order for the Tanka, and account of the 
troops of the fleet, as has been ufual fmce the 
time of him, who is now in Heaven (meaning 
Aurungzebej among the other charges of Surat, 
exclufive of what is fent to Court, might be given 
him, in your name, from the Archieves of the 
Kingdom, it appears, that this office was in the hands 
of Siddee Yacood Caun, and that in the twenty- 
third year of the reign of Mamud Shaw, he pro- 
cured an Order on Teg Beg Caun then Governor, 
for the annual payment of two lack, according 
to cufliom, befidcs what was fent to Court. Now 
in thefe days the office of Deroga of this fleet, 
on the difmiflion of Siddee Yacood Caun, has been 
granted to the faid Company, as has been ufual, 
under the Duftuck, or Order of the Caun Samaun 
(or fteward) and dated the fecond of Mohoram, 
and the fixth year of the prefent reign, therefore 
I now write to you that you may pay unto them, 
account charges, for the forces of the fleet, the 
ufual Tanka, of two lack every year, agreeable 
to the hereafter Order, among the other charges, 
exclufive of what is fent to Court, and let the 
accounts and papers relative thereto be tranfmitted 


330 S U R A T. 1759. 

hither. Dated the twenty-fifth of Mohoram, and 
the fixth year of the reign of his prefent Majefty, 
(or 1 8th of September, 1759.) 

On the back of this Perwanna, is the Vizier's 
feal, and the zimra or certificate from the feveral 
officers and regifters at court, fetting forth, as is 
above related in the Perwannah, and that the Vi- 
zier had given orders for regiftering the feveral 

HOUSBUL HOOWM, under the feal of the Nabob 
Vizier^ Ulma Maleck Bahadour^ 10 the Euglijh com- 
pany accompanying the Phirmaund. 

A Y his Majefty's favour ever remain upon 

_ the brave and noble Englilh company. It 

has pleafed his Majefty to grant unto you the 
office of Killedar (or caflle governor) of the Bun- 
der of Surat, vacant by the difmiliion of Hoffis 
A mud Cawn i as alfo the office of Deroga of the 
great fleet of the Vaid Bunder, vacant by the dif- 
miffion of Siddee Yacood Cawn. Therefore, agree- 
able to his order, you are now directed to take 
particular care of the proper execution of the 
above offices, by looking well to the welfare of 
the caflle, and p:efervation of the merchants, Src. 
on the high feas, keeping them clear of pirates 
and rovers, who may infeft them. This is pofitively 
required of you. 

HOUSEUL HOOKUM, from the Fizier to Governor 

IT has pleafed his Majefty, to grant unto the 
brave and noble Englifli Company, the office 
of Killedar of the Bunder of Surat, vacant by the 
difmiflion of Hoffis Amud Cawn-, as alfo the office 
of Deroga, of the great fleet of the faid Bunder, 
vacant by the difmilfion of Siddee Yacood Cawn •, 


1759- GOMBROON. 331 

therefore agreeable to his order this is wrote to 
you, to diredl, that according to the direcflions and 
advice of the faid Company, you take all the care 
in your power for the proper execution of the faid 
offices, by looking well to the welfare of the caftlc, 
and prefervation of the trade and merchants on the 
liigh feas, from pirates, and other rovers. — Of this 
you are defired to be very careful. 

HOUSBUL HOO KUM^to Mr. Spencer, the 
/nine as above, except two or three words which are 
almoji fynonimous. 

1 Atchnnd the fame, directing him to give the 
company all the ajjijiance he can in the execution of 
thefe offices. 


{.^759-] A B O U T fifteen degrees weft of Surat, 
Jf\^ the Eaft-India company have a fmall 
Tettlement, called Gombroon, which being remote 
from the reft, and what is more, unfortified, could 
never have had a place in the account of the 
war in India, had not the French thought pro- 
per to befet this defencelefs fadtory with all the 
parade of a fiege, and to crown their hoftilities with 
the pompous form of a capitulation. 

The articles in this capitulation, which relate 
to the Count d'Eftaing, have fo greatly furpri- 
zed the military gentlemen, before whom he gave 
his parole, that it is evident they will be new to 
all thofe who come from the coaft of Coromandel : 
therefore to fatisfy them of the truth of fo ex- 
traordinary a proceeding, the capitulation is here 
publifhed, together v/ith an account of the whole 


332 GOMBROON. 1759. 

Gombroon is an European name for the famous 
Bunder-Aballi, which was built by Shaw Abbas 
when he ruined Ormus. Ormus, that jewel of 
the world, as it was called, is at this prefent 
time a rocky ifland fo entirely covered with fair, 
that there is fcarce any part of it but w'nat is 
crufted over with it, at lead two inches thick. 
In all places where they dig, is to be found rock 
fait, and confequently there are no pools, neicher 
are there any fprings of frefh water ; notwithftan- 
ding which, the Portuguefe, from its advantage- 
ous fituation for trade, built a very elegant city 
there, with a ftrong fortification : but near two 
hundred years ago, the Perfians, with the alfiftance 
of the EngHfh, expelled the Portuguefe from it, 
The great Shaw Abbas Sophi of Perfia, when he 
removed the trade to Gombroon, on the oppofite 
(hore, granted the Englifh great privileges in com- 
merce, and a proportion of the cuftoms of that 
port, which amounted to near 4000/. per annum \ 
but thefe advantages they have loft by the unhap- 
py flate of the country, which has long been in 
confufion and anarchy. 

The Englifh eflablilhed a fadlory here on account 
of the great demand for woollen goods from Per- 
fia, before that country was impoverifhed by the 
troubles. The air of Gombroon is fo unhealthy 
from the hot winds, that even the natives them- 
felves fly from it in the bad feafon, but knowing 
the time when the fhips are to be expeded ; they 
come down with caravans, and carry off their lading. 
As there was therefore no occafion for large ware- 
houfes, the company never erected any fortifications, 
but only fecured the houlc in which their Agent, 
or Chief, and his clerks lived, with a very Imall 
party of foldiers, icarcely fufRcient to ferve as a defence 
againft robbers. 

The Moorifh governor of this place, is Moolah 
Allee Shaw, who ought to be fubordmate to the 


»759- GOMBROON. 333 

governor of Lhor, as the governor of Lhor fhould 
himfelf be fubject to the Sophi of Perfia ; but the 
troubles and total want of government through- 
out all Perfia, have made them both in a manner 
independent. The remains of fome ftrong forti- 
fications at Ormiis afford a fecure retreat for the 
governor of Gombroon, vihen the adjacent part of 
the continent is difturbed ; and when it is quiet 
he comes to Gombroon, collects the culloms, and 
very often endeavours to extort loans from the 
Europeans, by laying difficulties in the way of their 
trade, and terrifying them with liis Arabs, It was 
by fuch means that Moolah Allee Shaw very lately 
prevailed with the Dutch to comply with his re- 
queft of a loan which they had at firll refufed. 
Thefe Arabs are very ungovernable and infolent, 
and when they have been taken in the adt of 
plundering, feveral of their tribe have run out of 
the fort and wounded our people who were car- 
rying the delinquents before the governor ; and 
though application has been made for redrefs to 
Moolah Allee Shaw, he never could be prevailed 
on to chaftife them, but always excufed himfelf, 
by alledging that they were a tribe which no body 
dared to punilli but Sheik Rama. Such inftru- 
ments had Moolah Allee Shaw, to employ for the 
gratification of his avarice ; and from his own 
difpofition he was glad of every opportunity to make 
ufeof them. 

On the 15th of Odober, 1759, the French, with 
four fliips under Dutch colours, one of which was 
a vefTel of fixty-four guns, and one of twenty- 
two, landed to the weftward of Gombroon. They 
advanced with two mortars and four pieces of 
cannon, and began to batter the fadory, which 
was not a fortification, but only a ftrong houfe. 
The Agent and his clerks, together with the crew 
of the Speedwe.l, which was burnt by the French, 
did not exceed the number of fixteen men, againft 


334 GOMBROON. 1755. 

whom the French brought at lead a hundred and 
fifty Europeans, and as many Coffres. The fmail 
number of Englifh who were there, did w^hat they 
could to defend it ; as to the Topades and Sepoys, 
few of them would ftand to the guns. 

About eleven o'clock, being high water, the 
twenty-two gun fhip hauled within about a quar- 
ter of a mile of the fadtory, and began to fire : 
at the fame time thofe who were alhore played 
upon it with their mortars and guns from the 
weftward. At about three in the afternoon a 
fummons was fent from the French camp. Upon 
a confultation held in the faftory, the military 
gentlemen were of opinion that the houfe was 
not tenable ^ it was therefore unanimoufly agreed 
to furrender upon the beft terms that could be 
procured, and thereupon the following capitulation was 

Articles of capitulaiion for the Eaji-India compnnys 
fa^ory of Gombroon^ between Alexander Douglas 
Efquire^ chief of the faid fettlement and council^ 
and Monfieur Des Effars^ captain of his moft 
Chrijiian Majefiys fhip Condi, and comm inder in 
chief of the prefent expedition^ and Monfeur Charnyau^ 
captain^ commander of ihe land forces. 

Article I. So foon as the prefent capitula- 
tion is figned, a detachment of French troops are 
to take polfeirion of the fadory ; the keys are 
to be delivered to the commanding officer, and 
no perfon is to come in, or go out, without his 
pcrmiiTion, as he will take care to prevent diforders 
and thefts. 

II. AH effe(fts of what kind foever contained 
in the fadory, are to belong to the befiegers, and 
are to be delivered to the French commiiTary, 
with all books and papers in polTelhon of the be- 
fieged ; the befiegers are to be fhewn the ware- 


1759- GOMBROON. 335 

boufes, that they may place the neceflary centi- 
nels over them. The artillery, arms, ammunition, 
provifions, money, merchandize and flaves, in ge- 
neral ev^ery thing contained within the fa(5tory, are 
comprehended in this article. 

III. The Chief, the Garrifon-fadors, writers, and 
all Europeans in the fervice of the Englifh Eaft- 
India company, in general all the fubje(::ts of his 
Britannick Majefty in the fadtory are to be priibners 
of war, under the following claufes only. 

IV. Whereas Monfieur d'Eftaing, brigadier of 
foot, and formerly a prifoner of his Britannick Ma- 
jefty, is now on board the fliip Conde in his way 
to Europe, by the vvay of BufTorah, being defirous 
of rendering more fecure the intelligence received 
of an exchange having been made in his behalf, 
between Mr. Pigor, governor of Madrafs, and Mon- 
fieur Lally, lieutenant-general ; it is now agreed 
between the befiegers and befieged, that Alexander 
Douglas, Efquire, chief of the Englifh Eaft-india 
Company's factory at Gombroon, with William 
Nafb, Enfign Johnfton, Dymoke Lyfter, Lieute- 
nant George Eembow, Lieutenant Richard Evans, 
and Richard Main waring, are lawfully exchanged 
for Monlieur d'Eftaing ; and they are at full li- 
berty to go where and to what places they pleafe, 
in confequence of which, Monfieur d'Eftaing, is un- 
der no other claufe than what is fpecified in the fixth 

V. Though the prefent exchange of prifoners is 
an unnecelTary precaution in behalf of Monfieur 
d'Eftaing, yet all perfons mentioned in the prece- 
ding article are ablblutely free, but fhould Mon- 
fieur d'Eftaing have been already exchanged as he 
undoubtedly is in that cafe, for the feven perfons 
already mentioned who now enjoy their liberty, 

. a like number, and of equal ftation of his moft 
Chriftian iVjajefty's fubjeds, are to be releafed when- 
ever a cartel is made. 


336 GOMBROON 1755^. 

VI. Monfieur d'Ellaing, in order to fulfil with 
the greatell exaclitude the promife he made go- 
vernor Pigot, that he would not take up arms 
againft the Englifh on the Coromandel coaft only, 
for the fpace of eighteen months, reckoning from 
the firft of May, one thoufand feven hundred and 
fifty-nine : defires it may be inferted in the prefent 
capitulation, that notwithftanding he is now ex- 
changed, yet he will keep the promife he made 
gov^ernor Pigot, of not taking up arms againft the 
Englifh on the Coromandel coaft only, for the fpace 
of eighteen months, but he is at free liberty in all 
other places to take arms, 

VII. If it is polfible to agree about the re-pur- 
chafing of Gombroon fadory, it will be looked on 
as a part of the prefent capitulation, the befiegers 
referving to themfelves the liberty ncverthelefs to 
do therewith as they may think fit, fhould no agree- 
ment be concluded with the befieged. 

VIII. In confideration of the exchange of Mon- 
fieur d'Eftaing, and at his particular requeft to Mon- 
fieur Des EiTars, Alexander Douglas, Efquire, chief 
of the Englilh Eaft-India Company's fettlements of 
Gombroon, and all others mentioned in the fourth 
article, have liberty, and may carry away all their 
own effects of what kind or fort foever, except- 
ing ammunition, provifions, marine, military, or 
warlike ftores. 

Dated at Gombroon the fourteenth day of 

06\ober at fix o'clock in the morning, and in 

the year of our Lord one thoufand feven hundred 

and fifty nine. 

7^ T^rr Alexander Dou?;lci5. 

Des Zprs ^^.^.^^^^ ^_,^ ■s 

Charnyau. ^,.^^^^,.^ ^^/„^^^ 

As it muft appear very extraordinary that the 
Count d'Eftaing fliould chufe to have his name 
fo often mentioned in the capitulation, the impof- 


1759- GOMBROON. 33) 

fibiiity of his having had the inteUigence he pre- 
tends to have received, will make it jftill more 
lurpiizing : for it is a certain fad, that there had 
not been even an attempt made towards his exchange. 
The parole he gave was in the ufual form not to 
ferve diredly or indirectly againft the Engliflj, 
during the prefent war, or till he fhould be regu- 
larly exchanged. 

On the twelfth, while the French were {land- 
ing into the road. Moolah Allee Shaw came to the 
factory, and gave the agent all imaginable aflTu- 
rances of his affording him affiftance, and that if 
the French attempted to land, he would do what 
was in his power to prevent it ^ but when the agent 
fent to him in the morning, acquainting him, that 
they were approaching the fhore in order to land, 
inftead of performing his promiie he remained qui- 
et in his fort, and though about ten o'clock, he 
was defired to fend a few men to our affiftance, 
he abfolutely refufed. The reafon he affigned 
for not fulfilling his offers was, that one of his 
fhips (then at anchor in the road) was in the pow- 
er of the French, and that if he aliifted us with 
any men, they would carry her away. His fear 
and prefent intereft gO'/erned him at that time, 
and foon after the French landed, he fent therti 
luch refrefhments of greens and fruits as the feafon 
afforded, offering to fupply them with whatever was in 
his power. 

The French during their {lay paid little regard 
to the anicle.s of capitulation. On the 30th of 
Odober, at about twelve o'clock at night, they 
went on board their fliips, having lirfl fet fire to 
the fadory. They dug mines in fever al parts 
thereof, fome of which took effed j they had like- 
wife fixed combuftibles to the beams of the apart- 
ments and warehoufes. The greateft part of the 
wall of the eaft-fide of the fadory was blown up, 
and the cieling "and floor of the apartments of 

Y " the 

538 GOMBROON. 1759, 

the wcfl fide were burnt. Moolah Alice Shaw's 
people took away the beams, planks, and window- 
frames, and let fire to all the doors and other 
wood -work, for the fake of the iron that was in 

Had Moolah Allee Shaw acf^ed a becoming parr, 
many valuables might have been faved, after the 
French evacuated the factory ; for they left up- 
wards of thirty thoufand maunds of copper, with 
feveral other goods, which they could neither carry 
away nor dellroy : but notwithflanding all the ap- 
plications that were made to him, inflead of pla- 
cing people to prevent thefts, and fecure what 
remained, or even to extinguifh the fire, he gave 
the faiftory up to a general pillage ; and in a 
vifit he made the agent, he had the aflurance 
publickly to confefs, he believed there was not 
a man in the town but had his fhare of plun- 
der. What with the copper, and other goods 
the French gave Moolah Allee Shaw before their 
departure, and the copper v/hich he clandeftinely 
carried to Ormus, he was fuppofed to have got in 
the whole to the amount of fixty thoufand roupees, 
(not reckoning the guns which the French left 
behind) and his whole gang of Arabs enriched 
themfelves proportionably. As for fuch of che 
lower clafs of inhabitants as had got any booty 
of copper. Moolah Allee Shaw obliged them to fell 
it to him, at the rate of two roupees the maund : 
but the Arabs had the precaution to (end their plun- 
der to their different habitations. 

The French and Moolah Allee Shaw, entered 
into articles of alliance, wherein it was agreed that 
there fhould be an everlafting friendlliip between 
them, that his ports and velfels Hiould be fecure,, 
and that whofoever were Moolah Allee Shaw's 
enemies, fhould likewife be enemies of the French 
nation. The writing given by them was in the 
French language, figned by Monf D'Eflaing, the 



counterpart given by Moolah Allee Shaw was in the 
Perfian language. 


[1757.] T T has already been related by .what means 
X the Revolution at Delli was brought about 
in the year * x754. 

In the beginning of the year 1757, Ahmed 
Abdalla, the Pattan Chief, marched to Delli, 
and took Allum Geer, and all the Omrahs pri- 

After having kept pofiTeflion of the capital for 
fome time, he at length on the fixth of June, 
fent for the Mogul to his tent, where he 
received him with great honour, and replaced him 
on the throne, having firft fecured to himfelf as 
large a treafure as could be expeded from the 
low ftate of the finances of the Empire. He then 
proceeded to Agra, and feizing the revenues of' 
that diftridt, marched to Lahore, from whence he 
iffued his orders to ail the neighbouring Nabobs, 
and Rajas, that they fhould acknowledge them- 
felves in fubjedion to his Ton Timur, whom he 
then proclaimed King of Lahore. Having thus 
inverted his fon with the dominion of a Country 
from whence he propofed that he fhould alfo fu- 
perintend the affairs of Indoftan, he returned to 
his own Country, recommending to Timur to treat 
the Mogul wirh continued marks of regard and 

Shaw Abadin Cawn, the fon of Gauzedy Cawn, 
and confequently the true Vice-Roy of the Deckan, 
«hofe rather to fuffer his right to be ufurped by 
Salabatzing than relinquifh the office of Vizier, 

♦ See Page t i o, 

y 2 which 


which gave him fo great an afcendency over the 
Mogul, and confequcntly an unbounded power in 
the Empire. But as all power is precarious, the 
ions of the Emperor became daily more formida- 
ble to the Vizier, and created him continual trou- 
ble and jealoufy. At length about the end of the 
year 1759, to free himfelf from all folicitude of 
that kind, he refolved on the murder of his ma- 
fter, in order that he mrght place in his ftead a 
more inconfiderable reprefentative of the Royal 
Family, who fliould be lefs refpec^able in him- 
felf, and not fo formidable by the fupport of his 
children or other relations. As thefe were the 
great obftacles to the ambition of the Vizier, they 
were no lefs fo to the execution of his prefent de- 
lign : therefore to remove them from the capital, 
he propofed a hunting-match, and took with him 
the fons of the Mogul, and the greateft part of 
his friends to a great diflance from Delli. The 
next difficulty was to overcome the fufpicions of 
the Mogul, and the fuperflitious principles of the 
Moors, who thoug.h they are ready to execute any 
kind of villainy, can never be brought to mur- 
der their Sovereign in the fanftuary of his own 

It was well known that Allum Geer had a moft 
particular veneration for the Fakeers -, and the 
Vizier v/as fenfible that unlefs the Emperor could 
be prevailed on, by a motive of devotion, to come 
from under his roof, no other inducement could 
ever engage him to abandon what he \vould con- 
fider as his only protection in the abfence of his 
friends. Every thing being concerted accordingly, 
before the departure of Shaw Abadin Cawn, the 
creatures of that Minifter came to the Mogul, 
and informed him that a Fakeer of moft emi- 
nent fandity was in the garden, and though it 
was with great reludance that the Emperor yield- 
ed to the dictates of his zeal, he was at length 



by their perfuafions, prevailed on to go out and 
rneet this holy perfon, whom he had long expreft a 
defire to fee. He had not advanced many fteps in 
the garden, when too Moors in the habit of Fakeers, 
came fuddenly behind liim, put a noofe vibout his 
neck, and then ftabbed him with fpears till he died 
on the fpot. 

As foon as the Vizier was informed of the death 
of his mailer, he immediately confined his fons, and 
all the friends of Allum Geer, who were then w ith 
him, and placing on the throne one of the Royal 
Family, whom he thought the moit convenient for 
his purpofes, went himfelf diredly to join an army 
of Marattas, who were waiting for him about thirty 
miles from Delli. 

It was not long before the Pattans, equally dif- 
pleafed with the V^izier for his conduct, and the Ma- 
rattas for interfering in the government of Delli, 
marched a confiderable force againfl them, and com- 
ing up with them at a place called Paniput, near a 
hundred miles from Delli, they killed the Maratta 
Genera!, and put the army to flight, which retreated 
till they were joined by another body of their own 
troops. They were purfued by the Pattans, and 
routed again in another engagement. 

Ahamed Abdalla then entered Delli, and placed 
his fon Timur upon the throne ; and orders were 
iifued out to all the Rajas and Governors in the 
neighbourhood, to exert their utmoft endeavours to 
prevent the Marattas from approaching the city. 


['759-]l\.TOtwithftanding the attention of the rea- 

X\j der has been long fuipended from the 

Coaft of Coromandel, the principal objedl: of this 

work ', it is expedient here to give an account of the 

Y s engage- 


engagement at fea in 1759, and here conclude the 
Naval Operations. This will afford an opportunity 
of purfuing afterwards the affairs of the Coaft with- 
out interruption, as far as they can be afcertained by 
the lateft accounts. 

Vice Admiral Pocock having refitted his fquadron 
at Bombay, and made it ready for the fca by the 
feventh of April, j 759, failed on that day for the 
Coaft of Coromandel, ufing his utmofl endeavours 
to get round Ceylon before the French fleet, which 
were expected foon to fail from the Iflands of iVJau^- 
ritius and Bourbon. 

Having gained this necefl'ary point, he continued 
in the proper ftations to intercept the Enemy, or 
protecfl our own trade, till the third of Auguft, and 
then, as the feafon advanced, proceeded to cruize 
off Pondichery, in hourly expedation of the Enemy. 
The whole month being paft without any advice of 
the French fquadron, which had fo long been expec- 
ted, provifions and water grew fhort, and the Ad- 
miral was obliged while he continued to cruize for 
the Enemy, to proceed to Trincomalay the fiifl of 
September to water the fbips, as he found it very 
difficult to water them at Negapatam. He had dif- 
patched the Company's frigate Revenge a few days 
before, with orders to proceed of^' Ceylon, and look 
out for the Enemy. The fecond, at ten in the fore- 
noon, they faw from the maft-head fifteen fail in the 
S. E. quarter, ftanding to the N. E. which proved to 
be the Enemy's fleet, and foon after perceived the 
Revenge chaced by one of their frigates, which fired 
feveral fhot at her. Upon this the Admiral made 
the fign^l for a general chace, and ftood towards 
them with all the fail he could make, which obliged 
the Enemy's frigate to give over chace, and rejoin 
her own fquadron. The abatement of the wind 
prevented our getting near them when the day clo- 



The French line confided of eleven fail of large 
{hips. Le Zodiaque, M. D'Ache, Lieutenant-Ge- 
neral, feventy-four guns, and fix hundred and fixty 
men. The Minotaur, M. L'Aguille, Chef D'Efca- 
dre, feventy-four guns, fix hundred and fixty men. 
Le Comte de Provence, M. La Chaife, feventy-four 
guns, fix hundred and fixty men, Le Centaur, M. 
Surville, feventy guns, fix hundred and fixty men. 
L'Adif, M. Beauchaine, L'llluftre, M. De Ruis, 
and La Fortune, M. Lobry, all of fixty- four guns, 
and fix hundred men. Le Vengeur, M. Palliere, 
fixty-four guns, and five hundred men. Le Due 
D'Orleans, M. Surville le Cader, Le St. Louis, M. 
Johannes, Le Due de Eourgogne, M. Benvet, all of 
fixty guns, and five hundred men. They had two 
frigates, and two ftore-fhips. 

This extraordinary force, like which none had ever 
yet been Ceen in the Indian feas, was chafed, invited, 
and in vain provoked to fight, by a much inferior 
ftrength ; for the Englifli Iquadron were no more 
than nine fhips of the line, of which two were only 
fifty-gun fhips, and the largeil carried no more than 
fixty-eight guns. They were the Yarmouth, Vice- 
Admiral Pocock, Captain Harrilbn, fixty-lix guns, 
five hundred and forty men. The Grafton, Rear- 
Admiral Stevens, Captain Kempenfelt, fixty-eight 
guns, five hundred and thirty eight men. The 
Elizabeth, Captain Tiddeman, fixty-four guns, four 
hundred and eighty men. The Tyger, Captain 
Brereton, the Sunderland, t^onourable Captain Col- 
ville, the Weymouth, Sir William Eaird, Baronet ; 
all of fixty guns, four hundred and twenty men. 
The * Cumberland, Captain Somerfet, fifty-eight 
guns, five hundred and twenty men. The New- 
caflle, Captain Michie, and the Salifbury, Captain 
Dent, each of fifty guns, three hundred and fifty 

* The Cumberland being weak and difabled was reduced from 
66 guns to 58. 

Y4 men. 


men. There were alfo three frigates and a firefhip 
From hence will appear, the difproportion of the two 
fquadrons, which was fo great that the French had a 
faperiority of one hundred and ninety two guns, and 
two tlioufand, three hundred and fixty five men, 
befides the great advantage in the fize of their fhips. 

Notwithftanding fo apparent an inequality, the 
French endeavoured by taking the opportunity of the 
duik, and falling off of the wind, to fteal away 
undiicovered, but were fruftrated in this defign by 
the Revenge, who having orders to make fail to the 
S. E. and try. to keep in light of them, about eleven 
at night, made a fignal for difcovering the enemy, 
and then the whole fleet bore dovvn towaixls them. 

About one in the morning of the third, a heavy 
fquall coming on, v/hich continued till three, obliged 
us to bring to, and clew up our top-fails. At day- 
light we faw the Enemy's fleet bearing N. E. by N. 
0bout five or fix leagues difl:ant. The Admiral then 
made the fignal for a general chace to the N. E. 
Point Pedro on the Illand of Ceylon bearing Wefl, 
diftant fix or feven leagues. At nine, the Enemy's 
fleet bore N. E. by E. and were formed in a line of 
battle, a-head on the ftarboard-tack, with the wind 
about W. N. W. A little after nine, the Admiral 
made the fignal for the line of battle a-breafl:, and 
flood for the center of the Enemy's fleet, which kept 
iinder-way, and appealed to go from the wind ; by 
which means we altered their bearings greatly, ft>r 
by noon they bore S. E. by E. diftant fix or feven 
miles. The wind decreafing as the day advanced, 
\ye were not able to form our IIhc till near Sun-fet, 
two of our fquadron the Tyger and Newcaflle failing 
very ill, though they made all the fail they could 

About a quarter after five our fquadron being 
nearly a-breaft of the Enemy, they wore and came 
to the v^ind on the other tack, upon which our fliips 
tackt, the rear firft, and fleered with the Enemy's 



fquadron. We were now about four miles diftant 
with very little wind, had fcarcely fteerage-way, and 
continued fo till near ten, when a frefh breeze fprung 
up from the S. S. W, on which we hauled clofe to 
the wind under our topfails, and formed the line 
a-head. This fhift of wind, brought the Enemy a- 
flern, and a little upon the weather quarter of our 
line, but foon after, it proving hazy, we loft fight of 
them. "It is remarkable they made no fignal in this 
or the preceding night, either with guns or lights. 
The Revenge was fcnt to look out a-ftern, but not 
being able to difcover them, was ordered to keep a- 
head, with better fuccefs ; for about eight next morn- 
ing, the Revenge made the fignal for feeing four 
fail to the N. E. A general chace was begun by the 
whole fquadron, and continued till near two in the 
afternoon, at which time feeing no more than two 
fhips, and finding he could not come up with thofe, 
the Admiral made the fignal for the Revenge to 
come into the fquadron, then ftood to the north- 
ward, and made all the fail he CDuld to get off Pon- 
dichery, juftly concluding the French fquadron was 
bound thither. 

The Admiral arrived off Pondichery on the eighth 
early in the morning and faw no fhips in the road, 
but at one o'clock in the afternoon difcovered the 
enemy to the S. E. and by three, counted thirteen 
fail, he was then ftanding to the fouthward with 
the fea breeze, and to prevent their palfing him kept 
a good look out the following night. At half an 
hour paft fix in the morning of the ninth, he faw 
part of the Enemy's fquadron to the S, W. and by 
nine counted fixteen fail. At two in the afternoon, 
the wind fpringing up, the Admiral made the fignal 
for a general chace, and at four, the Enemy appear- 
ed to be formed in a line of battle a-breaft, and 
fteered right down upon him. The Revenge was 
ordered to keep (during the night) between our 
fquadron and the Enemy, to obferve their motions. 



The tenth, at fix in the morning, the body of the 
French fquadron bore S. E. by S, diftant eight or 
nine miles, and was formed in a line of battle a-head, 
on the {larboard tack. We continued bearing down 
on them in a line of battle a-breaft, with the wind 
about N. \V. by W. At ten the Enemy wore and 
formed the line a-head upon the larboard tack. At 
eleven we did the fame, and kept edging down up- 
on them. At two in the afternoon, the Yarmouth 
being nearly a-breaft of the French Admiral's fecond 
in the rear, and within mufquet fhot, M. D'Ache, 
made the fignal for battle. The Admiral immedi- 
ately did the fame, on which both fquadrons began 
to cannonade each other with great fury, and con- 
tinued hotly engaged till four, when the Enetny's 
rear, and foon after their center, began to give way ; 
the Sunderland having got up fome time before, and 
engaged their ftern-moft fhip. Their van made fail, 
flood on, and with their whole fquadron bore away, 
and fleered to the S. S, E. with all the fail they could 

As four of our fhips in the van had fuflained a 
hot fire from fix of the Enemy's largeft fhips during 
two hours : after fo great a difadvantage, we were 
in no condition to purine ; for the Tyger having her 
mizen-maft and maintop-maft fhot away, appeared 
in other refpeds to be greatly difabled : The New- 
callle was much damaged in her mafts, yards, and 
rigging ; and the Cumberland and Salifbury in the 
rear, were not in a condition to make fail. The 
Yarmouth had her foretop-fail-yard fnot away in the 
flings ; and the Grafton and Elizabeth were greatly 
difabled in their mafts, yards, and rigging. The 
Weymouth and Sunderland, the only fhips that had 
not fuffered, could not get properly into adion, as 
M. D'Ache began to engage before they could clofe, 
and by that means thofe two were precluded from 
their fhare in the engagement, lo that only feven 



of our fhips received the whole fire of the Enemy's 
fleet till near the conclufion, and then only eight. 

The Enemy continued retreating to the louthvvard 
till dark, at which time the Admiral, ordering the 
Revenge, as ufual, to keep betv/een him and tlie 
Enemy, lay to, with the fquadron, on the larboard- 
tack ; in order for the difabled lliips to repair their 
damages. At day -light in the morning, we faw the 
Enemy to the S. S, E. lying to alfo on the larboard- 
tack about four leagues diflant ; the wind being 
about weft. The Enemy upon feeing our fquadron, 
immediately wore and brought to on the other tack, 
>and continued fo till the evening, when their diftance 
was fo much increafed that we could fcarcely dif- 
cern them from the main-top. At this time the 
wind coming to the eaftward, the Admiral wore and 
flood under an eafy fail to the N, W. the Sunder- 
land having the Newcaftle in tow, the Weymouth 
the Tyger, and the Elizabeth the Cumberland. 

The French having received lefs damage in their 
rigging (though they were very much fhattered in 
their hulls, and fuffered a lofs of near fifteen hun- 
dred men killed and wounded) were enabled now to 
gain the only point they feemed to be folicitous of 
obtaining. They failed diredly for Pondichery, and 
landed four hundred European feamen, (for they 
brought no troops) two hundred Coffrees, about two 
or three lack of roupees, and the diamonds which 
they found in the Grantham Indiaman, for that fhip 
had been taken by the French near the Cape, in her 
paffage home. The value of the diamonds might 
be about two lack more. 

Our lofs was very cqnfiderable, though greatly 
inferior to that of the Enemy. We had one hun- 
dred and eighteen men flain in adlion, and fixty-fix 
cjied of their wounds. Befides thefe, a hundred and 
twenty-two were dangeroufly wounded, and two 
hundred and fixty-three (lightly, fo that our whole 
number killed and wounded, amounted to five hun- 


dred and fixry nine men. Amongfl: the (lain was 
Captain Michie, who commanded the Nevvcaftle, 
Captain Gore of the Marines, and Lieutenant Red- 
fhaw, both of the Nevvcallle. Lieutenant Elliot, and 
the Gunner of the Tyger, the Mafter of the Yar- 
mouth, and Boatfwain of the Elizabeth. Captain 
Somerfet, who commanded the Cumberland, was 
wounded in one of his ankles, and Captain Burton 
received a contuhon on his head. All the ofticers 
and feamen in general behaved with the greatell 
bravery and fpirit during the atlion, and by the vi- 
gour and conftancy of their fire obliged tlie Enemy 
to retreat, notwithftanding their great fiiperiority. 

The Admiral having loft all hopes of renewing the 
engagement, on the fifteenth ftood into the road of 
Negapatam. There he anchored and continued 
repairing his damages, and refitting the fquadron 
till the twenty-fixth, when having put the ihips in 
as good condition for fervice (as the time permitted) 
he weighed and ftood to the northward. He was 
joined by the Revenge, which he had fent with dif- 
patches to Madrafs, who brought him fixty-three 
men belonging to the Bridgewater and Triton, who 
were taken in Fort St. David, and had been ex- 
changed at Pondichery. Thefe he ordered on 
board the Tyger and Newcaftle, as thofe v/ere the 
Ihips which had loft the greateft number of men in 
the late engagement. 

By this frigate the Governor and Council fent a 
letter to the Admiral, of which the following is an 


TH E Revenge anchored here in the night of 
the fourteenth inftanr, and the next morning 
we received the honour of your letters, dated the 
eighth and twelfth inftant, containing advice of your 
difcovering the enemy's fleet on the fecond, and 
Sifter much fatigue, bringing them to a(5tion the tenth. 



The warm fire you fuiiained for two hours with 
feven fhips againil eleven, and obliging them at lad 
to make their retreat, will do immortal honour to 
you and Mr. Stevens, and all the brave officers who 
have the happinefs to lerve under you ; and we feel 
much for the commanders of the Weymouth and 
Sunderland, who were depiived by the nature of the 
enemy's difpofuion, from coming in for an equal 
(hare of the glory of the day. We look upon this 
as the laft effort of the enemy, and well might they 
boaft of their Superiority ; but the check they have 
met will fhew them that they are difappointed of the 
mighty effeds they expeded from this armament. 
It is fortunate that you found means to force them 
to an engagement before they reached Pondichery, 
as the troops they may have brought for landing, 
have, no doubt, had a fhare in the lofs. As yet we 
have not heard of their arrival at Pondichery, but 
we fuppofe them there by this time, as the winds 
have been ftrong foutherly. After they have landed 
their troops and ftores, no great advantage can be 
hoped by engaging them, again, and we would rather 
take the liberty to recommend the waiting until 
joined by the reinforcement expelled from England, 

Fort Si. George, 
16 Sept. 1759. 

The French by their having been fome time at 
Pondichery, muft have had it in their power to 
come out from thence well prepared for ad ion : but 
the Admiral, as he was obliged to pafs them in his 
way from Negapatam to Madrafs, judged that his 
doing it in the night would be liable to mifinterpre- 
tation, and that it would certainly give the enemy 
reafon to conclude, that we had fuffered Co much in 
the late adlion as to be defirous of avoiding another 
engagement j therefore he determined not to pafs 
the enemy's port without looking into it by day-light. 



The twenty-feventh at day-break our fleet were 
got clofe in with Pondichery road, where the French 
Iquadron was lying at anchor in a line of battle. 
The fquadron Mas not in a condition to withftand 
the fire of both the fhips and fort at once, therefore 
the Admiral drew into a line of battle a-head upon 
the ftarboard tack, and was then very near within 
random fliot of their neareft fhip. The wind being 
off fhore, and about W. S. W. our fhips lay with 
their main-top-fails to the mall, juft keeping a pro- 
per fteerage-way for the line to continue well form- 
ed. \\ hile our fhips continued in this fituation, the 
French Admiral made the fignal at fix o'clock to 
heave a peak, and an hour after to weigh, and by 
the time all their fquadroji, which confifted of eleven 
fail of the line, and two frigates, was under fail, it 
was near ten o'clock, at which time, as the wind 
was off fliore, our fiiips were confequently driven to 
leeward of them, and lying as before-mentioned, 
expeding they would bear down directly and engage ; 
but M. DWche made the fignal for his fquadron to 
keep clofe to the wind, and alfo to make fail, and 
flretched away to the fouthward in a line of battle 
a-head, by which manoeuvre they increafed their 
diftance from about random fliot at day- light, to 
near four leagues to windward at fun-fet. Had they 
cut or ilippcd their cables on firfl difcovering us, 
we muft have come to acStion by feven o'clock, and 
after they got under fail, had they bore diredlly 
down, we might have been clofe along fide by ele- 

The Admiral was now convinced that the Enemy 
had no inclination to come to a fecond at5\ion ; and 
as their whole condud manifefted an intention to get 
off and make good their retreat to the lllands, he 
confulted the Rear-Admiral and Captains on their 
prefent htuation, and the probable confequence of a 
further purfuit. They all agreed in opinion that 
the French oflicers being refolved to fatisfy themfelves 



with the very trifling fervice they had done the Com- 
pany by Healing in thofe infufticient fnpplies to Pon- 
dichery, were now determined to avoid any farther 
engagement ; and that if we purfued with any view 
of coming up wirh them, they would lead our fhat- 
tered fquadron quite to their iflands. But befides, 
that the condition of our iTiips would not permit us 
to follow them at all to the fouthward, upon fo 
Jittle pvofped of fervice, there was a more cogent 
reafon for their immediate return to Madrafs, for at 
that time there v\as not above two days bread on 
board the fquadron, and but very little water. 

It w.-js expedient to repair to that port as foon as 
poifible, in order to get a fupply of provilions and 
water, for the voyage to Bombay, before the change 
of the * Monfoon, which was near at hand, at which 
feafon it is dangerous to remain on thecoalt. There- 
fore the whole fquadron anchored in Madrafs road 
on the twenty-eighth, and fuch expedition was ufed in 
vidualling the Ihips, and adminiftring to the reco- 
very of the fick and wounded, that they w^re ena- 
bled to fail again the feventeenth of Od-ober ; and 
the next day they met Rear- Admiral CornilTi with 
four fhips of the line, and the Ajax, Stormonr, and 
Houghton Indiamen, on board of which was Colonel 
Coote with the greateft part of his battalion. 

* On the Coaft of Corotnandel the wind changes from South to 
North-Eaft moft commonly between the fifteenth and thirtieth of 
Odober. It is bell to leave the Coaft between the fifteenth and 
twentieth, but it is full late to ftay till the end of the month. In 
order to etfed feme very important fertice, it may be not altogether 
imprudent to rifque the wintering a fleet in thefe feas, becaufe in In- 
dia, as in all other places, fome winters are more, and fome lefs 
tempeftuous than others. In 1741 M. dq Ja Bourdonnais remained 
on the Coaft without any danger till the twenty-fecond of Oftober, 
but in I 746 he was furprifed with a ftorm, which funk and damaged 
his whole fquadron. In 1747, and 1748, the Englifh fleets kept 
the Coaft, and met with no violent winds during the whole feafon. 
And on the twenty-fourth of April, 1749, there was a tempeft 
which deftroyed fifty or fixty velftls of different nations. All that 
one can infer from hence is, that it is prudent to leave the Coaft in 
the middle of Odlober. Memoir e M. de la Bourdonnais. See Ap- 
pendix, page 9. 



Admiral Focock ordered all the troops which 
were brought out in the fhips of war to be put on 
board the Queenboroiigh, and difpatched her, with 
tiie three Indiamen for Madrafs, where they ar- 
rived the twenty-feventh. The whole fquadron 
now failed for the coaft of Malabar, and in going 
round Ceylon, they met with fuch hard gales of 
wind, that the Cumberland and Salifbury made the 
fignal to fpeak.with the Admiral, being in great dif- 
trefs from leaks, which they could not keep under 
with all their pumps. The Salifbury's diftrefs being the 
greated, the Admiral ordered her to be aliifted with 
eleven men and an officer from each fhip, for their 
own people were over tatigued by being kept con- 
ftantly to the pump ; and notwithftanding this fup- 
ply of frefh men, and their having thrown overboard 
thirty of their guns, at the end of two days they 
found the water itillgain upon them, and were obliged 
again to make the fignal of diftrefs. Upon this, the 
Admiral ordered all the boats in the fleet to ftay by the 
Salifbury to fave the crew, in cafe of the fhip's foun- 
dering ; and fent Admiral Cornifh and Captain Har- 
rifon on board, to examine into her fituation before 
he would too haftily take the people out of her. 
They immediately ordered frefh men to the pumps, 
beginning with their own barge-crews, and by this 
means they foon cleared her, and by the help of a 
thrummed- fail put under her bottom where the princi- 
pal leak was, they made it prafticable to keep 
her free with half her pumps •, and now judging 
her to be j^o longer in danger, they returned to 
their own fliips, and the Salifbury made fail the next 

The Admiral being defirous of fending Rear- 
Admiral Cornifh to the Coall of Coromandel as foon 
as the feafon would permit, difpatched him with 
the Lenox, Duke of Aquitain, York, Falmouth, 
Weymouth and Sunderland, for the Telichery, 
which was the general rendezvous. The weather be- 


coming exceeding fine, and the Monfoon appearing 
to be let in, the Admiral fufTered every fliip to make 
the beft of her way for the intended port, knowing 
that a fingle fhip will always make a fpeedier paiTage 
than a fleet, and as they arrived they might begin 
to take in their water, and put their fick on fhore. 
The twentieth of November the Yarmouth arrived 
at Telichery, as did the Elizabeth and York, and 
by the thirty-firft the whole fquadron came in. 

That no time might be loft for refitting the fhips at 
Bombay, and preparing them for their return to 
the coaft of Corornandel, the Admiral gave orders 
to Rear- Admiral Stevens on the twenty-fixth, to 
proceed diredly for Bombay, with thef Grafton, 
Elizabeth, Tyger, and Salifbury, and followed him-^ 
felf the twenty-ninth, leaving orders with Admiral 
Cornifh to fail with the fix fhips under his com- 
mand to the Coaft of Coromandel on the fifteenth of 
December, as it was to be hoped the feafon would 
then be favourable, and the fick and wounded 

Admiral Pocqck had received orders to return to 
England, neverthelefs upon the news of frefh 
difturbances in Bengal, he determined to remairi 
with the Y'armouth fome time longer, and adled in 
purfuance of this refolution, till fuch time as advice 
was received of the entire re-eftabliftiment of the 
affairs of Bengal, and the fignal vidtory obtained 
over the French on the Coaft of CoromandeL 

[ 1 760.] Upon fo happy a turn in the affairs of the 
company, the Admiral thought it now advifeable to 
comply with the orders for his return, efpecially as he 
had the fatisfacftion to fee the comm.and devolve on 
fo brave and experienced an officer as Rear-Admiral 
Srevens, whofe worth had been proved by his be- 
haviour in the three engagements, as well as by the 
conftant harmony which had always fubfifted between 
them, and his alacrity to concur in any fervice for the 
honour of his country. 

Z The 


The Admiral had himfelf received from the three 
Prefidencies the flrongeft expreffions of their fenfe 
of the zeal which he had at all times fhewn, and the 
adual fervices which he had fo often performed 
for the benefit of the Eaft-India Company, and the 
honour of the Britifh flag. Having at length re- 
fumed his intention of returning to Europe, he dif- 
patched Rear-Admiral Stevens for the coail of Coro- 
mandel on the twenty-firfl of March, with the 
Grafton, Elizabeth, Tyger, and Ncwcaftle, and 
failed himfelf the feventh of April in the Yarmouth, 
leaving at Bombay the Salifbury which had had a 
thorough repair, and was then almoft ready to fail, 
and the Cumberland, which was to be taken into the 
dock the firft high tide. 

Admiral Pocock anchored at Anjengo the feven- 
teenth of April, and failed from thence the twenty- 
firft. He there received a letter from Admiral 
Stevens, dated the eleventh, on which day he failed 
from that port, acquainting him with his proceed- 
ings, and that he had retaken three fmall Englifh 
veiTels off the Vingorla Rocks, from the Malwans, a 
fet of pirates who had taken them but a few hours 
before. There had been no account of the Franch 
fquadron fince the time of their departure from Pon- 
dichery on the fecond of Odober, 1759. 

On the eighteenth of June, Admiral Pocock ar- 
rived at St. Helena, where he found the Colchefter 
and Rippcn waiting to convoy feventeen of the 
Company's fhips, three of which were of extraordinary 
great value, having on board a large quantity of rich 
goods and diamonds from Bengal. For the fe- 
curity of fo confiderable an objevft, the Admiral thought 
proper to delay his voyage till the feventh of July, 
on which day the v/hole fleet being ready to fail, he 
took them under his command and anchored in 
the Downs the twenty-fecond of September, with 
the richeft convoy that ever arrived at one time in 


[ 355 ] 

W A 

O N T H E 


['759-] 'T^HE China fhips being arrived at Ma- 
i drafs with three hundred of Colonel 
Coote's battalion, in the beginning of September, 
Major Brereton, now Commander in chief, being 
very fanguine for adion upon the ftrength of this 
reinforcement, prevailed on the Governor and 
Council, though with difficulty, to confent to an 
attempt upon Wandewafh. Both armies had Iain 
fome time inactive ; the French in Gingee, Wande- 
wafh, Arcot and Chitteput, and our troops at Con- 
jeveram. At Wandewalli was a party of four or five 
hundred French, which Colonel Brereton, by a fud- 
den march, propofed to fhut up or drive from 
thence, and then take the place before the enemy 
could colletl their force. Every thing was to be 
ready with great fecrecy by the tenth, and all ne- 
cefTaries were accordingly prepared. The rains 
which fell about this time caul'ed a delay till the fix- 
teenth, when the news arriving of the engagement 
between the fleets, the Governor and Council wrote 
to Major Brereton, that they thought it would be 
better to make no motion till it was certain whether 
the enemy had received any reinforcements, 

M^jor Brereton being unwilling to be with-held 
from a favourite projed, by a fuppofition, to which 
he did not give any weight, marched and took Tri- 
vitore the tv/enty fixth, where he made prifoners 
one Captain and twenty-two men of the Lorrain Re- 
piment, and eight Huffars. He then proceeded to 
Wandewafn, and endeavoured, but in vain, to draw 
the enemy to an adion out of the Pettah, (the town 

Z 2 ©r 

356 WAR ON THE 1759. 

or village belonging to and commonly furrounding 
every Indian fort.) The l^rench having fome intelli- 
gence of our preparations, by the delay from the 
tenth to the twenty-fifth, difcovered our intentions, 
and had made themfelves almoft equal to our force, 
which was far fhort of feventcen hundred men, the 
number that had been at firft propofed. Major 
Brereton gave out orders for an attack to be made 
upon Wandewafh-Pettah at three o'clock in the 
morning of the firft of October, by Majors Monfon 
and Caiilaud, v/ith five hundred men at one end 
of it, and Mnjor Gordon, with two hundred men 
between the fort and Pettah. Major Monfon meet- 
ing with little refiftance, entered without lofs, and 
foon after Major Gordon attacked, but received fo 
warm a fire from the fort and the Pettah, that his 
party broke, and only twenty men got in with him : 
however he joined Major Monfon, and they advanced 
to the head of the Pettah, having driven the enemy 
quite out of it. But as our people were expofed to 
a great fire, and every ftreet was enfiladed from the 
fort they retreated towards the center of the Pettah, 
and there took poft, detaching fome pickets in the 
ftreet to the right and left, which was all that could 
be done till day-light. 

The French having made a difpofition for that 
purpofe, at day-break attacked our parties on all fides, 
who after near two hours warm difpute, were 
obliged to abandon the Pettah, (leaving four guns be- 
hind them) with the lofs of two hundred and two 
men in the action and retreat. The enemy fufFered 
no lefs in point of numbers, but we had a moft 
eflential difadvantage in the lofs of eleven officers of 
approved worth and bravery. The army was ftill 
in a condition to have undertaken fomething of con- 
fequence, but the advanced feafon, the fcarcity of 
provifions, and the difcouragement of an unfuccefsful 
attack, were reafons that juftly determined them to 
go into cantonment at Conjeveram. 



In the neighbourhood of TrichinopoJy, near Ella- 
vanafore, is a ftrong place called Tagada, held by 
Kiflnarauze, an ally to the Nabob, who had been 
very troiiblefome to the French, and frequently, 
with the alTiftance of the garrifon of Trichinopoly, 
beat feveral of their parties. His little fort was by 
fituation almoft impregnable, but wanted ammunition 
to hold out againll fuch a force as the French were 
now refolved to fend againft it. 

Captain Smith apprized of their defigns, and 
having intelligence that a confiderable party of the 
enemy were actually marching againft it, confiding 
of one hundred European Infantry, forty Huffars, 
five hundred Black Horfe, fourteen hundred Sepoys 
and matchlocks, and five pieces of cannon. Cap- 
tain Smith had the precaution to throw into the place 
three companies of Sepoys, under the command of 
Serjeant-Major Huntei man. Afterwards he detached 
Lieutenant Raillard with forty Europeans, fix com- 
panies of Sepoys, three fmall guns, and a large fup- 
ply of ammunition, with orders to proceed within a 
night's march of Tadaga, and then to forward the 
ammunition with one company of Sepoys : and from 
the particular fituation of Tagada, he had great 
hopes of throwing in this fupply with fafety. Be- 
fore the party reached Volconda, the Nabob's 
horfe, in number one thoufand, marched and joined 

The Enemy having collefted all their forces, 
made four feveral attacks on the town of Tagada. 
They brought two guns to each gate, and ordered 
two parties to efcalade the walls. The attack con- 
tinued a confiderable time, till at length a party 
forced a pafiage at one of the gates, and brought 
four guns into the town, fo that it was with great difli- 
culty the garrifon could gain the rock, where there were 
fome provifions, ammunition, and water. They 
fent word to Lieutenant "Raillard that they would 
hold out till he came to their relief, which they de- 

Z 3 fired 

358 WAR ON THE 1757. 

fired he would do as fpeedily as polTible, as they had 
loft near one third of their people in the late at- 
tack. The Enemy fufFered much more, having thirty 
Europeans, and two hundred Sepoys killed and 
wounded, Kiftnarauze, with all his Horfe, and fome 
Sepoys, marched in the night from Tagada, and the 
next day joined Lieut. Raillard, by whofe advice it 
was determined the next morning early to attempt 
the relief of Tagada. They marched accordingly, 
till they came within two miles of the fort, where, 
upon the appearance of the enemy, they halted and 
began to cannonade. This gave time to the French 
to bring up their artillery. Upon the firft difcharge 
of the field-pieces, the Nabob's Horfe fied with the 
ntmoft precipitation, nor could all the entreaties of 
Lieutenant Raillard and Kiilnarauze bring them 
back. This happened before the Enemy's Infantry 
appeared. Soon after our Sepoys feeing themfelves 
abandoned by the horfe, took a pannic and fled 
likewife. About two hundred, chiefly Officers, re- 
rnained with the Europeans and Topaffes, who guard- 
ed the guns, and were endeavouring to make good 
their retreat to a village about a mile in their rear ; 
thcfe being in fome diforder, were hard pufhed by 
the Enemy's European Cavalry and fome hifantry, who 
having taken poiTelTion of the guns, our whole 
party was entirely routed, the Europeans and To- 
pafTes either killed or taken prifoners. Many of the 
Sepoys cut to pieces, and almoft all difarmed. Lieute- 
nant Raillard, Who was on horfeback during the en^ 
gagement, efcaped being made prifoner, but did not 
long furvive the difgrace of his defeat, for it made 
fuch an impreffion on him as doubtlefs produced 
his unfortunate end. Having no cartridges to load 
his arms for his fatal defign, he bruifed himfclf fo 
much with repeated ftrokes on the breaft and head 
with his piftols, that he fell off his horfe and expired 
about five miles from the fcene of action. As he 
V/as found there with no other marks of violence, it 



is evident he deftroyed himfeif in the manner above- 

The mifcarriage of this brave man M^as owing to 
his impatience at the cowardice of the Nabob's 
horfe : for as foon as they broke, he left his own 
troops, who were in need of his prefence and might 
have profited by it, and rode among the broken 
cavalry, vainly attempting to rally thofe who were 
alike infenfible to his exhortations or reproaches. 
Soon after Serjeant Hunterman furrendered the Foil 
of Tagada upon honourable terms. 

The French to make a diverfion to the fouthward, 
and alfo to have at hand a fufficient force to fur- 
prize Trichinopoly upon the firft favourable occafion, 
marched a large body of men towards Seringam, 
An advanced party of them were difcovered from 
the Golden Rock, near Trichinopoly, and a fally was 
made from that garrifon with fome Euiopeans, Se- 
poys, and the Nabob's horfe, who came upon them in 
the night and took one officer, thirty Europeans, 
forty CoiFrees, and Sepoys, and killed or difperfed 
the remainder of the corps, taking alfo their arms, 
baggage and ammunition, widi two ifield-pieces. 
The main body of the French army, confuting of 
above a thoufand Europeans, continuing their march 
to Seringam, attacked and carried it, tliere being 
only two companies of Sepoys to defend li. As this 
fmall body made a gallant refinance, the French, in 
refentment, moft fhamefully turned them out of the 
place, and then fent their horfe after them to cut 
and mangle them, and fired grape fliot on fome ithat 
were then got to the Glacis, by which means above 
a hundred were killed. The French left two hun- 
dred Europeans at Seringam, and returned with the 
reft to join their army, fince which, one of their 
convoys going to Seringam was furprized by Captain 
Smith who commanded at Trichinopoly. 

On advice of an efcort being at Utatore, Captain 
3Eaith detache4 a party of fifty Europeans and fome 

Z 4 Sepoys, 

^6o WAR ON THE 1759. 

Sepoys to intercept it. The French n:iarched an e- 
qual force from Seringam for the protedlion of their 
convoy. Captain Smith, as foon as he found they 
had weakened their force at the Pagoda, attacked it 
with the remainder of his garrifon from Trichinopoly. 
As he received a wound in the attempt, it had no 
other confequence than that of bringing back the 
French detachment. Our party in the mean time at- 
tacked the convoy in Utatore, took two officers, with 
thirty Grenadiers, and difarmed three hundred Sepoys, 
carrying off or deftroying all the ammunition and 

After this. Captain Smith, with the afliftance of 
the King of Tanjore and Tondeman, retook (everal 
pofhs, and interrupted the communication with Serin- 
gam, till at lengdi M. Lally, thinking the place in 
danger, reinforced it with a body of horfe, and two 
hundred European infantry. 

It has been already related that three hundred 
of Colonel Coote's battalion were brought by the 
China fliips in Septem.ber, and that he arrived him- 
felf with the remainder of his corps in the Queen- 
borough, and the three Indiamen on the twenty-fe- 
venth of Odober. As foon as Colonel Coote 
landed, the neceffary preparations were fet about for 
his regiment to take the field. It was in this interval 
that the enemy fent the large detachment afore-men- 
tioned to the fouthward, and polfeffed themfelves 
of Seringam. The Prefidency apprehending they 
might extend their defigns againfh Trichinopoly, re- 
commended to Colonel Coote to proceed with all 
expedition to join the army at Conjeveram, and 
to form an attack upon fome of the Enemay's pof- 
fefllons in that neighbourhood, in order to draw their 
troops from the fouthward. The army accordingly 
marched from Conjeveram the twenty-fifth of No- 
vember, and the next day a detachment under 
Major Brereton inverted Wandewafn. Two bat- 
teries were ereifled with gre^t expedition, they were 



opened the twenty-ninth, and a fummons was then 
fent by Colonel Coote to Lieutenant Mahony, 
who commanded in the garrifon, to furrender. He 
very properly returned for anfwer, that he would de- 
fend the fort to the laft extremity. 

On the thirtieth, a breach being made, the 
Killedar, or Moorifh Governor, fent to treat with 
the Colonel, offering to pay a fum of money, and 
deliver up the French garrifon, upon condition of 
his being continued in the government of the 
Fort i but before any agreement was perfected, 
the French foldiers, fearing the intrigues of the 
Killedar, got upon the walls and calling out to our 
people, declared they would deliver up the gar- 
rifon. Five officers and fixty-three private men 
were made prifoners on this occafion, and a place 
of great note in this Country, which had been 
often threatened by our army, was at length taken 
without any lofs on our fide. There were five 
hundred Sepoys in the fort befides the European 

From thence the army marched immediately to 
Carangoly, and on the fixth of December opened 
a battery againft that Fort, which was defended 
by Colonel O'Kennely, and one hundred Europe- 
ans, and five hundred Sepoys. The breach was 
made the eighth, but there being yet a ditch, 
the paffing of which might have been attended 
with lofs of men, Colonel Coote thought it better 
to grant the garrifon the terms of capitulation 
they demanded, which were, that the Europeans 
fhould not be made prifoners, but have leave to 
march to Pondichery, and accordingly the Fort was 

The French troops which were aflembled at 
Arcot, being joined by the detachment from the 
fouthward, the fon of Chunda Saib, and the fon 
of the Killedar of Wandewafh, were fent with other 
emilTaries to . bring over a party of Morarow's 


362 WARONTHE 1760. 

Maratras. They had already a great number of 
Country troops brought in by M. De BufTy, who 
went with a fevv troopers as far as Cadapa, to pay 
a vifit to Bafaletzing on his return to Golconda, 
and not being able to perfuade that Prince to 
return with him, engaged one of his chiefs with 
a confiderable number of Country horfeand Sepoys, 
and brought him with great Hate to Arcot. Thefe 
were joined the ninth of January by Innis Cawn, 
Morarow's chief officer, with three thoufand Marat- 
ta horfe, befides a number of foot, who followed 
them for plunder. The French force at Arcot 
conlifted (according to the beft intelligence) of 
near two thoufand five hundred Europeans, and M. 
Lally himfelf refumed the command of the army 
upon this occafion. 

Colonel Coote having pofted his forces in a flrong 
fituation between Cauverypauk and Arcot, not 
more than three miles from the advanced guards 
of the Enemy, remained there in order to cover 
our diftrids in the beft manner he could againft 
the ravages of the Marattas, who were difperfed 
on all fides in fmall parties on purpofe to drive 
off the cattle, plunder the inhabitants, and deftroy 
the produce of the Country. The army with 
Colonel Coote confifted o( two thoul^nd one hun- 
dred Europeans, (including the artillery, the caval- 
ry, and officers of all denominations) about four 
thoufand Sepoys, and fifteen hundred Country horfe. 
The great number of cavalry on the fide of the 
Enemy, rendered it indifpenfably necelTary f t us 
to take into the fervice as many of the beft as 
could be procured, notwithftanding the immenfe 
expence, for without them the army v^/ould have been 
abtolutely unable to keep the field, as it would have 
been impoffible to have fupplied it with provifions. 

The day after the junction of the Marattas, 
M. Lally moved with his whole force from Arcot 
by the road of Wandewafh, but on the fecond day, 

a party 


a party turned towards Conjeveram, who ranfack- 
ed the town, but could not get polTeirion of the 
fort, being repulfed in the attempt, by an ofHcer 
Vv'ith two companies of Sepoys. Colonel Coote, upon 
this intelligence, marched with all expedition from 
Cauverypauk to Conjeveram, Upon his approach, 
all the Enemy's parties retired from that neigh- 
bourhood, and joined their main body at Papa- 
tangel, a town upon the road from Conjeveram 
to Wandewafh. 

The Enemy's defigns proved to be againft the 
latter place, where Captain Sherlock commanded 
with one hundred and fifty Europeans, and eight 
companies of Sepoys. The fixteenth in the morn- 
ing, the Enemy attacked the Pettah adjoining to 
the fort, and after a ftout refiftance from three 
companies of Sepoys, commanded by an Enfign 
of the Sepoy eftablifhment, lodged themfelves there, 
and fet about ere(5ting a battery. The twentieth they 
began to fire againft the walls from one twenty-four 
pounder and three eighteen pounders. 

Wandewafh was thought a place of too much 
confequence to be fuffered to fall without making 
fome attempt to relieve it : therefore, though the 
Enemy might have fome fuperiority in Europeans, 
befides their multitude of Blacks, it was determined 
to march the army towards them. 

It had long been debated at Madrals, and was 
always matter of doubt with many members 
of the Council whether it would be expedient to 
hazard an adion at fo critical a time, for till the 
arrival of the good news from Bengal, the affairs 
of the Coaft bore a melancholy afpedt. The Ene- 
my had gready the fuperiority in European horfe, 
which would have led on the Marattas to deftroy 
our army totally in cafe of a defeat. They had 
already plundered and deftroyed the country, and 
encreafed the fcarcity of provifions to fo great a 
degree, that the cry for rice both at Madrafs and 


3^4 WAR ON THE 1766. 

in the army, was exceedingly alarming. The army 
alfo made continual demands for their pay when 
the Country was entirely exhaufted of cafh. At 
length a veiTel arrived from Bengal, with the wel- 
come news of the eftablifhment of peace and tran- 
quillity in that Province, and the long expedled fupply 
of money. 

This was a great relief to the prefent anxiety, 
and gave fpirit to our Counfels, as well as to 
the army and our allies, and muft be fuppofed 
to have had fome effed on an Enemy that was 
naturally prefumptuous. But thefe circumftances 
did not caufe the Governor and Council to adt 
with lefs precaution. Still dubious of the event, 
they approved of Colonel Coote's march towards 
the Enemy, but at the fame time ftrongly recom- 
mended to him to keep Chengalaput and Caran- 
goly in his rear, that he might be fupplied with 
provifions, and have his retreat to Madrafs fecured, 
in cafe of any unfavourable event. 

Colonel Coote being deterrnined to march the 
army towards the French, took poft at Outremaloor 
the feventeenth, and judging by his advice from 
Captain Sherlock, that the breach in the fort might 
be practicable the tv/enty-fecond, he refolved to 
make an effort to raife the fiege that morning ; 
for this purpofe he marched with the whole ar- 
my the twenty-firft in the evening, and encamp- 
ed at Trinborough, about ten miles from the 
Enemy, where he gave out the following orders. 

Trinborough Village, January 21, 1750, feven o'Clock in the 

The army to march to-morrow at fix o'Clock 
by the left upon the Taps beating, which is to 
be looked upon the fame as the Generals beating, 
it is to form and be ready to march off imme- 
diately after. All the cavalry and five companies 
of Sepoys to form the van of the army, except 
two hundred Black hcrfe, who together with three 



companies of Sepoys are to cover the baggage in 
the rear. The army to obferve the orders given 
out the twenty-feventh of December, which were, 
that the firft line confift of Colonel Draper's regi- 
ment on the right, Colonel Coote's on the left, 
and the Company's in the centre ; the artillery 
to be divided as follows ; four pieces on the right, 
four on the left, and two pieces between each 
interval, making in all twelve in the firit line. 
The fecond line to confitt of the grenadiers of 
Colonel Draper's, Colonel Coote's, and the Compa- 
ny's, with one piece of cannon upon each flank, 
who are to form two hundred paces in the rear 
of the firft line: An eight inch Howitz to be between 
the two lines. Major Brereton to command the right 
of the firft line. Major William Gordon the left, 
and Major Robert Gordon the centre. Major Mon- 
fon to command the fecond line. The cavalry 
to be divided into five fquadrons, the Europeans to 
make the center fquadron. 

The names of the Jemidars who are appoint- 
ed to command, to be given into the comman- 
ders in chief to-night. When the line forms, the 
cavalry will have orders to form about fifty paces 
in the rear of the fecond line, having a proper 
interval between each fquadron ; at the fame time 
the five companies of Sepoys who fupported the 
cavalry are to form upon the right of Colonel Draper's 
regiment, and the five companies of Sepoys that 
were in the rear of the line of march, to form 
on the left of Colonel Coote's regiment, five com- 
panies who were on the left flank of the line of 
march, are to form in the following m.anner j two 
on the right of the fecond line, and two on the 
left, and one on the rear with the cavalry, The 
whole army, as well Europeans as Blacks, are to 
have a green branch of Tamarind Tree fixed on 
their hats and turbans, likewife on the tops of 
the colours, in order to diftinguifh them from the 


366 WAR ON THE 1759, 

Enemy. The commanding officers of corps are 
to take particular care that their refpedive corps 
are properly told off, and that the rtien know 
their right and left hand men and file leaders. 
They are to be cautioned not to give their fire 
till they are ordered by their refpedive officers, 

The army marched at fix o'Clock in the morn- 
ing of the twenty-fecond, agreeable to the orders 
that had been given out the day before for that 
purpofe. About leven o'Clock our advanced guard 
of horfe and that of the Enemy began to fire at 
each other, upon which Captain Baron de Vaflerot 
who commanded the cavalry, was ordered to form 
them in order of battle ; he was fupported by 
five companies of Sepoys and two pieces of can- 
non, and Col. Coote advancing himfelf with two 
companies of Sepoys, obliged the Enemy to retire 
to their main body of horfe, which confided of 
two hundred Europeans and three thoufand Marat- 
tas on their left. As the Vvhole of our cavalry 
advanced, that of the enemy retreated in pretty 
good order till our cannon, which was extreme- 
ly well ferved, obliged them to retire precipi- 
tately. The Major of the brigade was then fent 
to the army, which was about three quarters of 
a mile in the rear, with orders for them to form 
the line of battle, but not to advance till the 
Colonel had joined them, v/ho foon after having 
taken poflellion of a Tank, which the Enemy's 
cavalry had occupied, returned to the line, which 
by that time was formed. After reviewing the 
whole, and finding the men alert and eager to 
engage, he ordered the army to move forwards. 
About nine o'Clock they arrived at the poll they 
had driven the Enemy from, which was about two 
miles from their camp, and halted in their view 
near half an hour, during which time Colonel Coote 
went very near to them and reconnoitred their fitu- 



ation. Upon finding they were ftrongly pofted, 
and his flanks expofed to the Enemy's cavalry, 
which was greatly fuperior to his own, he order- 
ed the army to march by the right in order to 
gain the advantage of a hill about three miles 
diftant, and near two miles from Wandewafh fort, 
and the horfe which was then in the front, to 
wheel to the right and left and form behind the 
fecond line, in order to make the rear guard. 
Thus he covered his right flank with the hill, 
and had fome Villages in his rear, to which he 
fent his baggage, and this motion obliged the 
Enemy to alter their difpofition. During all 
this time they cannonaded each other, and flvir- 
miflied with their advanced pofl's and Maratta 
horie, but the latter foon difappeared and return- 
ed no more. The Enemy after making their fe- 
cond difpofition, moved forwards under the cover 
of a bank. The cannonading then began to be 
fmart on both fides, and the two armies advanced 
brilldy towards each other. 

At twelve o'clock the Enemy's European ca- 
valry pulhed with a great deal of refolution in or- 
der to force our left, and come round upon our 
rear. The Colonel immediately ordered up fome 
companies of Sepoys and two pieces of cannon to 
fuftain our cavalry, who had orders when the Ene- 
my approached to open to the right and left, 
which gave room to pour in grape fhot upon the 
Enemy's horfe from the two pieces of cannon, 
the mufquetry alfo galling their flank, while our 
cavalry wheeled and charged them in front. They 
were immediately thrown into confufion, and pufhed 
back above a mile from our left, upon the rear 
of their own people. Our army now advanced 
upon the Enemy who kept their flank well cove- 
red, by a Tank, till we approached near enough 
to perceive the difpofition of their army, which 
was formed in the following manner. The regi- 

368 WAR ON THE 1759, 

ment of Lorraine on the right in line of battle, 
the regiment of Lally on the left with the marine 
formed into a column, and the brigade de L'Inde 
formed into another in the centre, with tv/o Tanks 
covering their right and left, and fome broken 
ground in front. By this time it was near one 
o'clock, and both armies continued advancing till 
they came within the reach of mufquetry 
when a fhot from our guns ftriking one of their 
tumbrils, it blew up, by which accident, five of 
their guns became iifelefs to them : upon this 
Major Brereton wheeled Colonel Draper's regiment 
to the left, and charged their left flank, which 
was executed with great order and refolution, and 
much to the honour of that corps, and their Com- 
mander ; Colonel Coote feeing that regiment like- 
ly to fuffer from a body of Black troops, together 
with their marines who were under cover, and 
fired very brifkly upon them, and at the fame time 
finding the Enemy had reinforced their left with a 
piquet from Lally 's regiment, ordered the Grena- 
dier Company of Draper's, which was on the right 
of the fecond line, to fupport their own regiment, 
and having likewife two pieces of cannon playing 
upon the Enemy's flank, compleated the rout of 
that wing, who abandoned their cannon and fell 
upon their own centre, which was by this time, 
together with their right, clofely engaged with our 
left. He then ordered up Major Monfon with 
the reft of the fecond line, and placed him fo as 
to be able to fupport any part of our line, at the 
fame time flanking the Enemy. About tvvoo'Clock 
their whole army gave way, and ran towards their 
own camp, but finding that we purfued them, they 
quitted it, and left us entire mafliers of the field, 
together with all their artillery, except three fmall 
pieces which they carried off. There were taken 
twenty pieces of cannon, three of which were 


MY Marcjixitg 

- - , ^ 05 

■ -• ,. — o ~ "^ ** 

■ '^ • 3 ^ " 








— - -.-■■• gf^_ 




P L AN ^ 

the Battle of 

Waxbewa sh 

Sratn/>i/ over thf J^e^icl^ 

By Col:Coote 

11 Ja?i ijS'o . 


twenty pounders, one twenty four, and one thirty- 
two pounder. 

The French had eight hundred killed and wound- 
ed, two hundred of which we buried in the field, 
and we took two hundred and forty prifoners, of 
which number two hundred were wounded. We 
loft only fifty-two Europeans, officers included, 
in the field of battle : there were befides one hun- 
dred and forty-one wounded, of which fome died 
of their wounds : and among thefe was the 
gallant Major Brereton, who had the honour to 
have fo great a fhare in the fuccefs of that glorious 

The French army confifted of two thoufand 
two hundred Europeans, including artillery and 
cavalry ; three hundred Coffrees, and between 
nine and ten thoufand Black troops. They had 
twenty pieces of cannon in the field, and five in 
their batteries againft the fort, where they blew 
up a large magazine of powder upon their re- 
treat. Our army amounted to feventeen hun- 
dred Europeans, including artillery and cavalry, 
three thoufiind five hundred Black troops ; and all 
our artillery were fourteen pieces of cannon and one 

The principal perfons among the prifoners who 
were taken were Brigadier General de Bufly, Le Che- 
valier Godeville, C^arter-mafter General. Of Lal- 
ly's regiment, Lieutenant-Colonel Murphy, two 
Captains and two Lieutenants. Of the Lorrain re- 
giment, one Captain and one Lieutenant. Of the 
India Battalion, two Lieutenants and two Enfigns. 
Of the Marines, Le Chevalier de Poete, Knight of 
Malta, who died of his wounds. All the above- 
mentioned were wounded, except M. de Bufly, and 
an Enfign of the India battalion. Colonel Coote 
indulged thefe gentlemen together with M. Gode- 
ville, with leave to g3 to Pondichery on their parole : 

A a but 

370 WAR ON THE 1760. 

but when he learnt that feveral officers on parole 
had h^een in the adion, he wrote to M. de 
EuiTy and the other two officers, to repair to Ma- 
drafs according to the tenor of their parole. In an- 
fwer to which, M. Lally fent to offer him their ranfom 
in money. 

So compleat a vidory over a fuperior force could 
not have been obtained, but by the mafterly 
condud of Colonel Coote, and the univerfal good 
behaviour of all the officers and men, and it 
would be great injuflice to pafs over in filence the 
extraordinary diligence and (kill of the officers of the 

The Enemy retreated as faft as poffible to Chet- 
teput, which is eighteen miles from the field of 
battle, and the next day affembled the remains of 
their broken army at Gingee ; but the twenty-fixth, 
M. Lally thought proper to retire within the walls 
of Pondichery. Our cavalry being fatigued were 
not able to purfue them the evening of their defeat, 
but the next day Colonel Coote fent out two de- 
tachments to harafs the Enemy ; and upon advice 
of M. Lally's retreat, he fent fredi orders to Cap- 
tain de VafTerot, who commanded the horfe, to 
deftroy the French country round Pondichery, 
as M. Lally had done by the environs of Madrafs. 
To prevent his being interrupted in this expedition 
by the Marattas, who were then between Arcot 
and Chetteput, the Colonel wrote to Innis Cawn, 
to advertife him that, fmce he had fhewn by 
his behaviour in the late adlion, as well as 
by the whole tenor of his condudt, that he came 
not into the country as a foldier, but only as 
a plunderer and marauder, he muft now im- 
mediately quit the country, or he fliould be com- 
pelled to it, and if intercepted he muft expert 
no quarter for himfelf or his troops. 



The Maratta General, fenfible of the fmall bene- 
fit he reaped from his alliance with the French, who 
were in no capacity to pay him, decamped without 
hefitation, and went off to his own country ; 
and Captain de VaiTerot proceeded without inter- 
ruption to lay wafte the bounds of Pondichery. 
This was not done as a mere ad of retaliation, but 
as a very necelTary flep towards the redudion of that 
place, as it ftruck a terror into the inhabitants^ 
promoted the difpofition to defert, and alarming 
the Black people with the dread of a fiege, caufed 
them to move off, and deprived the garrifon of 
the neceflary affiftance of the Cooleys. Befides 
this, Captain De VaiTerot took four thoufand head 
of cattle. 

On the twenty-eighth. Colonel Coote marched to 
Chetteput, and began to eredl batteries, at the fame 
time Summoning the Chevalier De Tilly, who 
commanded there, to furrender, which he refufed. 
The next day, after a breach was made, the garrifon 
flung out a flag of truce, and furrendered prifoners 
of war. Here were four officers, fifty-four Eu- 
ropeans, befides feventy-three who had been wounded 
in the battle of Wandewafh, and were at that 
time in the hofpital ; and three hundred Sepoys. 
In the fort were taken nine guns, and a large quantity 
of ammunition. 

Captain Smith having been detached after a 
fmall party of French and fepoys, with two brafs 
eight pounders, returned with them the thirtieth, 
and alfo brought in a Captain of the Lorrain regiment 
and three French CommiiTaries. And Major Monfon 
having thrown a few fhells into the fort of Timmery, 
it foon furrendered, and twenty Europeans were made 

Colonel Coote immediately after the battle of 
Wandewafh, fent orders to Captain Wood to in- 
vert Arcot. He foon got poileffion of the Pettah, 
having routed Zulapherzing's forces, and taken his 

A a 2 whole 

372 WAR ON THE 1760 

whole camp. On the fecond of February he was 
joined by Colonel Coote, who marched with the whole 
army, and encamped within two miles of the place. 
The fame day he began to ered batteries againft 
the Fort. Two of five eighteen pounders againft 
the curtain between the North-Weft corner tower 
and the gateway, one of two eighteen and one twenty- 
four pounder, againft the tower and curtain Weft 
of the South- Weft corner tower, and one of a twelve 
pounder, againft the North gate, to enfilade the 
Weft front. 

The next day the Enemy threw a number of 
(hells from the garrifon without any effedt. The 
batteries were opened on the fifth, and the next day 
two of our guns were difabled, and two men killed 
and four wounded. 

On the eighth. Colonel Coote having carried on 
his approaches to the South Weft, within two hun- 
dred and fixty yards of the creft of the Glacis, and 
thofe to the Weft w^ithin two hundred and fifty, 
fummoned the garrifon to furrender. He received 
for anfwer from Captain HufTey who commanded 
there, that in cafe he was not relieved in fix days he 
would then deliver up the garrifon, on being allowed 
the honours of war. 

Upon this hoftilities were re-commenced, and fome 
of our men were wounded at the batteries and in 
the trenches, by the Enemy's fhells and fire-balls. 
Our whole lofs amounted to no more than feven men 
killed and fixteen wounded : for the next day, the 
approaches being carried on within fixty yards of the 
creft of the glacis, the garrifon furrendered prifoners 
of war. 

Colonel Coote took pofleflion of the fort of Arcot 
the tenth of February, and thereby not only reftored 
to the Nabob the Capital of his Dominions, but 
greatly weakened the French force in India, by a 
capture of two hundred and thirty-fix European fol- 
diers, three Captains, and eight Subalterns. 



This was not only a real and a prefent Jofs to the 
French, but a great blow to their credit, and ope- 
rated no lefs on the minds of their own people, than 
it affected them in the opinion of the country powers. 
The very day that Arcot furrendered, feven and 
twenty HulTars, with their horfes and arms, defert- 
ed and came over to us, and by the laft advices from 
the Coaft, it is faid that the whole body of their 
European cavalry has fince followed their example, 
and are now in our fervice. This is an earneft of 
the general difcontent at Pondichery, occafioned by 
their want of pay and the fcarcity of provifions, with 
a diffidence of one another, a fenfe of their mifcon- 
du(5t, and in confequence thereof, their calamitous 
profpedt from this fudden reverfe of fortune. 

M. Lally, immediately after his defeat, fent orders 
to recal his troops from Seringam ^ by which 
means he augmented his army with a great rein- 
forcement of Europeans (near five hundred horfe 
and foot) but at the fame time being obliged to 
abandon that part of the country, all thofe valuable 
diftridls, from whence the Nabob draws fo con- 
fiderable a part of his revenue, and, without which 
Trichinopoly does not produce enough to defray 
the ordinary expences of the garrilbn, were now left 
to be vifited by his feveral renters and colledors with- 
out moleftation. 

Rear-Admiral Cornifh arrived at Madrafs the 
twenty-third of February. As the French had no 
fleet upon that Coaft, he had no obje6t but to 
co-operate with the land forces ; howevrer the 
Falmouth meeting with the Haerlem in her way from 
Merguy, obliged her to run a-fhore two leagues 
to the Northward of Pondichery, The garrifon of 
Permacoil and Allamparva having furrendered pri- 
foners of war, there remained only Carical of all the 
fubordinate fettlements on that Coafl. 

Carical is a very fmall but exceeding ftrong 
Fort, being a pentagon, built exadly on the plan 

A a 3 of 

374 WAR ON THE, &c. 1760. 

of Lifle. It being of great importance to reduce 
the Enemy to the pofTeflion of one fmgle port, 
both the land and Tea officers under Rear- Ad- 
miral Cornifh and Major Monfon, were employed in 
the attack of Carical, and on the fifth of April it was 

By the lofs of this place, the French have not a 
fingle man in the Peninfula, except a fmall garrifon 
at Mahe on the Malabar Coaft, another at Gingee, 
and thofe which are blocked up within the walls of 


( ses ) 



Of the Progrefe and Effcfts of one of thofe violent 

H U R R I C A N E S 

Which fo often attend the Change of the 


Is the more curious, as few People have ever fur- 
vived fuch a Difafter, who have been capable of 
giving fo clear and diftindt an Account. 

A JOURNAL of the 

Lofs of the PEMBROKE, 

Which was wrecked in St. David's road the 13th of April, 1749. 
By the Master of the PEMBR O K E. 

ABOUT ten o'clock in the morning it blew Single 
frefh, the wind at N. E. by E. and a great fea Anchc 
began to come in. We then having a cable out, ^ 
the Captain ordered half a cable more to be veered 
away. At noon I defired the Captain would pleafe Noon. 
to order more cable to be veered away, he replied, 
he was afraid if we (hould veere more cable it would 
bring home the anchor, but that a new forefail and 
a mizen (hould be bent, which was immediately done. 
At one in the afternoon it blew very hard, the wind One 
at N. E. his Majefty's fhip Namur lying about a ca- o'cl^J-. 
ble's length within us and abaft our beam ; I went 
to the Captain, as did likewife the Lieutenants, and 
defired him to go to fea. He replied, he could not 

A a 4 anfvver 

Apr. 13? anfwer to go to Tea, unlefs the Namur did, (on board 
1749. which Rear Admiral Bofcawen's flag was flying) but 
<- — v^'~"-^ ordered all our ports to be barred in and well fecur- 
ed, and the tarpawlings down without battening, 
which made them blow up again after we put to fea. 
Three At three o'clock I went again to the Captain who 
o'clock, was fick and in his cabin, and again defired him to 
go to lea, he feemed very angry, and faid he could 
not, giving the fame reafon as above i nor would he 
fufter any more cable to be veered away : at the fame 
time the fliip rode hard, fl:rained much, and made 
Four. At four the fea increafing, we expected the cable 

Five. ^o V^^^ every minute, at five our cable parted and we 
caft our head oflf to the (ea, others ife we fhould 
have fallen on board the Namur ; we immediately 
fet the forefail and mizen, got on board the main 
tack, and fet our mainfail and fore and mizen fl:ay- 
fails, at the fame time fome of our people were em- 
ployed in heaving in the cable, for the Captain would 
not have it cut, which took up fome time. I found 
it to be parted about three fathoms without the fer- 
vice of the outer cable. It blew fo very hard that 
the fhip would not bear any more fail. 
Six. At fix we founded and found fourteen fathoms 

water, at the fame time there being a great head 
fea, we made but very little way, and found the fhip 
gained more water than one of the chain pumps 
could poflibly difcharge, which obliged us to fet both 
pumps to work. The weather continuing very bad 
with a great fea and ftrong gales ; at half pafl: fix 
our mainfail fplit in pieces, we got down the yard in 
order to bend a new fail, but it blowing fo hard 
and the fhip lying down very much, we could not 
Seven, get tlie fail to the yard. At feven we founded eigh- 
teen fathom water. i\n half psft feven founded 
twenty fathoms, the wind at N. E. the firft and fe- 
cond Lieutenants at the pumps encouraging the men. 
Eight. At eight the carpenter fent word to the Captain that 


[ 377 ] 

the fliip gained upon them much, four foot Apr. 13, 
water in the hold, at the fame time, depth of 1749. 
water twenty- two fathoms ; half pad eight, our tiller *— "V*-* 
rope broke fliort off at the rudder head, and we 
likewife found one of the rudder chains broke. 
The fails we had now fet were our forefail, mi- 
zen, and fore ftay-fails. At nine (bunded Nine, 
twenty-four fathoms water. The fea now made 
a free paflage over us, and the (hip being water- 
logged, we hauled up our forefail to eafe her, but 
cxpeded to go down every minute. In hauling 
down our foreftay-fail it fplit, and as I looked aft 
from the fore-caftle I faw the main and mizen mafl: 
gone, but never heard them go. By this time 
the fhip righted much, and in about fcven minutes 
the foremaft went by the board, but the bowfprit 
held faft, depth of water about twenty-five fathoms. 
Our pumps continually working. The third Lieu- 
tenant being on the quarter deck fent forward to 
me to clear and let go the fmall bower anchor, 
which was immediately done. We veered the 
cable out to the fervice and ftoppered the cable, 
the wind at N. E. by E. we found the (hip drive 
to fhore very faft, depth of water feventeen fa- 
thoms. Half paft ten we had eight feet water 
in the (hip's hold, kept the pumps working. About 
eleven o'clock we found the (hip fettle, depth of Eleven 
water twelve or fourteen fathoms, and then the o'clock, 
anchor brought the fhip up, but the cable part- 
ed in a few minutes, then we let the (heet an- 
chor go which was all we had. The fea now 
made a free paiTage over us again, which broke 
and tore away our boats and booms. The fheet 
cable tore out with fuch violence that no man 
could venture near it, 'till the clench brought up 
the (hip. Depth of water about feven fathoms. 
The cable held feme time, but the fea came in 
with fuch force and fo very high, that in the 
hollow of the fea the fliip ftruck, and the cable 


[ 378 ] 

Apr. T4, immediately parted. It was now near twelve o'clock, 
1749. the fhip flruck fore and aft but abaft very hard. 

' — / — ' The third Lieutenant was near mc when the fhip 

Twelve, firft (truck, but I faw no more of him afterwards. 

o'clock. I kept the fore caftle accompanied by the boat-- 
fwain, cook, and about eight men more, I got my- 
felf lafhed to the bitts before the (hip took heel, 
but fhifted myfelf over to windward when (he 
began to heel, and laihed myfelf as before, the 

Niorn- ^^^ continually beating over us. About two faw 
ii-,0 the Captain's cabbin wafhed away, and the (hip 
almoft on her broad fide. When daylight came, we 
were fixteen men on the forecaftle, and four hang- 
ing abaft to the timber heads, but three of the 
the laft got on a piece of the wreck, which was 
loofe and drove away, the other was drowned ; 
all this time the fea came over us in a dreadful 
manner fo that we could fcarce take breath. About 
eight o'clock nine men were waflied off the fore- 
caftle. We could now fee the trees a(hore be- 
tween the feas. About nine o'clock the boat- 
fwain and cook were wa(hed away from each fide of 
me, then I removed myfelf to the cathead as did 
another man alfo. Abou: ten o'clock all our men 
v/ere wafhed away except we that were lafhed 
to the cathead ; we judged we were near two 
miles off the fhore ; we continued there all the 
day, the fea beating over us continually fo that 
we had little time to fetch breath or fpeak to 

*\pr I ^ °"^ another. At noon we found the fea to come 
"'' every way upon us, and could perceive the wind 
was fhifted which was the caufe thereof This 
part of the wreck kept faft, but night coming 
on we had a difmal profpect before us, having 
no hopes of relief About midnight the fea a 
little abatfd, fo that we could fpeak to one ano- 
ther for the fpace of two or three minutes toge- 
ther ; but I found myfelf fo weak having been 
fick ever fmce we arrived in the country, that 


[ 379 ] 
when the fea wafhed me on one fide in my lafh- Apr. 15, 
ing I was not able to help myfelf up, but was 1749- 
obliged to get my companion to affilt me. Ac '^ — ^r-^ 
day light 1 found myfelf much weaker and very 
thirfty. The fea at this time came over us once 
in a quarter of an hour : we found the wreck 
much nearer the fhore than yeilcrday. Some time 
after day light my companion told me he faw a 
flag to the northward, which we judged to be 
at Porto-Novo, a Dutch fetdement, which gave 
us great hopes that we (hould foon have fome 
afliftance. About noon we found the fea much 
abated, fo that it feldom came over us, and the 
weather began to be fine, but I found myfelf very 
faint. About two or three o'clock we faw two Three 
paddy boats coming along fhore about a mile o'clock, 
without us -, we fpread abroad a handkerchief 
which I had about my neck that the boats might 
fee US; one of them feemed to edge towards us 
for fome minutes but hauled off again. Then we 
faw feveral Catamarans near the fhore which we 
judged to be fifhing, we fpread abroad the hand- 
kerchief again, but none of them approached us. 
Soon after we faw feveral people gather together 
afhore, the fun began to grow low, fo that we 
judged it to be about five o'clock. At laft we 
faw two of the Catamarans above mentioned co- 
ming towards us with three black men on each. 
They took us off the wreck and carried us afhore. 
As foon as we were landed, we found ourfelves 
furrounded by about three hundred armed men. 
My companion told me we were fallen into the 
hands of the Marattas who were at this time in 
arms againft the Englifh ; they ordered us to come 
off the Catamarans : I ftrove to rife, but fuund 
myfelf fo very weak, and my legs fo terribly bruif- 
ed, that I could not get up ; upon which fome 
of them came and lifted me off, and laid me upon 
the fand, for I could not ftand. I made a fign 


( S»o ) 

them that I wanted fome water to drink, but they 
gave me none, and only laughed at our conditi- 
on. Their commander ordered fome of them to 
flrip us, which they did quite naked ; but before 
they ftripped me, they took a pair of gold but- 
tons out of my fleeves, two half crowns, my keys 
and a knife out of my pockets, and having metal 
buttons on my breeches, they cut them ofFalfo, When 
they had ftripped me they made a kind of clout of my 
fhirt to hide my nakednefs. During this time, we 
were in the utmoft want of fomething to quench our 
thirft. As I was notable to walk, they led us part of 
the way to Davecotta (a fort belonging to them) and 
there put us into a canoe and carried us up a river to 
the fort walls. About ten this night they put us with- 
in the walls and laid us on the ground, where we had 
nothing to cover us but the heavens, and about eleven 
^ they brought us a little rice and fome water. Great 
numbers of people gathered round us, laughing at 
us, and exprefling great contempt and derifion. We 
got little fleep that night, being extreamly cold, and 
not without apprehenfions for our lives, as they had 
threatened to cut us to pieces with their cutlafles. 
When day light appeared the gates being opened, I 
found my felf very fick, and feized with the flux, and 
my legs extreamly bad, fo that I concluded I could 
not furvive much longer, if deftitute of better relief. 
1 told my companion I could not live long, and defired, 
that if ever he got home, he would give my friends 
thehiftoryof my death. Some days they gave us a 
little rice, and fome days none at all. About the fe- 
venth day they gave me fome lamp oil, with which I 
bathed my legs, and found fome eafe by it. 

The country people flocked daily to the fort to fee 
us i but none of them fhewed us the leafl: pity, 
but on the contrary laughed at, and threatned us 
with death. Our lodging-place was between the 
gate-ways, and when we had been there fourteen or 
fifteen days they carried us into the country. Tho* 


[ 38' ] 

my legs were much better, yet ftill I could not walk, 1 749, 
and my companion was likewife extreme weak, 
which I believe was chiefly owing to our want of 
more victuals ; fo they put us into dooleys, or cradles, 
faflened together with ropes, which they got from 
the wreck. About four o'clock on the fifteenth day 
they carried us about twelve miles to their King, who 
was encamped againfl our Company's troops. By 
him we were examined, and he queftioned us if 
cither of us was an officer; this {judged fafeft to 
deny, as the contrary would render our eicape 
the more difficult. The King was defirous we Ihould 
enter into their fervice ; but we told him (by the 
interpreters who were three Dutchmen) that we 
could not confent to it. He faid, we (hould want for 
nothing if we would ferve him ; we replied, we 
were very ill and not fit for any fervice. However 
we were ordered a good meals viduals, which 
was the only one we had had fmce our being amongft 
them. The linguifts afked us, if it was not bet- 
ter to enter into their fervice than be fent to prifon ; 
we told them we could not anfwer to fight againft 
our own Countrymen. With that they travelled us 
till midnight (it being near fun fet when we fet out) 
and then refted till near three in the morning, at 
which time they fet out with us again, and kept on 
till noon, when they refted about two hours to eat, 
and then proceeded about S. W. till it was night, 
and we came to a fort, and were immediately 
put into a dungeon. There were two more pri- 
foners, one of them our fhip-mate, the other a de- 
ferter from the India company's troops. Our new 
comrades told us they had been there three days. 
At fun rifing the next morning the door of the dungeon 
was opened, and figns were made to us to come out, 
which my comrades did ; but for my part I kept in, 
being very ill and weak, and my legs exceeding 
painful and full of running ulcers. I begged they 
would get me fome lamp oil to bathe them with, 


[ 3»2 ] 

1749. which they accordingly did. They fed us as before 
with rice, water, and a little gee, viz. a quart of 
rice a day for four, and a noggen of gee inftead of 
butter. I bathed my legs with the gee and oil, and in 
four or five days they were gready mended, which 
gave me fome fpirits. For we had liberty in the day 
time to walk before the dungeon. 

In about three weeks time my legs were almofl well, 
fo that I was able to walk. We now began 
to entertain- fome hopes of making our efcape. 
And taking an opportunity, I with fome difficulty got 
high enough upon the wall to look over it, and found 
it was very high, and furrounded with a wide 
mote or ditch ; but there was a path between the 
wall and the ditch, fo that we might chufe our 
place to fwim over if it proved deep. We got at 
feveral times (bme flrands of rope of the dooleys 
which they had carried us in, as they happened to be 
left within the bounds of our liberty. And in a 
few days we got fo many pieces, as when knotted 
together made feven fathoms and an half After 
fome confultation we refolved to undermine the 
foundation of the dungeon at the fartheft part from 
the guards, and on the twenty-feventh of May began 
to work. On the firft of June we came to the 
foundation, being fix feet deep ; and the wall thir- 
ty inches through. In two days time we had 
worked upwards on the other fide fo far, that the 
light began to appear through the furface, fo that 
we let every thing remain till night. At feven it be- 
ginning to grow dark, they put us into the dungeon 
as ufual ; and foon after, we worked ourfelves quite 
out, and without being difcovered, got over the wall 
by the help of our rope, and in lefs than half an 
hour, had all crofTed the mote, though very deep 
and wide. We travelled all night we judged a- 
bout fixteen miles, and in the day time hid ourfelves 
among the bufhes : the fecond night we travelled as 
befoje to the S. E. and day coming or, we conceal- 

[ 383 ] 
cd ourfelves among fome rulhes. About three in 17/19. 
the afternoon we were difcovered, which obliged us 
to go on, but we were not molefted. We pro- 
ceeded till about midnight, and then flept till the 
dawning of the day. I now had a very (Irong fever 
on me, and was extremely weak for want of fome- 
thing to eat. This day, being the third, we agreed 
to travel till noon and plunder the firft fmgle houfe 
we could meet with. But providence was more fa- 
vourable to us than we expeded ; for about 
ten o'clock we met a Cooley, who told us he would 
ihew us to Carikal, which was a fettlement belong- 
ing to the French. We thanked the Almighty for 
this joyful news, and gladly accepted the offer. About 
noon we arrived there, and were received with great 
humanity and kindnefs, but my fever was not at all 
abated. The next morning the governor fent to Mr. 
Eofcawen to let him know we were there, and by 
the return of the meflenger the Admiral defired we 
might be furnifhed with what money we wanted. In 
twelve days time we found ourfelves well recovered, 
and went to Trinkabar, a place belonging to the 
Danes, where we flayed three days, and then got a 
paffage to fort St. David's where I arrived with my 
two fhipmates (the deferter having left us at Carikal) 
the twenty-third of June, and immediately waited 
on our Admiral. 


P R O C £ K D I M G S of the Commissaries at 
S A D R A S S. 

ARTICLES propoftd on the 23d Jan. 1754, by MelTrs. 
PvObert Palk r.nd Henry Vaniittart, as a bafis to the confe- 
rences they are appointed by the preiident and council of Fort St. 
George to hold at Sadrafi, with the reverend father Lavaur and 
Melfrs. De Beaiifet ar;d De Kerjean, deputies an t!ie part of the 
nii:rquls Dupleix, governor of Fondichery, for terminating the pre- 
fent troubles in the Carnateck. 

A R T I C L E I. 

Nabob Anaverdy Cawn Behauder Ihall be acknowledged as Scuba 
of the Carnateck in as full aind ample a manner as his father or any 
other Soubas have enjoyed the province. 

IF. The king of Tan]ore lliail alfo be comprehended in this treaty, 
and the peaceable polT<:liion of his kingdom guaranteed to him by the 
contradting parties. 

To the Konourahle Thomas Saundersj Efq^ 
Honourable Sir, 
We met the French deputies early this morning according to ap= 
pointment. They produced a paper of which the incloled is a 
tranflation, and fome Perfian writings, which they called original 
grants, defiring we might examine them. We anfwered, that as 
they had already been comtiunieated to you, it v/ould be only lofing 
lime; that we could not take upon lis to fay whether thefe grants 
were genuine or nor, nor v/hether thofe that gave them had a pov/er 
lo to do ; that Salabarzing was well known to be in a fituation not 
to refufe any thing to the French ; and that It was a great doubt 
whether the Mogul knew what gr.tnts Salabatzing had given, though 
he is faid to have approved ot his acts. That Gauzedey Cawn's 
being fent to depofe him was no ftrong argument on his fide ; that 
In ihort, all thefe points had been fo often contelled between you 
and Mr. Dupleix, that it was unneceifary to enter on a further dif- 
cuffion j that the marquis was well acquainted with your fentiments, 
and that it would be needlels and vain for u-i to attempt to explain 
them better. We thought therefore that it would be employing our 
time much more to the purpofe, if we proceeded to the propofals 5 
and that we would begin by commuri!ca;tjng our preliminaries ; upon 
v.'hich we delivered them the paper of which we fent vou a 
Copy vefterday, affuring them at the fan)e time, that if they were 
admitted, a fpeedy fadsfaiStion might eahly be found for all parties. 
They entered into a long detail to invalidate Anarverdy Cawn's 
title, which we fuj)ported by arguments founded on Nazirzing's 
Phirmaunds, confirmed by Gauzedey Cavvn, and even by the Mogul* 
This ended in a declaradort from them that they could not conlent 

A tg- 

[ 2 1 

to our propofals, but that tliev would tranfmlt them to Pondiclienr 
and wait for an anfv. er. They then retired, with a promife of 
fending us what they intended as preliminaries on their part ; and 
two hours afterwards we received the extraordinary propofitions 
which come inciofed, but not without reprefenting that fuch an Un- 
rcafonable demand would rather help to inflame than accommodate 
the ditferences, however that we would tranfmit it to Mr. Saundera, 
v.'lio no doubt v;ouldbe full erf" reionnoijfanee for the indcpendancy 
of Msdrafs. 

On the receipt of our preliminaries it is not improbable but Mf. 
Dupleix may fend orders to his deputies to return : in that cafe wc 
ftiall be giad of the fame liberty from you. We arc only forry there 
is no inclination on their fide towards a reafonable accommodation. 
They would have it believed, that the marquis's right of govern- 
u^.ent from the river Krifnah to the fea is inconteftible. 
We are, with great refpecl, 
Honourable Sir, 
Your moft obedTent humble Servants, 
Sadrafs, 23d Jan. Robert Palk. 

1754. Henry Vansittart- 

Fiyfl Memorial prefented to the deputies of the Eftglijh nation hy 
thofe of the French nation, in the conferences held at Sadrafs 
to conjatt on means to terminate the troubles of the country. 
Itbeingfirft agreed that we ihould begin by communicating recipro- 
cally the pieces that are to ferve as a bafis to the prcfent negotiation^ 
the French deputies communicated the following pieces. 

I. A Perwana of Muzapharzing, viceroy of Decan, which ap- 
points the marquis Dupleix, intitled Zupherzing in the Perfian lan- 
guage, commarjder of all the territories in his dependance from the 
river Krifnah to the lea. 

II. Another Perwanaof Saiabatzing, faccefTor to Muzapherzing, 
confirming the foregoing. 

III. A faned granted by the abovefaid Muzapherzing to Chunda 
Saib, otherwife called Huflan Doft Cawn, for the Carnateck 

IV. Another faned granted to the fame by Salabatzlng after the 
death of Muzaphering. 

V. A Perwana of Salabatzing to give the countries of Arcot 
and Trichinopoly to the marquis Dupleix after the death of Chunda 

VI. Two Perwana's of the fame, confirming the foregoing, and 
nominating Mootis Ally Cawn, governor of the citadel of Velour, 
lieutenant under the marquis Dupkix in the Arcot and Trichino- 
poly countries. In one of thefe mention is made of a faned formerly 
granted to Raja Saib, fon of Chunda Saib, for the Trichinopoly 


1 5 i 

Vll. A moft p.uthentick Phirmaiind from the Great Moglij, ap-« 
J^roving and confirming all that Salabatzing has done in favour of th« 
!iiarquis Dupleix. 
Tranflated fiom the French Signed Fr. Lavau r, fiiperior general 
original in our hands, of the French jefuits in India. 

Robert Palk. Bausset. 

Hek&y V/irv'siTTART. De Ke;<;e/,m. 

Hhe Anpvjer and the Propofals of the French deputies to the 
Englijb deputies ajjetnbled at Sndrafs, the l^d of fanuaiy^ 


The propoial that we Cannot avoid making previoiifly to all others, 
:s the reititution of the French prifoners, which regularly ought to 
be the firir preliminary, for the reafons which have been fo often fet 
forth to JVIr. Saunders. 

Coming next to the affairs 6f the Carnateck, and v/hat you call 
your propofals V/e beg you will remark hrfr, that they are only a de- 
mand by which you require that we Ihall give up all, before we 
have treated of any thing. Secondly, that fuch a demand does not 
appear to be founded on any title j you do not even communicate to 
lis the title of Mahomed Allee Ca'vn, on v/hich you pretend to 
juftify thg^legality of your alliance with him, v/hich would not ap- 
pear lawful to us, conlidering the peace between the two nations^ 
were Mahomed Al'ee Cawn even authorifed. The faned of Na- 
ierzing, which you quote in his favour, Ihould be a paper to be; 
examined ; but iuppofing its exiftence, you cannot difpute that 
they are invalidated by the Saned granted afterv.ards to others, 
by thofe who have a right to appoint to the governments of the 
Carnateck. Thirdly and laftiy, the marquis Dupleix has alreadv 
abfolutely declared to the . honourable Mr. Saunders, that ha 
looked upon it as a refufal to treat, to propofe tJie aforefaid preli- 
minary, that is to begin v.-ith acknowledging Mahomed Allee as legal 
and abfolute mailer of the Carnateck; if it was relblved to perfift 
in that, it was to no purpoie to invite lis here. 

We have proved bv authentick pieces the right oi the chief of 
the French nation to take par^ in the affairs of the Carnateck, and 
»o make propofals concerning the faid country. The following there- 
fore are what we have to make, with the fole motive of reftoring 
peace to the country, and vv'hich cannot but appear advantageous to 
your nation. 

The town of Madrafs, which has liitherto be?n poiTefTed by the 
Englilh nation only in dependance, and with the acknowledgment 
of a tribute of 4CO0 pagods a year to the Duan of Arcot, fhall 
henceforth be independent, free from all tribute, and ihajl have no 
other u-iafter but the honourable Englifli company ; if ther* are any 
srrearsdue, they Ihall b« forgiven. 

A z II. The 


II. The fald company fiiall be fecured in the legitimate polTeffiotl 
of Pondemaly and its dependancies. 

HI. Some eftahlilliment fhall be fecured to Mahomed Allee Cawn, 
vhich ihall be agreed on if the preliminaries are received, and his 
ditferences with the Maiflbreans about Trichinopoly fhali be con- 

IV. In confideration of the foregoing advantages, the Engli(H 
fliall evacuate the places taken from the French, to u'hom they be- 
longed, whether by right of conqueft or conceffion, as well as aU 
other places in the Caj nateck country, without oppofmg the dif- 
pofition and regulations made by Salabatzing, to whom this right 
belongs without any doubt. 

Thefe propofals comprehend the priiKipal heads which are the 
objedft of the negotiation. If any queftions arile which have been 
omitted, we vi ill add to this memorial, in proportion as they appear. 

With regard to Tanjoar, the marquis Dupleix has already de- 
clared to the honourable Mr. Saunders, that it w-as in the breaft of 
the Tanjoreans to be at peace with the French ; and that he would 
give them aifurances, fr«e from equivocation, if they on their part 
would lay down then: arnis. We renev/ the fame declaration, as 
tar as can be necelTary. 

Tranflated from the French Signed Fr. Lavaur. 

original in our hands, Bausset. 

Robert Palk. De Kerjean. 

Henry Vansittart. 

Tj Meffrs. Palk and Vanfittart. 


I have received your letters of the zzd and 23d, with the an- 
fu'er of the French deputies to yours, and their propofals, on which 
you fliall have full inttruttions to-morrow morning. 

This is chiefly tadeiire you will demand of the French deputies 
the dates of the feveral faneds to themfelves and Chundah ; from 
thefe depends the confuting them. 

Should any orders come to them from Pondichery before you re- 
ceive ours, acquaint them you expeiSt final ones from me ; and then 
I fuppofe the conference will break up. 

1 he following is a paragraph of a Letter, dated Bandarmalanka, 
19th January. , 

" Since ray laft a report has been fpread, that Mr. Eufly has 
been cut off, and Salabatzing made prifoner, and Jaffir Ally 
*' Cawn expedts new phirmaunds for the country &\Qxy day."— — 
Should this be true, it muft be very foon confirmed. 
I am, Gentlemen, 

Fort St.George, i^th Jan. Your aiort obedient Servant, 

1754. 8 P.M. Thomas Saunders. 

[ 5 ] , 

fo Mejfrs. Palk and Vanfittart 

As on the validity of the feveral faneds Mr. Dupleix Is laid to be 
Inverted with, depends in a great meafure the anlwer thereto, the 
tranflator (as you have none) will fet out to morrow morning, when 
you will demand that he may fee them, take their dates, nay a co- 
py of them ; by which we /hall eafily judge of their authenticknefs. 

I am, Gentlmen, 
Fort St. George, 24th Jan. Your molt obedient Servant, 

1754. 1 I P. M. Thomas Sau.vders. 

P. S. Pleaie to return him with the copies exprels. 

To the honourable Thomas Saunders, Efq ; 
Honourable Sir, 
Your general letter of the zzd and 23d u'e received the 24th, 
and laft night we were favoured with two from you of the 24th. 
Ours of the 23d will fhew you that we have ftriitly adhered to 
your inilru^ions in the firft ; and with regard to the latter, the 
French gentlemen are already acquainted with our intentions, and 
Confent that the faneds ihall be enquired into the moment the tranf- 
lator arrives. They hope that it may promote the conference, and 
give us to underfland that by degrees it is not impolfible but we may 
come to an agreement, though we do not find they are the leatl in- 
clinable to our firft article. If the news from Bandarmalanka 
Ihould prove true, and Gauzedey Cawn's fon have received the 
phirmaunds, it will be a very ftrong argument on our fldc; as they 
uifift chiefly on the validity of theirs. 

We are, with great refpe<2. 
Honourable Sir, 
Sadrafs, 26 Jan. 1754. Your moft obedient humble Servants, 
^ paft 10 A. M, Robert Palk. 

Henry Vansittajit. 

To the honourable Thomas Saunders, Efq ; 
Honourable Sir, 
The tranflator arriving this morning, the French deputies met us, 
and we let about copying the faneds. On Moodo Kifnah's obferv- 
ing the feven firft were only copies, we told them that wc expected 
to have feen the originals ; they anfwered, that Mr. Dupleix had 
them at Pondichery, and, if required, they ihould be fent hither ; 
but that copies attefted by the Caudy were elleemed of equal vali- 
dity. This caufed fome difpute, but we agreed to proceed in the 
copying. On examination it appearing that the firft had no date, 
the father Lavaur immediately objected, that unlets we produced 
Nazirzing's faned to Anaverdy Cawn, they could not admit of theirs 
being copied ; that an anfwer Ihould firft be given to their propofals, 
pnd the Nabobs powers produced, that the pieces on both fides 
might be examined at the fame time. We replied, that as we had aded 

A 3 ii'om 

[ 6 ] 

from the beginning only as allies to the Circar, the faneds could 
not be in our hands, but in the Nabob's ; that Nazirzing fupport- 
ing him at the head of a numerous army, was a ftrong faned in his 
favour; and that we did not join him bur at the repeated inftances 
of Nazirzing hinifelf Upon this they recalled the copies of three 
or four of the faneds that were already finilhed. defiring that we 
would acquaint you with what had happened ; and farther, 
that if our preliminaries were to be infifted on, the treaty mufc 
drop ; for that Mr. Dupleix was abfolutely and poffitively deterr 
mined never to acknowledge Anaverdy Cawn for Scuba of the 
province. Here the conference ended ; however we had time to 
obfcrve, that the faned from the Grand Mogul, whidi they declared 
to be the original, had no chop, only a feal of wax annexed to the 
cover in which it is faid to have come. Moodo Klftna took a copy 
of the infcription which we inclofed to you. if the figures at bottom 
are the year of the Hegyra (and we know not what elfe it can fig- 
nii'y) it is thirty-four years old ; for this is the year of the Hegyra 

Moodo Kiftna will fet out this evening, as you may probably want 
him at Madrafs. Should you find it necelTary to return him to us, 
your orders will meet him on the road. 

Sadrafs, 27 Jan. i 754. We are, with great refpeft, 

The fuperfcription- Honourable Sir, 

A Phirmaundof high dignity Your moft obedient 

in the name of governor humble Servants, 

general Eehauder Zapher Robert P.\lk. 

Jung. Hekrv \ansittaRT, 

On one fide of the feal. 
The Country belongs to God 3 

' »i33- 

On the other fide. 

Order belongs to God 3 


To the honourable Thomas Saunders, Efq-y 
Honourable Sir, 
Inclofed is the copy of a letter which we have ju ft received from 
the French deputies, with our anfwer. Unlefs our Interpreters are 
greatly miftaken, the Mogul's faned is not original. 

We beg your anfwer as foon as poffible, as the gentlemen begin tq 
grow impatient. 

^ We are, with great refpedt, 

Sadrafs, 27 Jan. 1754. Honourable Sir, 

7 P. M. your moft obedient 

Humble Servants, 
Robert Palk. 
Hii.\8.Y Vansittart. 


[ 7 ] 

Let ley from the French, to the Englijh deputies. 
Be lo good as to reprefent to Mr. Saunders, that if we require to 
fee the original laneds that Mahomed Allee Cawn pretends to have 
from Nazjrzing, it is only to convince yourfelves, gentlemen, that 
Mahomed Allee Cawn has impofed upon you ; hut mppofing even 
the reality of this faned, you are as well acquainted as we, of the 
little validitv it could be of, after the faneds granted by the fucceflbrs 
ox Nazarzing. It is therefore needlefs, gentlensen, to wait for this 
faned all the time it will take to fend for it from Trichinophol'/, where 
you told'us it was, and to befo long idle. Befides, as you have de- 
clared to us, that independant of all pieces, Mr. Saunders infilted on 
the preliminary propofed j pleafe to alk him for his frelh intentions 
on that article, lince they are decifive for the continuation or the 
breaking up of the conferences ; without them we could only at the 
«nd of ffteen days, which would be loft, tell him what was ex- 
.prefsly declared to him before we came here. 

We beg you will alfo communicate to him all that we have had 
the honour to fay to you, gentlemen, on the iubjecliof fecuring the 
nioft perfeft libertv of commerce, fuch as the Englilh may deftre, as 
well on the means of el1:abli(hing in this country a perpetual and in- 
variable peace between the two nations. We wilh with all our heart 
that thefe two objects may make on Mr. Saunders the impreilioa 
they deferve. 

We are, with true r.elped, 
Tranflated from the original Gentlemen, 

in our hands, Your moft humble 

Robert P.\lk. And moft obedient Servants, 

JifiNRY Vansittap.t. Fr. L. Lavaur. 

De Kerjean. 
the Anfwer to the foregoing Letter, 
to the re'verend Father Lavaur and Mejfrs. De Baufet andDe Ker- 
jean, deputies of the French nation. 
We have received the Letter which you did us the honour to 
write to us ; we have already communicated the contents to Mr. 

We are not a little furprized to find th^t Kazirzing's appointment 
ofAnaverdy Cawn to the foubalhip of the Carnateck is difputed, 
fmce neither the marquis Dupleix nor you, gentlemen, can be igno- 
rant, that this malter of Deckan not only granted him the faneds, 
but fupported him v,-ith a numerous army to put him in poftefnon of 
the government, which he would have enjoyed peaceably to this 
day, and the country have remained in perfeft tranquillity, had it fo 
pieafed the marquis Dupleix. 

A 4 The 

[ 8 ] 

The Englifh entered into an alliance with Anaverdy Cawn in fupr 
port of this title, which, to give it all poilible iorce, has fince been 
(confirmed by Gauzedy Cawn and his Ion Shaw Abadin Cawn, the 
fucceeding maftersof Deckan; and it is for thefefubftantial reafons, 
that his rights are made the bafis of the prefent conferences : wheri 
this is fettled, the equitable demands of ail parties may be eafily re- 

As to the {aneds, it was your firft propofal that yours would be 
enquired into ; and we are at a lofs to guefs the reafon of your de- 
clining it after iome copies had been taken : pieces of fo publick a 
nature might, weappreiiend, beexpofed to all the world. Dut wo' 
cannot help remarking to you, that the firit of thefe faneds is with- 
oiitdatej and the only original one you produced, faid to come 
from the Great Mogul, wants what we are affured are the ufual 
forms, which certainly Ihould not have been negleG.ed in a piece of 
fo much confequence ; for inllance, it has no chop of the Mogul 
or his Vifier, it has no fign manual, and under the iuperfcription of 
the feai annexed to the cover are the figures 1133, the date no doubt 
pf the Hegyra, according to the cuftom of the country; and if fo, 
we need not tell you that it is thirty-four years old, this being the 
year of the Hegyra 1 167. 

Withregard to the faneds of Anaverdy Cawn, we have had the 
honour to acquaint you, that as we are only allies, the originals he 
has from time to time received reft with him, and attefted copies may 
be procured whenever it Ihall be thought necCifary. 

As Mr. Saunders has nothing more at heait than a juft and equi- 
table peace to the reciprocal advantage of both nations, we cannot 
butwifh Mr. Dupleix would give proofs of the fame fentiments. 
We have the honour to be, 

Sadrafs, 27 January, With the moll perfect regard, 

1754. Gentlemen, 

Your moft obedient humble Servants, 
Robert Palk. 
Henry Vansjtt.^rt, 

To the honourahle Thomas Saunders, Efq; 

Honourable Sir, 
We have yet received no anfwer from the French deputies to our 
letter of the 27th. The father Lavaur took a tranOation of it that 
evening, as we explained the fenfe to him, for none of them under- 
flandany Englifli ; and when he came to our remarks, he confefled 
that things to befure could not be decided by faneds j that we fiiould 
proceed further in our propofals, and try if affairs could not be ac- 
commodated in that manner : however, he talked yefterday of* fend- 
ing us an anfwer j but as it is fo long cotning, we imagine they have 


[ 9 ] 

wrote to Pondlchery for one. It feems to be paft all doubt, that 
Mr. Dupleix's friend at the court of Delhi has deceived him. 

We are, with great refpeiit, 
Honourable Sir, 
Sadrafs, 29 Jan. 1754. Your moft obedient 

•I paft 8 A. M. Humble fervants, 

Robert Palk. 
Henry Vansittart. 
To Mejfrs. Palk fl«^ Vanfittart. 
We annex hereto our inftrudtions for your anfwer to the French 
deputies memorial, lepl/ to their anfwer and propofals, and our freih 
propofals. l^y what has already paft, we are convinced Mr. Dupleix 
has no intentions of peace. You will receive an anfwer in writing to 
pur propofals, which we fuppofe will put an end to the conference. 

We are, Gentlemen, 
Fort St. George, Your moft obedient {ervants, 

3oJan. 1754. Thomas Saunders. 

Charges Boddam. 
Henry Powney. 
Alexander Wynch. 
John Smith. 
Charles Bourchier. 
^tij'wer to he prefentedhy the Englifo Commijjaries to the fir Jl memo- 
rial delinjered by the French Deputies at Sadrafs. 
Our firft propofal being, that Nabob Mahomed Ailee Cawn fiiould 
be acknowledged Souba of the Carnateck ; his right being founded 
on faneds granted by the feveral princes of the Deckan, it is matter 
of furprife to us, that the marquis Dupleix, who is only an ally of 
the'country powers, fhould alfume to himfelf the authority and go- 
vernment, not only of this province, but of the whole country 
from Cape Comorin to the River Kriftna, in direft oppofition to the 
eftabliihed laws of the Mogul, and his officers legally appointed -, to 
us, and to every one well known- Yet as Mr. Dupleix in his letters 
to Mr. Saunders advanced, that he had feveral faneds to fupport this 
authority, prelling repeatedly an examination of them j and the 
French commiffaries prefenting the fame, we agreed to it : upon the 
perufal of fonie of them, the incoherencies appearing fo very ftrong, 
they then declined, and denied us any farther fcrutiny. The reafon 
alfigned by Father Lavaur, that unlefs the Nabob's faned from Na- 
zirzing was firft produced, they would not admit of a farther fcru- 
tiny, we think unjuft and groundlefs j becaufe on the validity of 
thofe faneds certainly depends Mr. Dupleix's authority to judge of 
Nabob Anaverdy Cawn's right, and is therefore what Ihould be firft 
fettled. But we cannot help thinking that Father Lavaur was influ- 
enced by a more cogent reafon ; he knew too well they would not 
bear the teft. The palpable defeds found in thofe we had the pe- 
jufal of, give us full liberty to make this conclufion. 


[ lo] 

As patents of fo publlck a nature are in their very intention grant- 
ed to be publifhed to the whole community, what can their fuppref- 
fmg an examination into them mean more thnn a conicioufnefs of 
their illegality. To every candid reader it muil: certainly appear fo ; 
and as we are from undoubted facc'^ convinced that they are of no 
force, we objeft to them, denv their validity, and declare that Mr. 
Dupleix has no morL- authority to govern this province than any pri- 
vate perfoii whatfoever. 

Reply to be made hy the Englijh Commijfaries to the anpive; and prc~ 
fofnls of the French Deputies. Dated Z^ January y 17^4. 

That it is very certain Mr. Dupleix has often wrote to Mr. Saun- 
ders concerning the French prifoners, and thai he has ufed his in- 
fluence with the Nabob for their x'elief ; which has been returned 
with breach of honour, by feveral officers appearing in arms againtt 
him contrary to their parole ; and though by this they were liable to 
immediate death, they have by his intercelfion been pardoned : that 
as Mr. Dupleix cannot be ignorant that prifoners are never releafed 
till a peace is concluded, he will certainly think it reafonable when 
we tell him, that when the articles on which the peace and fecuri- 
ties of the Nabob's government depends are fettled, this will be iin^ 
mediately confidered. 

And as it appears evidently by the invalidity of thele papers Mr. 
Dupleix is pleafed to introduce under the name of faneds, that he 
has no authority to conteft the commiffions granted by the Mogul's 
legal officers; yet we are ready, if he defiresit, to remove all doubt 
he may have concerning Nabob Mahomed Alice's juft title, and wil) 
fend for copies attelled of the fmeds granted him by Naxirzing, 
Gauzedey Cawn, and confirmed by Gauzedey Cawn's fon, for the 
perufal of Mr. Dupleix or his commiffaries. 

Tho'our propolal of Mahomed Alice's being Souba of the Carna- 
teck is founded on juftice and eqiilry, as no Nabob but himfelf has 
been named to that government lince his father Anaverdey Cawn's 
death, and is fo far abfolute, that no peace can be concluded with- 
out it; yet in regard to Mr. Dupleix it is conditional, and he is de- 
fired to give in his demands, which will be confidered, and, if con- 
fident with the tranquillity of the country, granted; fo that it can» 
not be faid that they Ihould give up every thing. And if Mr. Du-. 
pleix is not fatisned with the faned from Nazirzing, Gauzedey Cawn's 
cannot bedifputed; but fhould this be the cafe, furely when it is 
confirmed by Gauzedey Cawn's fon it will be deemed juft to any 

They are pleaied to fay they have proved by authentick pieces, 
that the French had a right to take a part in the affairs on the coafl: 
of Coromandel. We are of opinion thofe very papers, the invali- 
dity of which are as clear as the fun at noon, manlt'eft evidently that 
they had no juft grounds for fo doing ; or that we may be convinced 
that we err, let Mr. Dupleix produce a faned from the Mogul, em- 
powering him to take a part with Erat Mooden Cawn and Chunda 


[ '> 1 

6aib, in depoiing and killing Anaverdey Cawn ; let him produce a 
Taned alfo for affilling the lame rebels in the afTafTInation of Nazir- 
zingj'who it is univerfaily known governed the Deckan by orders 
from the Emperor j it will be neceflary alfo to produce powers from 
Gaiizedey Cawn, who was by the Mogul appointed fucceiTor to Na- 
zirzing, to continue hisfupport to Chundah Saib agalnft Nabob Ma- 
homed Allee Cawn. If he cannot produce thefe pieces, what title 
has he to affume the government of the coall of Coromandel ? And 
as Nabob Mahomed Allee has faneds from thefe legal princes, by 
what authority can Mr. Dupleix difputethem .? 

When Mr. Saunders made propofals to Mr. Dupleix to treat, he 
told him it was by virtue of a power from Nabob Mahomed Allee. 
What then can he mean by his offer, that Madrafs fbould be free 
from the tribute of 4000 pagodas per annum, paid to the circar of 
Arcot ; and that Poonamalee fliould be fecured to us ? We can 
hardly furmife that he could be ignorant that the iettlement of Ma- 
drafs never has paid fuch tribute, and that the country of Poona- 
malee is ours by a legal grant; but fuppofing it was otherwife, it 
has in this conference fufficiently appeared that he has no power to 
fecure to us either; therefore thefe two articles are certainly ridicu- 
lous and infolent. 

Equally fo is the third article, to make a prifoner of a prince who 
has beat his enemies in every battle ; and who, not compelled by 
neceility, but through a humane difpofition to put a flop to the ca- 
lamities of war, would treat his enemies as friends. 

The fourth is abfurd and quite unintelligible; the Englilh have not 
taken any one place from the French, nor are they at this day in pof- 
fellion of a fingle one belonging to either French or Moors. 

In regard to the King of Tanjore, the offer is an equivocation ; as 
it is known the King of Tanjore is in alliance with the Nabob, and 
cannot treat feparately; if a peace is concluded with the Nabob, and 
Mr. Dupleix will engage not to moleft the King or his country, he 
will lay down his arms. 

To recapitulate the whole of the French deputies memorial, an- 
fwer and propofals, they are, that Mr. Dupleix (the chief of the 
French nation) grafps at the government of the coaft of Coroman- 
del : that he produces feveral papers, which he terms faneds, to prove 
his authority, which he offers to examination, but when found de- 
fective, a further fcrutiny is denied : that he repeatedly defires the 
Nabob's right may be enquired into ; but when the deputies are told 
they Ihall be fatisfied in this point, inftead of entering into any en- 
quiry, they declare abfolutely that Mr. Dupleix never will confent 
to Nabob Mahomed Allee's being Subah of the Carnatick; and that 
if the Nabob will betray his mailer, and confent that he Ihall rob 
him of the whole coaft of Coromandel, he offers to fecure to the 
Englilh what he would not with impunity attempt to take from them; 
and what if they had not, he has no power to bertow. To the Na- 
bob, under whofe protection he Ihould live peaceably, and whofe 


[ '2 1 

government he fliouid obev, he would give a penfion ; and the Kin? 
of Tanjore he would tempt to be a villain, in deferting his allies. 
Thefe propolals will lufficiently fhew to our fuperiors his inclinations 
to peace; as they will at the fame time convince the Mogul and his 
officers of his intention to plunder him of his dominions, and induce 
them to take fuch nieafures as may convince him that thr; liberty of 
a nation will not eafily become a prey to the ambition of a fingle 

Propofals to be made hy the EngUpj Co>/imi[faries in hehnlf of Nabob 
Mnbovisd Allee to the French Deputies at Sadrafs. 

As it is notorioufly evident from what has paifed in this confe- 
rence, that by the exa-vination of thofe few papers which Mr. Du- 
pleis calls faneds, and by the luppreifion of any further fcrutiny in^ 
lo thcrelt, as well as by the orders from the Mogul to his feveral of- 
ficers of the government of this province and the other part of the 
coait of Coromandel : tliat thole papers are of no force, (hould Mr. 
Dupleix perful in aifuming to himfelf an unlawful power thus by 
adtsof violence in fupportof rebels to rob the Emperor of his coun- 
try, and the people of tlieir liberty, what can it be productive of but 
a continuance of the war? And as when it was offered thatattelled 
copies of the Nabob's faneds Ihould be laid before Mr Dupleix or 
his Deputies, they, without alledging any thing to difannul his right, 
or even v/aiting for a perufai of thofe pieces, cc^ntrary to all reafoa 
and juftice, replied that Mr. Dupleix declared ab'blutely. Nabob 
Mahomed AHee fliould never be Subah of the province. A fpeech 
fo arbitrary that it amounts to a publick declaration, that in open vio- 
lation of all laws, he is refolved to ufurp the government. HoVy' 
different is this from \m folemn proteftation, that he relerved no ani- 
mofity to the Nabob, or that he had nothing more (iqcerelyat heart 
than relloring peace to the country,'' We flatter ourfelves, upon 
mature confideration Mr. Duplelx's good fenfe will lead him to lav 
afide a fcheme fb contrary to the eftabliihed laws of the country and 
fo deltrutlive to the people, and that he will terioufly think of peace ; 
to promote which, and that he may be convinced of our good in- 
tentions, we in behalf of Nabob Mahomed Allee Cawq make the 
following propofals. 

That the jS«fabob, as he is determined not to fwerve from the rules 
of his government, but afford protedtion equally alike to the Eu- 
ropean nations fettled on the coaft, and to put an end to the animo- 
sities the late unhappy troubles have occafioned, will make no di- 
ftindtion between the French and Englilh, will grant to the Frenchj 
jaguecrs to the full amount of what were polTeffed by the Englifh ; 
and that no difpute may in future arife, thofe Jagueers fhall be lb fi- 
tuated as not to be liable to any inconveniencies from the fettlements 
or poffellions of the Englilh ; and that in regard to commerce, both 
nations fhould enjoy a free circulation through the province, without 
partiality to either ; and that the goods paffing or repalfing through 


[ '^ J 

each others Jagueers fhall not be liable to any cuftom or molella- 

That the French fhall evacuate all places poflefled by them or by 
their order, exclufive of thefe Jagueers ; fhali not interfere in the 
Nabob's government, give prote6tion to, or aififi: fuch of his lub- 
|eds who may endeavour to dilturb the peace of defraud him of hrs 

That when the articles for fecuring to the Nabob his government 
are adjufted, the releafe of the prifoners Ihall be lettled in fuch man- 
ner as may be coniiftent with the fafety of his government. 

That the Nabob v.ill give the Myforeans a fecurity for i'uch a fum 
of money as may upon an equitable itate of the account appear to be 
due to them. 

That a penfion for Ruzza Saib fliall be agreed on and fettled. 

That in confideration of the above, Mr. Dupleix fhall, in behalf 
of the French nation, acknowledge and pay all lawful obedience to 
Nabob Mahomed AUee Cawn, as Nabob of the Carnateck, in as 
full and ample manner as his father Anaverdey Cavvri poireired \t. 

That the King of Tanjore fhall enjoy his country in peace, free 
from any molefl:ation. 

That this treaty be figned by Mr. Duplelx, as governor, &c. 
council of Pondichery, and Thomas Saunders, governor, &c. coun- 
cil of Fort St. George, with the feals of the refpetlive companies 
affixed by Nabob Mahomed Allee, Subah of the Carnateck, with 
jhe feal of the Circar ; by the King of Tanjore with his royal leal^ 
and the King of Myfore with his. That the feveral articles con- 
tained in this treaty fhall be guaranteed by each party to the retl ; 
and that whofoever infringes it ihall be deemed as a common enemy,- 
and fhall by the reft be compelled to render latisfaQion to the partv 
aggrieved. That all animofities fhall ceafe, what has paft be buried 
in oblivion, and a perfect friendfhip and harmony fubfifl. 

To he propsfed in a feparate Article. 
That as the influence Mr. Dupleix, ais governor of Pondichery, 
and Mr. Saunders, governor of Madrafs, have on the country pow- 
ers is well known, Mr. Saunders is ready to concert meafures with 
Mr. Dupleix for eftablilhing a perfeft peace and friendfhip, not only 
in this province, but on the whole coaft of Coromandel ; not doubt- 
ing but if they both fincerely exert their eiKleavours, it may be with 
fefiility effected. 

To the honourable Thomas Saunders, Efqi 
Honourable Sir, 
The incloted letter we received from the French deputies yefter- 
day, which we deferred anfwering till the Tappies came in, expect- 
ing your further infli'uQions, as they might in fome meafure direct 
us in doing it ; but as we have not yet been favoured with them, we 


1 14 ] 

c'etermmed to fend the anfwer, of which a copy alio Comes iir-' 

We have confined ourfelves as ftri£tly as the fubjedl will permlC 
Us to your former directions; and having thebeftof the argumenty 
v/e thought it our duty to enforce it. 

We are, with the greateft refpedl, 
Honourable Sir, 
Sadrafs, 30th January, Your moft obedient 

1754. 2 P. M. Humble Servants, 

Robert Palk. 
Henry Vansittart/ 

To Mejfrs. Palk rtrt^ Vanfittatt, Deputies of the Englifh nation. 

It is very true that wepropofed to you to begin our conferences 
by the expofition and examination of the pieces that might fupporf 
our reciprocal pretenfions : it is the natural method, if it is intended 
to proceed according to the rules of juitice. To this end the mar- 
quis Dupleix defired the honourable Mr. Saunders to fiirnilh you 
with the titles on which you pretend to juftify the rights of Maho- 
med Allee. W^ came here in confidence that you had brought 
them ; but we were miftaken. That did not hinder us from pro- 
ducing and fubmitting to your examination all our perwanas, in the 
hopes you gave us of procuring immediately from Madrafs what- 
ever might exift in favour of Mahomed Allee. But after the timer 
necefTary, we faw nothing arrive but interpreters defined to exa- 
mine our pieces ; and you faid that your's or Mahomed Alice's (which 
is the fame thing) were at Trichinopoly. Notwithftanding this fe- 
cond delay, which mull be much longer than the former, on account 
of the diliance of the places, we put ours into the hands of your 
interpreters. You required copies of them, and v.e conlented that they 
fhould be taken. They were at work upon them when you fpoke to us 
of anew faned of Shahabedy Cawn,fon of Gauzedey Cawn, in favour 
of Mahomed /\.llee; and of another from the Mogul in favour of Sha- 
habedey Cawn You had prepared us for thefe new pieces by diftant 
hints in converfation, but you had not yet declared their exigence. We 
were alfo prepared for them by information that had been given to Nandi 
Raja of a pretended faned fent by Shahabedey Cawn to Mahomed 
Allee, which falls of itfelf, as we Ihall make appear in proper time. 

All that, gentlemen, ((ince we muft declare it) give us llrong 
fufpicions that our pieces, fent by you to Mahomed Allee, niight 
ferve his people to direft or correct the work they were employed 
about, which had not been yet communicated to us, and of which 
they fent you the firlt produftions, as you are lefs interefted to exa- 
mine ftrlftly into them. 

Further, you informed us that you did not propoi'e to treat 
upon pieces, but on the propolals which Mt. Saunders had made 
the invariable bafis of our negociation- Thereupon, gentlemen, 



[ '5 ] 

v:t reprefented to you, firft, that our condercenllon to you mfghf 
appear excelFive, in that we lubmitted our pieces to you on the 
diitant hopes of feeing yours. In reality, would it be decent that 
we fhbuld be I'ubjed; to undergo an examination on the part of your 
interpreters, without having on our fide the liberty of examining on 
what you carry on a war againft us ? It is true, that we might f«p- 
pofe the faned of Nazirzing, which is the only foundation of the pre- 
tenfions of Mahomed Alice, without weakening ourfelves in the leaft, 
as we have demonftrated feveral times ; but having very jullihcible 
occaficn :o doubt of its exiilence, why lliould we give up fuch a fu- 
perabunaance of right ? 

We had the honour, gentlemen, to tell you, in the feeorRi place, 
that the delivery of our pieces would only produce dilputes and ufe- 
lefs delays, if Mr. Saunders inBexible on his firft proportion, 
and that we mull demand, previoully to every other thing, a final 
declaration on his part on this article. Thefe, gentlemen, are the 
reafons which made us recall our piece?. We had the honour to men- 
tion them to you ; undoubtedly you did not underdand us per- 
fectly, which makes it neceffary for us to repeat them. 

We lliall anfwer your remarks on our pieces when yours arrive 
and we enter upon this examination. Be not furprized, gentlemen, at 
our doubt of the exiftenceof Nazirzing's laned ; if you ellablilh it on 
proofs like what you have mentioned to us, namely, the aififta-ice he 
gave Mahomed Allee with a numerous army to put him in poiTef. 
lion of the Carnateck ; this motive of the v/ar of Nazirzing has 
hitherto been a myftery undifcovered ; unluckily it is refuted, be- 
caufe all the world is acquainted with interefts v;hich brought him 
here, and for which he acted, all of them very foreign to Ma- 
homed Allee. It is moreover known in what Hght he looked upon 
him, or rather that he would not fee him. at ail, after the unfortu- 
nate expedition which thefaid Mahomed Allee undertook with a view 
of meriting the faned in queftion. Nazirzing thought fo little of 
him, or of his elder brother who was in the fauie army for the go- 
vernment of the Carnateck, that at the very time he oifered the 
fame government to many others, the French even not excepted, if 
they would abandon the engagements which they were in honour 
bound to keep. Mahomed Allee himfelf never mentioned this faned 
till the fbccelTes of the Englifti, his protectors, infpired him with, 
views on Arcot. The Englifli themfelves when they went to join 
him at Trichinopoly, aifigned no other pretext but to get payhient 
of five lacks which Mahomed Allee owed them. We do not ad-" 
vance this without proofs. At what time was the faned in quellion 
cited? when it Vvas found neceffary to juftify a train of fads bjr 
colours of jultice. 

We mult add, gentlemen, to thefe reafons, of Vv'hich we know 
the infufhciency for forwarding an accommodation, the alfurancea 
which we give you afref!:, that we are ready to retrench from our 
rights for the advantage of your nation, when it lliaii be no longer 


[ .6 ] 

required tiiat v.-e mufi: begin with abandoning tliem totally, by ac- 
knowledging Mahomed Allee fole and lawful mailer of the Carna- 
teck. We difcovered this difpofition in the fenriuients of Mr. Du- 
pleix, who fent us. If you are willing to make ufe of them, tell us 
openly and frankly what you require ; we will anlwer you in a man- 
ner fatisfactory to your nation, in the judgment even of thofe who 
command it, and who cannot but be acquainted with the advances 
we have at lead made towards a peace, if we have not the happinefs 
to conclude it. 

We have the honour to be, with real refpedt,' 
Pleafe to communi- Gentlemen, 

cate Mr. Saan- Your moft humble 

ders's anfwer. And moft obedient Servants, 

tranflated from Fr. L. Lavaur. 

the original in Bausett. 

our hands. De Kerjean. 

Robert Palk. 
Henry Vansittart. 
Not dated, but received the 
29th Jan. at 1 2 A. M. 

To the re'verend Father Lavaur and Meffrs. De Baufiet and De 
Kerjean, deputies of the Trench nation. 

If all the reafons you are pleafed to give for declining the exami- 
nation of your pieces were mentioned at the conference, moft af- 
fu redly we did not tinderftand them, although we paid the ftricteft 
attention to all that you did us the honour to fay ; if we examined 
the Perwanas it was only at your requeft, and to pay a proper re- 
gard to what, by your own confeirion, was the foundation of your 
rights. We were willing, gentlemen, to put it in your power X.O 
luftify your pretenfiOn to the utmoft, that you might not have rea- 
fon hereafter to fny that we paid no regard to the powers you pro- 
duced ; not that we could conceive the marquis Dupleix had merit- 
ed fo much from the Mogul, or that tlie Mogul Ihould confer fo 
nmchauthority on him, who is known to be the caufe of acalamitous 
war in his country for five years together, by which a large part of 
his revenues, not only in this province, but many others has been 
flopped, and his dominions laid wafte. 

You have endeavoured, gentlemen, to give fpecious reafons for 
declining the examination, but you have omitted the only materia! 
one ; the difcovery you no doubt made as well as we, that your 
faneds were not of a nature to ftand the teft of the flighteft exa- 
mination, of which the fuperfcription on the feal, not to mention any 
others, is an inconteftableproof : truth wants no colourings tofetit 
off, and falfhood is generally detefted by affeding to lay on too 
many to difguife it. If that which by way of eminence you intitle 
the moft authentick, carries its own conviQion along with it, what 


[ 17 ] 

jUdgmerit can we form, gentlemen, of ytiur ctKer pieces ? Th« 
higheft compliment we can pay them muft be only to place them irl 
the fame rank. Your filence on fo material an article will be locked 
tipon as a very ftrong proof, if we wanted others, of what we ad- 
vanced. Our not having the faneds of Anaverdey Cawn to pro- 
duce, could be no reafon for your declining the examination of 
yours, which, had they been genuine, would not have fuifered by 
being proclaimed to the whole world. The marquis Dupleix hiiu- 
felf, in his letter to Mr. Saunders of the 25th December, fpeaking 
of the pov^ers he was inverted with to treat concerning the interelcs 
of the Carnateck, makes this propofal. 

" if you do not give credit to what I have had the honour to 
" write to you very particularly on that fubjeft, I am able and 
** ready tojuitify it : you may therefore commiflion your deputies 
" on this head, or fend fach perfon to me as you fliall think fit, and 
" I will ihew him the original writings." Thefe writings we havs 
feen, and given you unanfwerable reafons why we cannot think them 
original ; and you, gentlemen, have too much penetration not to per- 
eeive the force of them. 

It is very true, that all the world is acquainted with the interefl 
that brought Nazirzing into this province ; it was to rellore order, 
and to punifh thofe that had been the difturbers of it. To this end 
he wrote to the Englilh to alfift the family of Anaverdey Cawn a- 
gainll all invaders ; and it is for this reafon confirmed by the autho- 
rity derived from him to his fo'n Mahomed Allee, afterwards named 
Anaverdy Cawn, that they have conllantly fupported him. Thai 
Nazirzing offered the government ot this province to the French, 
Contradicts all his other aclions j and as to the article you advance a- 
bout the five lacks, as the caufe of our joining him at Trichinopoly, 
it fervesonly to convince us how little you are acquainted with what 
pafTed at that time. 

You are very preffing, gentlemen, in your demand of our final 
declaration on our firft article, but do not on your part make any 
propofals for the fatisfattion of a prince who, both by his titles and 
luccefles, has a right not only to be firft confidered, but to be himfelf 
the Iburce from whence all other parties |]>ould derive a juft fatif- 
fatlion, and which, we renew our alTurances, he is ready and willing 
to give. 

As foon as we receive Mr Saunders's final anfwer, we (hall makal 

you acquainted with it; and we muit requeft on our part alfo, that 

you Vv'i'.l communicate the final refolution of Mr. Dupleix, which we 

fincerely wilb may tend to promote a happy end to our negociation. 

We have the honour to be, with pertett rel"pe<St j 


Sadrafs, 30th Jan. Your raoft obedient humble Servants, 

t754- Robert Palk. 

Henry Van siTT ART. 
B 2V 

[ i8 ] 

To Mejfrs. Palk and Vandttart. 

I have this minute received yours of the 30th, with a tranflate of 
one from the French deputies, and your reply, which I approve. 
This morning our inttrudions were forwarded to you, fo that I have 
only to remark, 

That an examination of Mr. Dupleix's Powers was what he ear- 
neftly infifted on ; and that certainly thofe powers (hould be firfc 
proved authentick, as on them he founded his authority to the river 
Kiftna, &c. is but reafonable. 

The reafon they give for declining the examination is trifling. 

Mr. Dupleix has not fent the originals, but copies, and fays thac 
the former may be infpefted by any perfon fent to him ; and you cer- 
tainly have the fame liberty of replying, that the originals are witE 
the Nabob, and may be infpefted in the fame manner. 

Thofe gentlemen Ihould fufpend their judgment of Shahabedey 
Cawn's faned till it was exammed ; ftrong fafpicions are what any 
one may fuggeft. They ought to be regarded as fuch, but will ne- 
ver be thought convincing proofs. 

The gentlemen feem to acknowledge, at lead not to deny, the 
faned from Nazirzing. This juftifies the Nabob's conduft in fup- 
porting his right, as it condemns Chundah and his allies in in- 
vading it. 

They faw oar propofais, afid afterwards delivered a memorial of 
feneds. Why ihould they retraft them till by my anfwer they were 
aflured that 1 was inflexible } and this they certainly could not know 
before they received it. 

The motives of Nazirzing's coming into the province you have 
veryjufi:ly explained : that the government was offered to the French, 
till now I never heard, and might venture to affirm in the negative. 
The Myforeans made a fruitlels intereft for it. Mauphus Cawn, 
the Nabob's eldeft brother, did not bid high enough. Mahomed 
Allee was aKvays reputed the Subah. The reafons afllgned for our 
joining him at Trichinopoly are notorioufly falfe and fcandalous, 
for at that time he was not indebted to us. 

What do thefe gentlemen mean by we fhall do fo and fo } Who 
gave them the power .'' Mr. Dupleix may talk thus in Pondichery 
araongfl: his flaves ; I do not doubt but they know his difpofition, 
and polhbly may approve it as little as we do. Surely Mr. Dupleix 
does not think we are begging a peace, and will accept of any terms he 
pleafes. I obferve they are particularly fond of granting advantages 
to our nation^ this is defigned to appear plaufible at home ; but how- 
ever, we Ihall rake care to fecure the peace of the country, and ever 
have before us his defigns on the whole coaft. I think it will not be 
aniifs to aflc them, as we are treating for the Nabob, whether by 
thefe offers they mean to otier us a bribe to be villains, and betray 
the truft repofed in us. 


[ (9 ] 

Tlieir faneds are fo defedtive, we can by no mean? allo'Tv theni; 
Without Mahomed Allee's enjoying the Subahlhip no peace can eri-' 
fue ; and when thefe articles are agreed on, that of the French pri- 
lone'rs, a knotty article, remains to be adjufted ina manner confiftent 
with the fectirlty of the Nabob. Confiderfng the difpofition of Mr, 
Dupleix, h'ttle, I believe, inclined to drop fo darling a fcheme, I ai^ 
of opinion the conference will terminate unfuccefsfally. This ad- 
vantage indeed we fhall reap from it, l^iat our reafonable incli- 
nations for peace will be manifefted to the publick, and his 
hoftile difpofition, with the falfity of the authority on which hg 
fo'.inded it. 

I am, Gentlemen, 

Your moft obedient Servant, 

Thomas Saunders. 

To i/je koiwurahie Thomas Saunders, Efij; 
Honourable Sir, 

Inclofed is a letter we received laft night, in anfwer to ours of 
<'eftt;rday, on which we muft oblerve, firft, 

That as they con)mlinicated their pieces to us in a curfbry 
way, we had not then time fufftcient to examine them, but 
enough to remark, that the firfl; was not dated, and you are al- 
ready acquainted with our objeftions to the laft, which can never,' 
we apprehend, be confuted ; indeed by their method of rea- 
foning they give up what they would be thought to defend. 

The only original, now for the firft time called a letter or faned,- 
Was reprefented to Us to be of the ftrongeft validity ; and if they had 
it double, they never once hinted it when it was produced ; even all 
their pieces at our firft conference were reprefented as originals, and 
it was not till the copies were beginning that we found they were 
otherwife. It is true, Mr. Vanfittart did perufe the paragraph from 
Mr. Dupleix, v/hich was at the end of a very long letter, from 
'yvhence we are inclined to think it was inferted there on purpofe ; 
but even here we believe the epochas will not agree : And as to their 
offering at the lame time to fhew him the original, they very weli 
knew we had no irrrerpreters, and if we had, we very much doubt 
If they would have fobmitted it to their examination. Mr. Van- 
fittart declined it. becaufe they might have afierted afterwards that 
he had {'ten it with hi^ own eyes. We leave it to you to make the 
necelfary remarks on their method at accounting for the miftake at 
Delhi. Thirdly, 

No anfwer at all is it feems the beft they can give tor 
this article, as well as to feme others contained in otrr letter. 

An anfwer to their propofals you fee is pofitively expefted before 
Jthey proceed any further : we Ilia! I wait till the tappies come in, and 

B 2 sbep*. 

[ 20 ] 

tlien, if we have not the pleafure to hear from you, we fhall give 
them a very ihort nnfwer to their letter. We could multiply re- 
Tiiarks to them, but we apprehend tbofe we have already made will 
be thought fufficient. 

We are, with the greateft refpedt, 
Sadrafs, 3 1 ft Jan 1754. Honourable Sir, 

9 A. M. Your mell obedieat humble Servants, 

Robert Palk. 
Henry Vansittart. 

To Mejfrs. Palk rtW Vaafittart, deputies cff the EngUJh nation. 

Not to multiply writings, we have the honour to reply asbriefl/ 
as polFible to the different articles of your laft letter. 

Firft, We did communicate our pieces to you, and gave you 
fufficient leifure to examine them. We only refufed to let you have- 
copies till you fhould communicate yours ; when this is done, we 
will produce ours again with all confidence, and we will refute by 
them all the inferences you ftrive to draw for the prefent from our 
refufal. We will alfo produce the originals without fear, provided 
you do the fame on your part. 

Secondly, The only original that we have hitherto fliewn you» 
is the letter or {aned of the Great Mogul which we brought with 
us, having it double, as we toJd you when we produced it. As 
this is a decifive piece, it could not be fent without difficulty. We 
immediately advifed the marquis Dupleix of what you remarked to 
us on the fubjeft of the epoch marked at the bottom of the feal. 
The following is the anfwer he fent us immediately on the receipt 
of your letter : As to the date of the feal, I can fay nothing to you 
on thatfubjeit; it ivas the duplicate that I deli'ver'dyou : hut to dif- 
ftpate all doubts on that fubjed, I fend you noiv ivhat ivas at frfi 
difpatched to me, ivhich is dated the Wth of the month Rejub, the 
^th year of his reign ; and upon the chop is the year of the Hegyra* 
1 163. This is ivhat ivas delivered to me by Us Bachi Caivny. 
difpatched to bring it me. 

Such is the franknefs with which Mr. Dupleix anfwers on this 
fubjett. Mr. Vaniittart faw this paragraph of the letter with his 
own eyes, and we offered at the fame dme to ihew him the original, 
which we had juft received. It is ijupoflible, gentlemen, to de- 
clare in a more polite manner than you have done, the fufpicions 
you affeft to form on this piece, and which you would extend to 
all the others. All of them, it is true, mult be equally fufpicious to 
you. But in reality, gentlemen, it we were capable of counterfeit- 
ing, do you think we iLouId be fo little upon our guard as to be 
miftaken in the date of the Hegyra, and to make ufe of two diffe- 
rent Seals. The writers at Delhi might do the latter by making ule 
of the feal of the reigning emperor for the firft difpatch, and of the 
feal of his predeccffor, which apparently came firft to their hands, 


[ 21 ] 

for the difpatch they afterwards made by way of duplicate ; but 
fuch a piece of negligence, if" it is one, is a proof of the truth qf 
the piece. Make whom you wiJi the judge, and he will tell you 
that the difficulty you make is at the very time a proof of the force 
with which this piece is inverted. 

Thirdly, The reproach you throw on the marquis Dupleix, as 
being the caufe of the troubles oi' the country, might with more 
juftice be applied to the chiefs of your nation ; but whatever advan- 
tage we might be able to make by entering on this fubjecl, we pals 
it flighdy over as fuperfluous. In the la.ine manner we fay no- 
thing of the motives that induced the Grand Mogul to recom- 
penie the marquis Dupleix ; it would be eafy to ihew them, but 
the letter of this emperor fubfifts. That is the elfeHtial. 

Fourthly, Laying afide for the prefent all allegations of which 
we have not yet got the proofs in writing, we will prove to you 
by a loyal letter from Mr. Saunders himfelf to Chundah Saib, that 
he interefted himfelf at the beginning for Mahomed Allee, only 
on account of what this laft owed, or was faid to owe, to the 
Engiifli nation. We expe«£t to be (oan enabled to confirm this 
to you by other pieces of your chief's, and to make you alfo agree, 
sf you will enter upon the proofs, that the Englifh acknowledged 
Chundah Saib for governor of the Carnateck. 

It is for us, gentlemen, to expect on y«mf part an anfvver to the 
ropofais we have made you ; tell us if they are fatisfactory or not ? 
I'e do not allow, as you know of the precedency to be given to 
the interelb of Mahomed Allee, but we have noc negledted them 
in our propofals, and when ever you pleafe we will fettle the pro- 
per eftablifhment which is to be procured for him. 

Sadrafs, 30th Jan. 1754. We have the honour to be, 
Tranllated from the original Gentlemen, 

in our hands, Your moft obedient humble 

Robert Pai.k. Fr. L. L.waur. 

Hkmry Vansxttart. Bausett. 

De Kekjean. 

To Mejfrs. Paik aud Vanfittart. 
I had replied to your letter, of the 30th when I received that 
of the 3 1 with a tranfiare of one to you from the French deputies. 
When Mr. Dupleix prelfed the examination, it was without 11- 
rnitation, and without any reference to thofe of the Nabob's. 

So difHcult is it to give to falfity even the appearance of truth, 
that the circumftances offered to fupport it often tend to the ex- 
ploding it ; and thus in regard to the paper called the Mogul's fa- 
ned, a duplicate is fomething extraordinary; but that this dupli- 
cate fhould differ In fo efTential a point from what, after the falfity 
is exploded, is produced as an original, ferves only to convince 

B 3 more 


[ 22] ^ 

mere ftrongly of the Invalidity, and to give us the greateft reafon to 
believe that what ever defeats might be found in the reft, as foon 
as noticed would be amended, without the lofs of time or trouble 
of fending to Delhi ; and therefore I think we may perfift in our 
objection to their validity, and wave all further enquiry, as it will 
only give them an opportunity to recover from their error, whereas 
it now turns much to our advantage. 

The franknefs with which Mr. Dupleix anAvers on the fubjeft 
{as to the date of the fenl 1 can fay no'.kini to you on that fubjed) 
13 a truth that fei ves to corroborate bis weaknefs in offering to found 
his authority on ^ falfity, and his chicanery in having the Mogul's 
feal in fuch readinefs to fupply its defeat. The excufe afterwards 
framed is equally as abfurd. 

The afperfion that we engaged in the v;ar on account of money, 
owed by Mahomed Allee to the Englilh nation, is falfe and fcanda- 
lous. Inclofcd is a copy of that letter to Chundah Saib, dated 3d 
Auguft, 1751, a Jong time after the war commenced. Trichino- 
poly was mortgaged, Mr. Dupleix was inlbrmed of it, and fo 
great was the afTrpnt he ofiered us, as to anfwer that our colours 
fliouid be no fanftion tp us. More, v.ill be faid on this occafion to 
Mr. Dupleix when he poihbly may not exped it. 

By what I have wrote you, you will be able to return the pro- 
per anfwer. Do not orefs any farther exauiination of laneds, it 
will be of no effedt, when they can fo eafily at Pondichery on every 
occafion have in readinefs a proper feal for the r>.Iogul, and without 
floubt for his officers. 

I am. Gentlemen, . 

Fort St. George, the Your moft obedient Servant, 

iftFeb. 1751-. Thomas S.mwders. 

To the hotwurallc Thomas Saunders, Efq ; 
Honourable Sir, 

Yefterday we were favoured with your letters of the 31ft Ja- 
nuary and 1 ft inftant, and in the afternoon we received the anfwer 
from the French deputies, of which we have juft finlihed the tranl- 
lation we now inclofe vou, with a copy of our letter to them of 
the .ft. 

Their arguments are all founded on a fuppofuion of the rights 
of the marquis Dupleix. We fhall therefore make the proofs we 
have feen of the invalidity of thefe rights the principal objeQ of 
our reply ; and as they have at once reje'ded all our propofais v/ith- 
out even anfwering them, they are very evidently determined to 
come to no reafonable accpmmodation. We fliall therefore tell 
(hem it is to no purpofe to wait for an anfwer from the marquis 
Dupleix, as his defigns are plainly publiihed in the letter; and that 
if they can give us no better hopes of a fuccelsful congrefs, we 
are ready to fet out for Madrafs ; fo we Ihali probably wait on 
you ourfclves with the copy of our anfwer. 

[ 23 ] 

We do not underftand what they mean in their lafl: paragraph 
by the article ivhich tve call Jecifi^je, unlefs they have mifapplied 
the fenfe of the firft paragraph of our letter to them of the 31 ft, 
wh'ere we fay, as that mujl Jelcrmine : perhaps they have applied 
that ^0 the feparaie article inftead oi their pofitii'e an fiver, to which 
it refers fo plainly, that we can hardly think it polfible they (houid 
mifunderftand it without fonie delign. 

We are with the greateft refptiS, 
Honourable Sir, 
Sadrals, 4th Feb. 1754. Your motl obedient humble 
8 A. M. Servants, 

Robert Palk. 
Henry Vansittart. 

fo the re-verend Father Lavaur and Mejfrs. De Baufet and De Ker- 
jean, deputies of the French nation. 
We annex hereunto our general anfwer to your memorial, our 
reply to your aiifwer and propofals, and our frelh propofals toge- 
ther with a feparate article ; to which we defire your pofitive an- 
swer, as that muft determine the continuance or end of the con- 

With regard to your letter of the 30th of January, it is true, that 
you communicated your pieces to us in a curfory manner. We had 
not however, time to examirje them all, but fufficient to difcover the 
defeats we have already reprefented to you. 

You cannot forget that the only original, nov/ for the firll: time cal- 
led a letter or faned, v/as reprefented to us to be of the llrogeft va- 
lidity ; and if you had it double, vou never once hinted it to us 
when it was produced ; even at our firft conference we underftood 
that all your pieces were to be looked on as orginals, and it was 
not till the copies were beginning that we found they were other- 
wife. Nothing can be termed a duplicate that is not in every rc- 
fped; an exad; copy of the original. 

We could multiply remarks, but we apprehend thofe we hare 
already made, when impartially conlidered, will be thought lutTi- 

We have the honour to be, with real refpeft, 

Your mofi obedient humble Servants, 
Sadrafs, ift February, Robert Palk. 

1754. Henry Vanssttart. 

Anfwer to the three Metnormls, accompanied ijuith a Letter from 
the ^ngliflj Deputies, dated the \fe Fehuary 1754. 
The extraft of the reafons you have pretended to fhew in your 
three memorials, accompanied with a letter, would foon be made, 

B 4 if 

[ 24] 

if we were to leave out the vain allegations, fome fubtleties eafy 
to be refuted, and the reproaches little becoming vou and us j all 
is then reduced to a conftant luppofition, without proof or founda- 
tion of the rights of Mahomed Alice. Begin then with proving 
this right; this anfwer, gentlemen would fuffice to refute all that you 
have hitherto faid to us. But we are befides willing to juftity the 
perplexity this queftion puts you in, and to manifeft clearly that it 
}s not your<^'ault, if you cannot ani'wer It but bv endeavouring to 
make that pafs for certain which you ought to prove. 

Firll, You ought to prove, according to your allegations, that 
the government of the Carnateck was given to Mahomed Allee. 
We are waiting ready for this proof, fuppofing however that v\'e 
were to receive it, it would not help your affairs much. 

Secondly, You (liould fuuher prove, that this pretended nomin- 
nation of Mahomed Allee has not been revoked ; here, gentlemen, 
is your ftumbling block. The faneds granted to Chundali Saib by 
two immediate fuccefTors of Na'/irzing, one of whom is nov/ reign- 
ing, flops you bevond a pGHibilty of pailing anv ftiither. You 
are obliged to apply to accufing us of taiiicy. Do you then look 
upon fuch a reproach to be lb trifling as to be thrown fo lightly on 
the chief of the deputies of the French nation } before you eift- 
ployed this refource in a defperate caufe, vou ought to have given 
a litde more attention ; for upon what would you found it ? Upon 
our pretended refufal, which you ring out fo loudlv, to give you 
copies of our pieces, after having communicated them to you, and 
given you a lift, at the fame time that you evade the exhibition of 
yours, if you have any; it Is not too much to treat upon an equality 
with you. We will fubmit our pieces again to your examination, 
when you fhall produce to us thofe that you mention as your title ; 
without fhewing them, you may fav as often as you will, that your 
remarks alarmed us ; we will give you full liberty to continue them $ 
thofe which you have made would infure us, if we had occafion 
for it, agalnll thofe which you fhall make ; for to what do they 
amount? The faned, you lay, or phirinaund of the Great Mo- 
gul, which we have once called a letter which according to you 
, makes an article againft it's validity, has not the fign uianual of the 
emperor. Inform yourfelves, gentlemen, of the cuftom of this 
court, before you hazard the anlwer you make us. It Is befides, 
you add, without a feal, but it is on the feal you difcover a proof 
of its falfity. The date at the bottom is fuperannuated. Do you 
pretend that the emperor muft change his leal every year, and that 
he can never make ufe of that of his predecelfor, although it be the 
fame, except juft the date of the time of its being made } Do you 
pretend too that a phirinaund fent by the emperor himfelf, and 
brought from Delly, to the knowledge of the whole world, by 
a confiderable perfon named Us Bachi Cawn, Ihould be of no cre- 
dit ; becaufe the writers in the difpatch of the duplicate made ufe 


[ ^S ] 

©f an older feal than that of the firft dlfpatch. We have replied 
jn an inconteftible manner to tliis chicanery ; and we fiiall only add, 
that upon the arrival of this phinnaund, the marquis Dupleix not 
cnly communicated it by a copy fent to Mr. Saunders, but alfo of- 
fered to lend him the original by two counfeliors, v/hich Mr. Saun- 
ders refufed. You it had not in your power, gentlemen, thus toe- 
vade the communication, but an accufation ot faifity was your re- 
fource, as it has been before to the Engliih upon fome occalions when 
they had no anfwer to make. This did not fuffice to relieve you 
from your perplexities : the invalidating of the phirmaund being 
proved in the manner we have leen, mult conmiunicate itfelf by a 
kind of contagion to all the other pieces ; upon which, however, 
you have with-held your remarks. Mr, Vanfittart only told us 
verbally, that they were nothing but copies, and that he thought 
we had produced them on the footing of originals. We told you 
however at that time, that we had brought only copies attefted by 
ihe Caudy, and that we did not care, unthout necelhty, to ex- 
pofe any more than the original, becaufe we had that double. Mr. 
Vanfittart thinks requifite to contradict us alfo in that circumilance : 
be that as it will, it has very little regard to the force of the thing, 
and we only mention it to fhew the difpofition in which you came, 
gentlemen, or in which you were fent j that is, to fci^e every ftrav/ 
to keep you here, and not to forward the end to which we ought all 
to ftrive. You are neverthelefs very zealous for the publick good, 
and for the maintenance of the fundamental laws of the kingdonc. 
You declare to us that thefe two points made you take up arms. 
Thereupon we aik you in the firft place, who gave you the necelTary 
authority for that .-' Is it Mahomed AHee, Nabob by your favour ? 
but you relapfe always into a circle of errors, fuppofmg what is 
to be proved and what you cannot prove. In the fecond place, we 
refer you yourfelves to the two great objeftsof juflice, with which 
you defend your caufe, which are, who troubled the publick re- 
pofe, and who troubles it llill } We refer you to the letter in which 
the marquis Dupleix has detailed to Mr. Saunders himfelf the 
practices of your nation, and to which the laft made no replv: 
[however, gentlemen, when v/e mention in this mariner the Engliih 
nation, we only mean fuch as have had a part in the praftices in 
quellion, which many among you condemn:] remark in this detail 
what was the ftate of affairs before you ftirred up Mahomed Aliee. 
Chundah Saib acknowledged, not only by the country, but by the 
Engliih themfelves. Hogee Addee fent by thefe lalf to compliment 
him, and offer him the Nazar [prefent] according to cuftom, the 
fame Vackeel who worked with him to obtain the town of St. 
Thome for you, but in vain. The fame negotiation refumed af- 
ter you took poffeihon of it, but ftill without effetl. On the 
pther fide, Mahomed Allec fled to Trichinopoly to capitulate on the 
f pnfiderable arreais due by his father to the mafter of the Dec'can ; 


[ 26 1 

the fame Mahomed Allee who had recourfe to the marquis Du- 
pieix to be his mediator : this iait obtained a pardon and an eftablifh- 
ment for him. This, gentlemen, is what preceded the time when 
the Englilh worked with Mahomed Aliee Cawn, to infpire him 
with other vievs's correCponding witli their defigns. They never- 
thelefs ftill wrote .to Chundah Saib in the ftyie of friends, while 
they were paving the way tor Mahomed Allee to revolt. Proofs 
of all this have been furnilhed you : let it be judged from thence 
who began, continued, and fomented the war. 

In vain you endeavour to turn this, by demanding that the »iar- 
quis Dupleix lliould Ihev.- a faned authorifing hiir. to affift in killing 
Anaverdey Cawn and Nazirzing. The queftion is much out of 
place, as it is imprudent. Mr. Dupleix can eafily jutlify himfelf 
on this head j and you expofe youi tcives to the fame demand on 
the fubjecl of the deach of Chundah Saib, a much more horrid 
one, and the circumftances of which prove a crime on all that were 
the authors. But all this is but a digreihon to turn off the atten- 
tion from the Perwanas, with which the marquis Dupleix was fup- 
ported by the immediate faccelTors of Nazirzing, and which have 
been confirmed by the Mogul. The mention of thcle Perv/anas, 
as well as thofe appointing Salabatzinj viceroy ef the Deckan, leads 
us back to the fecond objedl of juftice with which you a^fett to be 
touched. ' 

What are, gentlemen, the fundamental laws of the country, as 
you call them, and what is the conltitution of the government of 
this country ? Is it to acknov/ledge the Grand Mogul for firlt ibve- 
reign, the governor general of the Deckan for the reprefentative o/ 
this emperor in the country, and rhe particular governors appointed 
by the governor general as holding their authority from him ? Do 
you conform to thefe laws in difputing the phirmaund of the em- 
peror, and in declining the authority of Salabatzing .'' Leave him in 
the exercife of his authority, every thing will be in order in all 
refpects, the conftitution of the government in vigour, and the w^r 
at an end. If you refufe to acknowledge Salabatzing mafter of the 
Deckan by all the laws, v/ho is the infringer of the laws, and the 
difturberof good order .'' You fee very plainly, gentlemen, and it is 
ibr that reafon that you bring the fon of Gauzedey Cawn into play, 
or rather (for we are willing to be more conliderate with regard to 
you, than you about us) you leize at a venture on the phantom 
Mahomed Allee prcfents to you, and which he is prepairing to pro- 
duce to us by oppofing Shaw Abadin Cawn to Salabatzing ; but on 
what title? Is it as having obtained the place of Salabatzing,^ This 
lafl: has then been till now the true mailer, while you have been 
trifling with his authority. Befides, in the ill contrived pieces that 
Mahomed Allee has already tranfmitted to Nandi Raja, it is lignified 
to Shaw Abadin Cawn, that the Carnateck for a long time has not 
been dependant on the government of the Deckan. By this it is 
rendered ufelefs to you to inveft this fon of Gauzedey Cawn with 


[ 27 ] 
the vice-royalty of the Deckan. Is ft then, as Omir Bi!ckfhee, that 
jShaw Abadin Cawn Ihall difpofe of the Carnateck? But yourfelves 
have, hitherto, with all People acquainted in this matter, acknow- 
ledged that the Carnateck does depend on the Deckan. It is on this 
fcore, that you fupport the titles which Mahomed Allee Cawn pre- 
tends to have received from Nazirzing and Gauzedey Cawn. 

What can be conc'uded from all that, except that Mahomed 
^ilee had a mind to oppofe us with two batteries, one of which, 
ihou'd liipport the other j but he finds that one deftroys the other. 
We Ihew ourfelves before hand apprifed of this job of work, to the 
end that Mahomed Allee may no longer be at liberty to finifh it. 

To continue, gentlemen, to proceed according to the eftablifhed 
order ; after acknowledging the viceroy of the Deckan, you (hould 
equally acknowledge him who is now invefted by him with the 
power of governing the Carnateck. This is Mootis Allee Cawn 
of Velour, whofe laned v/as notified to you in full form, it is true 
that he is fo only by the authority of the marquis Dupleix, but ftill 
he is fo by authority which you cannot conteft j not by that of the 
marquis Dupleix, but of Salabatzing. Mr. Dupleix, you may fay, 
got him appointed ; confefs in that, his moderation for you and con- 
fidcration for you in confenting, although aiTociated in the authority 
of Salabatzing, that this laft mould appoint to the government of 
the country a Moor's lord, who has always (hewn at leait as much 
regard for the Englilh nation as for the French ; to the end that you 
-might take no umbrage. In this manner he paved a way to the 
peace he defires, and which you are not inclined to, without giv- 
ing laws to all the legal mafters of the country. 

Still, to give a turn, you difclaim in favour of the rights of theCe, 
againft the ambitioi) of Mr. Dupleix, which is no more coherent 
than all the reft of your declamations The ambition of the mar- 
quis Dupleix never has appeared, nor will appear, other than to 
anfwer the truftof thofe who have given him authority in this coun- 
try, to preferve their rights, and to procure legal advantages to 
his nation, whilft the only end you propofe is to difmember the 
country, to difpoffefs the lawful mafters, and to deprive the French 
of what is lawfully due and acquired to them. How can you ad- 
vance, that you have taken no place from thefe laft ; their flag torn 
down by your hands, notwithftanding the protefts of the French 
commanders contradltts you. You fay with the fame fincerity, that 
you do not poflefs one place in the Carnateck, while you have com- 
manders and garrifons in them. You advance too that there has 
been no other governor of the Carnateck fince Anaverdy Cawn the 
father, but Mahomed Allee his fon ; whilft we Ihew you, and prove 
to you, that the faid Mahomed Allee is not, that Chunda Saib was, 
and that Mootis Allee Cawn is at prefent. Did you intend, gen- 
tlemen, to make fools of us. i 

All that we have been expofmg is a preparation, vrhat judgment 
fo form of your propofals : we Ihall not follow them in detail with 


[ 28 1 

all the reflections they offer, it will fuffice us to fay, firft, that you 
will never put the change upon us lb far as to engage us to build 
on lucb a foundation as the authority of Mahomed Allee, and 
that you only feelc to eftabliili this foundation j therefore all the reft 
of your propofals are vain and infignificant. 

Secondly, You feeni by them to be afraid to promife the reieafe 
of the prifoners even after the peace is iiiade ; and you referve foine 
chicanery to employ on that occafion. However, whether peace Ije 
made, or war, we demand of you their immediate liberty in the 
name of the King our mafter, without admitting the ulual Ihift, 
that Mahomed Allee does not confent to it. It Mr. Saunders does 
not pay regard to our demand, we Ihall continue to infill on this 
point in Europe, where perhaps it is already decided. There al(b 
will be uianifeiled, ii it is not already done, the force of the chime- 
rical reafons that may have been alledged in juftitication of a war 
fo contradictory on youi fide to the peace which reigns between the 
two nations. There, in the fame manner, judgment will be formed 
on the violation of the law of nations, and of the rights of war, 
which may have happened in this country. 

Thirdly, You feem, or you aftecl to have forgot the nioft facred 
engagements, made by Mahomed Allee, and confirmed by your- 
I'elves, for the delivery of Trichinopoly to the Mailforeans. 

Fourthly, The fecurity which the marouis Dupleix will give, 
when ferious propofals are entered upon, v. ill be to get Salabatzing's 
confent, and procure from him the necelfary perwanas, without 
which any difpofal of the leaft part of the country would be un- 
juft and unftable; all guarantees would be equally fo, and he would 
jiot, from the fame principle, acquiefce in the difpofal of any coun- 
try to the interefted parties, but on the footing thefe countries have 
been on formerly, in tektion both to the mafter of the Deckan aini 
the governor of the Carnateck. 

The evident neceility of die conient of the mafter of the Deckan 
for the alienation of any rights in his country, tells you, gentle- 
men, if nothing was offered you, when you was olfered an iminu- 
nity fiom all fubjetVion, and acknowledgment for the town of Ma- 
drafs ; admitting even that Mahomed Allee Cawn was what vou 
make him, fuch a conceihon on his part could at furtheft only take 
place during his life. But Mahomed Allee having no right, to 
what is the immunity you told us you hold from him reduced ? 
'Tis nevert+ielefs a point ot more contequence than any other to a 
nation like the Cnglilh. if you have never paid the tribute inque- 
ftion, as you lay, the arrears are very confiderable, and the offer 
merits the more regard. Be fo kind to apply what we have iaid to 
Pondemaly and Trivendupuram alfo. ^^ e have proofs in writing 
which contain your confeifion that you applied in vain for the per- 
xvanas of thefe two territoiies in the life-lime of Nazirzing. A 
time may come when fomc governor of Arcot may trouble you on 
thofe heads. If the offers made you do not fu&cc, we have defired 


[ 29 j 

you to tell us what is wanting to your purpore. We offer you b€- 
fides, to procure you on this very country the fum that Mahomed 
Allee may be indebted to you : this will lave you tjie trouble and 
delay of a payment to be received on the country which (hall be 
granted him, and which fhall be loaded with many other mort- 

Are fuch offl-rs as the{e, gentlemen, what fliould appear infoient 
to you, or the prcpofal you make us of fubmitting to the laws of 
him whom vou make a Prince in Europe and your flave in India, 
although invelled with the name of Nabob. You ought not, nor 
cannot reafonably expect that the French will give up their rights 
and fubmit to this. You will not perfuade them to it, neither by 
lending vivftories to A-Iahomed Allee, nor by alledging a right which 
poirellion, or rather force, gives you. 

We will, however, conmmoicate, according to the duty of our 
commillion, your propofais to Mr. Dupleix ; and we fhall have the 
honour to communicate his anfwer, particularly on the article which 
you call dccifive, and of which we yet comprehend nothing. 
We have the honour to be, with real refpett. 

Your moft obedient humble (ervants, 

Fr. L. L.WAUK. 
De Kerjean. 
ToMeJjrs. Palk and Vanfittart. 
I have received your letter of the 4th February, with a copy t/i 
one to the French Deputies, and trcnflate of their anfwer to your 
feveral pieces. Though this paper is very prolix, yet I can per- 
ceive nothing in it but what is eafily confuted. 

Mr. Dupleix earneftly prelTed, and thefe gentlemen offered x.o 
examine the feveral papers called fanedsj certainly thefe Ihould be 
proceeded on firft, not only for the above reafons, but as Mr. Du- 
pleix places fo great llrefs on them as thereon to found his authority 
for the government of the whole country ; and this furely mull be 
proved before it can be fnbmitted to. 

We have not refufed to prove Illahomed Allee's rights; attefted 
copies of the faneds have been wrote for, and will be lent for thole 
gentlemen's perufal : thofe pieces, lb far from having been revoked, 
have been confirmed. 

If papers, produced as legal proofs, are upon examination found 
defettjve, and we as fuch reject them, 'tis reaibnable and juft, and 
no reflection on the French Nation j for they cannot expect an im- 
plicit fubmiflion to their papers, without they carry with them the 
necelfary force : thefe do not, and that thofe gentlemen were fenfi- 
ble of it, fufiiciently appeared by their fupprelfing any further en- 
quiry. We are very wellinformedof the cullom of the court, thac 
on the deceafe of an Emperor his feal is totally kid afide, ami the 

« feal 

[ 30 ] 

feal of the reigning Prince made ufe of: beudes, does it not appeaf 
very extraordinary, that upon this faned's proving defettive, ano- 
rher fhould fpring up in fo fhort a time as a fet of Peons could go 
from Sadrafs to Pontiichery ; is it not equally fo, that in a patent of 
a pubiick nature, of fuch confequence as to transfer the right of 
kingdoms, the duplicate, and what is called the original, ihould 
differ fo much r" 

Our authority to fupport Mahomed Allee is from Nazirziftg, Gau- 
xedey Cawn, and Gauzedey Cawn's fon. This you have no occa- 
fion to gratify thmi in mentioning, as his lawful right is a fuHicient 
authority for our fupporting him. 

Mr. Dupleix has wrote me many things, and I have anfwered 
themj nor is there any letter of his unreplied to. I have proved 
to him that he is the author of the war ; but to what purpofe ? Ths 
refufal of concurring in the reafonable propofals for peace fiifhci- 
entlv demonftrate it. 

That Hodjee Addee was fent to Chundah Saib is fcandaloufty 
falfe ; fo far from it, that on the death of Nazirzing he fuf- 
pended from his employ, and has never been trufted fmce. 

The fortune of war throws down all diftindion. If Mahomed 
Allee did apply to Mr. Dupleix, which is not certain, did not Mr. 
Dupleix alfo, when Seringham was on the point of furrender, ap- 
ply to hiui and offer him Trichinopoly .'' 

I do not apprehend the calling upon Mr. Dupleix to produce his 
authority for oppoung a legal Prince is unreafonable ; it he cannot 
produce it, it will be concluded he has none : to fay that he can 
eallly juftify himfelf, and to evade juftifving himfelf (which he 
always, does) will by all mankind be looked upon as a convinciiig 
proof that he is in the wrong. 

We agree that the fundamental laws of the country are to ac- 
knowledge the Mogul for firfb fovereign, the Viceroy of the Deckan 
for his reprefentative in that country, and the particular governors 
by him appointed as holding their authority from him. This is the 
rule we have always made the government of our condufl ; the 
Mogul v.'e acknowledge ; Nazirzing as his Viceroy we obeyed j 
and Mahomed Allee as his governor, in diftrefs we alliflied. On 
the death of Nazirzing we continued our allilfance to Mahomed 
Allee, till a fuccelfor, Gauzedey Cawn, was appointed j and agree- 
able to his dired:ions, we perfevere in our alliance to the Circar. 
We could confute even the foundation of Mr. Dupleix's authority ; 
for Salabatzing never had a faned for the Deckan; but as he is at 
the head of a large army, it is a prudent meafure to avoid it. As 
Mr. Dupleix lays down this progretfive rule for us, ought he not to 
obferve it himfelf.'' Inftead of faying he caneafily joftity himfelf, let- 
him produce his authority fordepofing x^naverdey Cawn, and mur- 
dering Nazirzing ; and as he cannot denv that Gauzedey Cawir 
was Viceroy of the Deckan, how comes it that this faned does not 
appear ? Shaw Abadin Cawn derives his right ta the DccLan froixi 


the Mogul. Of what force is the mentioning Mootis Allee Cawn, 
who has acknov'ledged the Nabob ? However, we nnift wave the 
mentioning of this aifo, as I have only the copy of the agreement 
made by Mooti.^ Allee Cawn with the Nabob. At the fame time I 
have a letter from Mootis Allee Cawn, defiring a letter of indul- 
gence, when we fhall in a few days have the attefted copies of 
Mootis Allee Cawn's agreement, it will plainly appear whether 
they intend to make fools of us, or we of them. We have not 
taken, nor are we in poffeflion of, any places belonging to the 
French ; wherever we have any force in the Circar's forts, they 
are under the orders of the Nabob. 

We have no prifoners of the French King's ; as a proof of this, 
all the officers have given their parole to Mahomed Allee, which is 
an acknowledgment they were his prifoners ; and though feveral of 
our men and officers have been taken prifoners, we have never de- 
manded them of Mr. Dupleix, except thofe that, contrary to the 
law of nations, Mr. Dupleix ordered to be feized as they were go- 
ing to St. David from Madrafs with regular pafTports ; befides, we 
declared we treated in behalf of the Nabob ; theiefore this is a de- 
viation, and foreign to the intention of the conference. 

The fourth article is grounded on a fuppofition of the legal powet 
of Salabatzing, and the illegal one of Mahomed Allee. The firft 
has not been proved, nor the latter confuted. 

There never was that tribute which the French deputies men- 
tioned fixed on Madrafs; therefore how ridiculous is it to make an 
otfer of what does not exift ; and as to the offer of procuring us 
the money, Nabob Mahomed Allee is indebted ; 'tis but an offer, 
and not a certainty j and no dependency can be had on an offer 
from thofe who have not a power to fulfil it. 

If the French have any rights they Ihould be proved, and then 
will not be difputed, but acknowledged; but if fuch proofs are 
not produced. Nabob Mahomed Allee will conclude that the 
French are deaf to all reafonable propofals for an accommodation, 
and are determined to continue their alliance with rebels, which 
mu ft compel him by real victoiies (which he has already had) to 
convince them he will defend his government againft all unlawful 

It you can prolong the conference a few days, it will give us an 
opportunity to get copies of Mootis Allee Cawn's agreement, and 
be ferviceable in other refpefls. 

I know nothing that has paffed in the conference of their fide 
that carries with it the leaft weight, but that you have not Maho- 
med Allee's faneds on the fpot ; they are wrote for, and will be 
lent attefted by the Caudee : you will therefore acquaint thofe gen- 
tlemen, that no exceptions may be taken, the faneds wiil be pro- 
duced. That iVir. Dupleix will hearken to any meafures for peace, 
I have not the leaft expeftatlon, but that in rejeifting them he may 


L 32 ] 

appear to afl: unjuftly. Let your anfwer, which probably will be 
the Jaft, be as full as poifibie. 

I am, Gentlemen, 
Fort St George, Your moll obedient Servant, 

5th Feb. 1754. Thomas Saunders. 

To the honourable Thomas Saunders, Efq; 
Honourable Sir, 
Inclofed we lend you a copy of our anfwer to the laft letter 
from the French deputies, which we hope you will approve. They 
have informed us that Mr. Dupleix is inflexible, which determines 
us to leavt Sadrafs in the morning, unlels another letter, which 
they have been preparing all day, requires an anfwer. 

We are, with the greateft refpeft. 
Your mofb obedient humble Servants, 
Sadrals, 5th P'cb. Robert Pale. 

1754. Henry Vansittart. 

To the reverend Father Lavaur, and Mejfrs De BaufTet and De 
Kerjean, Deputies of the French nation. 

You accufe us of vain allegations and fome fubtilties, eafily tar 
be refuted, in your anfwer to our laft memoiial ; but we do not 
find you have been able to prove them fo. RefletStions and re- 
proaches are eafily njade, but when ill grounded, they return on 
thofe that make them 

You have begun Vv'ith aflerting the rights of the MarqUis Du- 
pleix. You have endeavoured to convince lis of his authority, by 
producing what has fufficiently convinced us that he has none. 

You fay you are waiting ready for us to prove, that the govern- 
ment of the Carnateck was given to Mahomed Allee ; but at the 
fame time you give us to underftand, that it will anfwer no end 
when it is proved. Is not this declaring before, hand, that you are 
determined no laws (hall reftrain you ? 

You would have us further prove, that this nominatioft of Ma- 
homed Allee has not been revoked ; you fay the faneds granted 10 
Chunda Saib by two immediate fucceffors of Nazirzing, one of 
whom is now reigning, Hops us beyond a poffibility of palfing fur- 
ther. By the firlt you muft mean Muzapherzing. Did he live long 
enough to be appointed by the Mogul, or did he get his comminion 
at Pondichery .'' Perhaps the emperor by a fpirit of divintttion fore- 
told Nazirzing's cruel fate, and therefore appointed a fuccelfor in 
time ; and what is almoft extraordinary, a fomenter of divifions 
amongft his fubjefts, and an actual invader of his government. By 
the fecond, you mean Salabatzing, of whom you are confeiredly 
the prop and fupport. Was this bccaufe his appointment of Chunda 
Saib was of more validity than that of Anaverdey Cawn by Gauze- 
dey Caiwn, who was fent by his mafter to depofe him } 


r 33 ] _ _ 

When Mr. Dupleix prefTed the examination, it was without limi- 
tation, and without any reference to thoie of the Nabob. Our 
remarks, gentlemen, moft certainly alarmed you j but you had a 
ftronger reafon fuggefted to you by your own eyes, as we have al- 
ready had the honour to tell you, and to prove incontellably. We ne- 
ver advanced, that the piece faid to come from the Mogul was wirhout 
a feal. If you will take the trouble, gentlemen, to turn to our letter, 
or the Father Lavaur's tranflation of it, you will find that it was the 
want of a chop that we objected to. The moft candid way ws ac- 
count for it is, that thisconfiderable perfon, named Us Bachi Cawn, 
has impofed upon you. You may alfo recollett, gentlemen, that 
we had our doubts of the other pieces, one of them in particular 
was not dated, for which omiihon Air. De Kerjean endeavoured to 
account, by blaming the incorreftnels of thefe Eaftern Princes irt 
writings of the greateft confequence. If you told us at the firft 
conference, that you had brought only copies attelled by the Caudy, 
we declare to you again, gentlemen, that we did not hear it ; and 
as to the plaufible method you have found out of accounting for the 
defects in that faid to come from the Mogul, by calling it a dupli- 
cate ; even in your letter immediately in anfwer to our objetlions, 
you laynothing of it, no not till after you had received the marquis 
Dupleix's letter, in v/hich he thinks it neceftary to tell you that yours 
is a duplicate. 

We were fent, and we came, gentlemen, with the beft difpofition 
In the world ; it was with a ftrong difpofition to do our utmoft to 
reftore peace to this unhappy country : it is true, if we will feize 
any thing, they are but ftraws to detain us here ; for we have the 
misfortune to find that your commiflion will not permit you to for- 
ward the end which you affeft fo much to defire ; and if you will 
not, gentlemen, our ftaying longer is to no purpofe. 

If you had made a juft itateiiient of the quefticn, Who troubled 
the publick repofe .'' you would have begun with giving us a vieyr 
of the ftate of the province before you joined your troops to Chunda 
Saib : you would have fhewn us Anaverdey Ca^An in peaceable pof- 
feilion of his rightful government, and the country in a flourilhing 
condition : you would then alfo have feen that the Englilh did not 
take up arms till the dillurbers of this tranquility, carrying defola- 
tion to the edge of our own limits, and there fpreading your flags 
clofe to our prefidency, by virtue of authority from Chunda Saib, 
obliged us to allift the lawful Nabob of the country for the| reftora- 
tion of order, and the repofe of the people. 

If Chunda Saib was acknowledged either by the country or the 
Englilh, it is a fecret, gentlemen, which never till now came to our 
knowledge, and which we would have been glad to have been ?.c- 
quainted with: we have heard, indeed, that the Phoufdar of Vel- 
lour went through the ceremony of being made Nabob at Pondi- 
chery ; but, if from his aftions we may judge, he feems to have but 
an iflditferent opinion of the rights vou have given him, as little al- 

C * ffioft 

[ .u ] 

iiioft ci^ we have or" tlie good intended the Engllfli in the pretended , 
appointment. We allow it, however, to be a great piece of con- 
deicenllon, moderation and confideration in the marquis Dupleix to 
content that Salabatzing fhould appoint a Moorman to the Carna- 
teck. Ambition is laudable when it only aims at anfwering the truft 
of thole who have given authority, preferving their rights, and pro- 
curing legal advantage. Could you but prove that the marquis's 
ended here, we would be the firll to commend it. 

We are treating for Nabob Anaverdey Cawn, whofe rights Jn- 
title him to be firll confidered, but they are found inconfiftent with 
the pretended ones of the marquis Dupleix ; and is it for this rea- 
fon only that all our propolal? are called ^^ain and infignifcantt 
or is it, gentlemen, becaufe we will not betray the truft that is repofed 
in us.'' You gave us to underltand, what we cannot apprehend, 
that Nazir/ing oftered the province to the French if they would 
have deferted Chunda Saib. Were we fo firmly attached to a 
rebel } Then give us alfo leave, as we may do it with more 
jufticc, to fupport a lawful Nabob in his government. 

Mr. Saunders, gentlemen, refers all his tranfactions to be judged 
of in Europe, where it will be done with lefs partiality; and if 
we may make any judgment from the reafons you, gentlemen, have 
given us, with more candour, there will be manifefted the many 
affronts which have been continually offered to our nation, by 
laying wafte our territories, and a declaration that our colours 
Ihould be no lanction to us, together with the violence commit- 
ted by feizlng our forces on the open feas, in direft contra- 
diftion to the peace ellablilhed between the two nations : there 
alfo it will be manifefted, that the Engllfh are not the only nation 
whofe rights have been invaded. 

In Euiope it will alfo appear, that the Englifh never confirmed 
any engagements made by Mahomed Allee lor the delivery of 
Trichinopoly, which would have been as unjuft in them, as the 
laying it to their charge is rafh and imprudent in you ; and it 
will there be plainly feen, that the marquis Dupleix has ufurped 
an authority which never was conferred upon him, and if we may 
judge fiom the regard he pays the emperor, never will. You 
could not have given your fuperiors and ours a clearer demonftra- 
tion to whom the name of flave moft properly belongs, Salabat- 
zing or Anaverdey Cawn, than your own declaration, that the 
former, at the fame time that you call him mafter of the Deckan, 
had need of the marquis Dupleix's confent to impower him to 
give a governor to the Carnateck, which is at the fame time 
a conviction of the regard you pay to the fundamental laws you 
fojuftly delcribe. 

The demand you make to us for the releafe of the French 
prilbners is ill placed : you fhould apply to the prince againft 
whom you have been, and are carrying on an unjuft war, and 


[ 35 ] 

he will releafe them whenever it is confiftent with the fafety of 
his government. 

We do not underftand what you mean by the article loe call 
deciji've, unlefs you mifunderftand our lettti of the ift ; when 
we defired your pofitive anhver, it was to our general anfwer to 
your memorial, to our reply and new propofals ; becaufe by that we 
might be able to determine the continuance or end of the confe- 
rence. You have rejefted all thefe propofals with difdain ; to 
what end then, gentlemen, fhall we wait for an anfwer from 
Po.idichery } It will be to little purpofe, unlefs you can give us 
better hopes of the marquis's paclfick difpofitlon, than we have 
hitherto been able to form. 

The conference then terminates unfuccefsfully. This advantage 
indeed we Hiall reap from it, that Mr. Saunders's reafonable inclina- 
tions for peace will be manifell to the publick, and alfo the marquis 
Dupleix's contrary difpofition, with the invalidity of the authority 
on which he founds it. 

We have the honour to be, with perfedl refpe6t, 
Sadrafs, 4th Feb. Your moft obedient humble Servants, 

1754. Robert Palk. 

Henry Vansittart. 

To Meffrs. Palk and Vanfittart. 
Gentlemen, The 5th of Feb. 1754. 

We fee with great regret an unfuccefsful end to our conferences. 
The fatisfaftion we fhall receive from your perfonal conduct, and your 
politenefs with regard to us, will not be the lels flncere. We will 
not even refufe you the jutlice you claim on the fubje<ft of your good 
difpofition to conclude. We will add further, gentlemen, that 
we do not doubt of your uprightnefs in the allegation of the 
facts you have had occafion to advance. You have followed 
your infiruCtions to a tittle. 

It was recommended to you to infill firmly and flrongly that 
Mahomed Allee is the only lawful matter of the Carnateck ; 
and you have done it, gentlemen, to your beft. It would be 
fuperfluous to repeat the anfwers we have already made you on 
that fubjeft. 

You was told to deny boldly that the Engliih confirmed any engage- 
ment made by Anaverdey Cawn for the delivery of Trichinopoly ; 
and you have done it with fo good a grace, that you proceed 
even to fay, that fuch an engagement ivould ha^je been as unjuji 
in the Englijh, as the accufution is rajb and imprudent in us. 
We fee evidently by that, gentlemen, that you have been left 
in ignorance of the pieces we fhall offer to communicate to you 
before our parting ; you will then fee the flrongeft promifes of Ma- 
homed Allee, repeated, and confirmed by oath ; a letter fronj 
Mr. Saunders himfelf to rbe Rajah of Maiffore, wherein he tells 
him in exprel's teriuc, as to the ad or convention concerning 

C -2 T^richinopolj., 

[ 36 ] 

Irichinof-ofyy it is I that am anfiverable. As this affair, gentle- 
men, is one of thofe wiiich you refer to be examined in Eu- 
rope, it will there undoubtedly be feen with pleafure, with how 
niuch charity Mr. Saunders, in the above mentioned letter, warns 
the MaiHbreans, to he 'well on their quard again]} the French ; 
that he is afraid leji fome misfortune f^ould happen to their 
Vacheel at Pondichery ; and that if the enemies (that is the 
French) fucceed, ivhich God cannrt permit, they will go to Maif- 
Ibre. It is thus Mr. Saunders has pioufly watched after the 
fafety of the princes of India, by fpiriting them up againft us by falfe 

You were told, gentlemen, in the lame manner to difpute our 
rights obllinately, to admit none of our titles, and to talk high 
of the neceliity the Ejiglilh were in to take up arms, after harjing 
fcen the French fags clofe to the prefideney under the authority 
of Chunda Saib. You have done all that, gentlemen, and it has 
been often anfwered to. Give us leave, however, to fay one 
word more to you on the fubjetl of the laft article, to beg you 
will diilinguilh the times. The only umbrage Chunda Saib and 
the French can have given you before you took up arms a- 
gainft them, was their encamping within five leagues of Cudda- 
lore in his way to Tanjore. That was their road, and a coun- 
try which acknowledged Chunda Saib for mafter. He never 
came nearer to your limits, and kept feveral days journey oflF 
hi the march he made a long time after to go from Chelle- 
put to Trichinopoly. Mr. Saunders at that time complained to 
him of nothing but his going into a country engaged by Ma- 
homed Allee to the Englifh. We thall otFer you alfo, gentle- 
men, a fight of this fecond letter of Mr. Saunders's, where you 
may remark that he makes a plea of the mutual friendpip which 
then fubfultid between Chunda Saib and the Englifh. This letter 
may furniih you with many reflettions j we fliall make but one 
at prefent, on the fubjec^ of the injuftiee ft v/oald have been 
on your part (as you fay) if you had confirmed the engage- 
ment of Trichinopoly in favour of the Maiilbreans. Was it more 
jult that Mahomed Allee lliould ergage it to your nation, and 
you iiccept it ? If a legitimate defence obliged us to join with the 
Maiflbreans alienated from your party by the faithleffnefs of Mahomed 
Allee, v/e do not pretend to procure him what he defires, but with 
the confent of Sakibatzing, who only, as mafter of the Deckan, can 
legitimate any alienation of a country in his dependance. 

if the above complaint, gentlemen, regards the time when yoii 
no longer obferved any mealiires, when you feized upon the 
country and place of Arcot in the abfence of Chunda Saib, 
who was employed at Trichinopoly , we do not difpute that 
Raja Saib, his fon, was in the neighbourhood of Madrafs j with 
this circumftancc however, that the French who were in his 
armv refufed to follow kim when he went tovi-aids your limits. 


[ 57 ] 

But a further detail would only lengthen this letter to no pur- 
pofe ; and we are charmed that you referve this artxle for Eu- 
rope, as well as the others mentioned in your letter. 

The only one which admits of no delay, is that of the prifoners, 
whofe deliverance we again demand of you j becaufe we cannot 
fee the fuhjefts of our king peiifh in vour prifons in a manner 
fo little conformable to the mutual regard due from the iwo 
nations in peace, and particularly on a point wherein we have Ihewn 
you the example. Ihe king depends on Mr. Saunders, and on hiui 
only. The {hii't he makes of ret"erring us to the prince Mahomed Allee^ 
is only proper, give us leave to \:\'^^ to rend.T his refufal more Ringing. 

You have then heard, gentlemen, that the Phoiiidar of Vel- 
lour was made at Pondichery, governor of the Carnateck ; his 
appointment by Salabatzing was however notified to you, and this 
iait even wrorayou of it himfelf 

We did not fay that Salabaf/.Ing could not have made this 
appointment without the confent of the marquis Duplei.x, only 
that he did n^ake it with the approbation of this Iait, [bi 
whom it is not furprifing he (hould have fome refpedt. If this 
Phoufdar does not at^ accordingly, as in effeft he did not puih 
the advantage he once had over you, it is a confequence of 
the regard he has always had for your nation, and which is not 
unknown to us. This confirms what we faid before of the 
good intentions of the marquis Dupleix, and Ihews plainly that 
you only refufe to acknowledge fuch a governor of the Carna- 
teck ; becaufe you have a mind to remain mafters of it under the 
name of Mahomed Allee. This, gentlemen, will always be a point 
of divifion as long as you infill on it. 

Be fo good to remind Mr. Saunders that we have made 
good the declaration the marquis Dupleix made him before wc 
came here, namely, that it would be to no purpofe to make us 
fuch a propofal. 

If Mr. Saunders thinks proper to treat on the footing we 
have propofed, by acknowledging the titles of which we are 
bearers, we will endeavour, gentlemen, to give you all pofllble 

It would be loft time, gentlemen, if our conference do not 
continue, to reply here to the other articles of your letter. Be- 
fides, the new ftrokes you ftrive to give to our pieces do not 
alarm us more than the others ; if that to which you obje£t the 
want of a date did not even exift, our rights would not be 
the lefs fupported by all the others. But not to mention that 
the date is fupplied by other circumftances, fuch an omilfion 
does not denote, as we have faid before, a piece contrived to 
impofe : remark, gentlemen, that the want of a date is not a 
fign of invalidity, that it can only affedt particular points, of 
which the date muft decide, and that is fufficient for us the piece 
exifts. We ought to know better than any body what im- 

C 3 predions 

preflions fuch objeftions make upon us ; be afTured they do not 
frighten us. 

We have the honour to be, with real refpecl, 

Your moft humble and jmoft obedient Servants, 

P'r. L. Lavaur. 
De Bauset t. 
De Kerjeak. 

To the re'verend Father hzvzMT /itid Mcjfrs De Baufet /7«(i/De Ker- 
jean, deputies of the French notion. 
After our commilTaries had been difrefpeftrullv made to wair 
twenty days, and fpent a fortnight uiore, when nothing was offered to 
them but ibmefew papers, by which the very name of faneds is ob- 
vioufly difgraced, when to their reafonable propofals only an ar- 
bitrary anlwer was given, contrary to_ that equity and juftice 
which is the foundation of all lawful right and authority, plainly 
convinced that Mr. Dupleix had no fmcere intention to adopt 
meafures for the reftoration of tranquility to the province ; on 
the contrary, a violent refolution illegally to ufurp an unjutl au- 
thority, produfiive of the calamities of war, confcious to them- 
felves they had done their duty, they took their leave ; then. 
Gentlemen, you prefented them with a letter of the 15th of Fe- 
bruary, which, as it contains new matter, I fliall do myfelf the ho- 
nour to reply to. 

You are not ignorant we conferred, empowered by Nabob 
Mahomed Allee; and when we infilled on his being lawful 
marter of the Carnateck, it was your part either to difprove or 
acknowledge his right. It is indeed fuperfluous to repeat your 
anfwer ; for when, upon your afking for the ianeds, you was told 
that attefted copies ftiould be fent for, it only produced a pofitive 
9nd arbitrary declaration from yoy, that Mr. Dupleix was re- 
folved upon no account to acknowledge Nabob Mahomed Allec 
as Suba of the Carnateck. Thofe (aneds are by this time on the 
road, you may fend a perfon to infpeft them. 

I cannot but with furprife remark, gentlemen, that you ar^ 
extremely over hafty in your conclufions, and too apt to aflert 
for facl what you cannot have a clear knowledge of In re- 
gard to the confirmation of the delivery of Trichinopoly, yoH 
make this quotanon from a fuppofed letter of mine ; " As t« 
** the act or convention of Trichinopoly, it is I that am an- 
*' f-werable.' You are impofed on, 1 never wrote to the Maif- 
fore King or Dalloway any fuch thing, nor they to me ; nor 
had I a knowledge of any agreement between the Nabob and 
the Dalloway, till after Seringham was taken. Our records, 
where all letters are entered will prove it ; nay the Maiflbre 
JCing'a vacheei, now here, is convinced gf it. I fend you a 


[ 59 ] 
copy of the only letter that has any refemblance, and that very 
diftant from what you mention : further, you forget, gentlemen, 
the letter to Chunda Saib, wherein 1 write him that Trichinopoly 
was mortgaged to the Englifh. Mr. Dupleix alfo was advil'ed of 
it» and his anfwer will always remain as a remarkable inftance of 
his refpe(St for his Britanick majetly's flag, which he fays Ihall be no 
fan(Stion to the Engliih fubjeft. I have ufed my mediation to ac- 
commodate matters between the Nabob and the Maillbre Dalloway, 
and recommended to his vackeel to get a faned for it ; his reply was, 
Salabatzing had no faned for, and was not legally inverted with, 
the government of the Deckan ; and therefore had no power to 
grant one. Now I am on this fubjeft, I cannot avoid giving you 
the fentiments of that prince's vackeel in his letter to me, viz. 
*' You are fenfible of the pretended right of Chunda Saib, v/ho 
*' applied to Muftaphazing, and by the alfillance of the French 
" proved a rebel, and is ruining the inhabitants of this province by 
" his wicked proceedings. It this man is puniflied according to 
" his deferts, the great Mogul will be vaftly pleafed, and you will 
" maintain a good name and reputation. As to Nabob Anaverdey 
" Cawn, he is of the family of the Omrahs, and was honoured 
" with a ferpau by Nazirzing of the government of the Carnateck : 
" befides, he has lately received the Mogul's Phirmaund and Gau- 
** zedey Cawn's letter in confirmation of that government." 

To what purpofe is it, gentlemen, to fay our commlffaries were 
told to difpute your rights obftinately, and to admit none of your 
titles : I know of no rights but Pondichery and its diftrift, nor any 
titles but the marquis Dupleix, the French Eail India company's 
governor ; it is true, your vanity furnilhed you with chimerical 
ones, and the fame exceflive blind vanity hurried you on Indifcreetly 
to prefs an examination of them : but when the principal one was 
exploded, and the fpots began to appear in the others, you fup- 
preffed a further fcrutiny ; by this you meant to hide their defects. 
Thus gentlemen, you perfectly convinced us of their invalidity ; Co 
difficult is it to fupport a wrong caufe, that the arguments made 
ufe of to corroborate, often expofe it the more. I rejjeat we ac- 
knowledge no territories or titles but what are founded on law- 
ftil authority ; and till the marquis has proved his, we rejeiit them, 
and regard them as invalid. It is needlefs to repeat the many ads 
of violence done us by Chunda and his Allies j I could produce 
fome pieces of the marquis and marchionels's, many more there 
are, I will give them their due weight, let the rabble, for whom 
they were deiigned, put them to the ufe they pleafe ; but when 
the officer of Mr. Dupleix's forces, whom Chunda's fon writes 
that he had fent with a detachment to inliilt our colours at St. 
Thome, when the French alfo plundered and burnt our houfes at 
the Mount; and the furniture was carried to Pondichery, when 
our officers at Conjeveram weie ordered on the ramparts to be ihot 
by their own countrymen. Thele fafts carry with them a force 

C 4 nyr 

L 4^^ J 
not to be coiur?.diLlcd ; and when Mr. Dupleix writes me that his Bri- 
tannick fvlajelly's flag fliall be no i'anCtion to his fubjeds ; whtn on 
the open icas he, contrary to treaty, piratically v/ith armed veflels 
siTaults and makes piiloners our men going v/ith a regular pafTport 
from Maoiiifs to I'ort St. David : how chearfully do 1 fubmit it to 
his moll" Cliiiftian Majdly to judge and punilh this breach of treaty, 
this alTront to his Britaiinick iVlaicfty. 1 have before toid vou, that 
"^i'richinopoly was moitgaged to us, the I ond is now in our hands ; 
it is a legal one. I have related to you, that we never confirmed 
the agreemcnr of Trichinopoly, and that Vencatrow, the MaifTore 
Vackeel, is convinced of it, and acknowledges it; and futber, that 
he fays Salabatzing has no power to give a lar.ed for it ; tor tljat he 
has none himlell. 

By the date of my letter to Chunda Saib, it appears to have been 
vrittcn above a year after we hr.d joined Nabob Mihomed Aiiee. 
The purport was to inform him that Trichinopoly was tr.ortgaged to 
the Englilh, and dcfire he would ceafe conmntting hofti'ities there ; 
fo great, gentlemen, b your ignorance of real fatts ; and as ground- 
lels is your alFertion that Chunda Saib was acknowledged by the 
whole province ; he was not by any one power in the country : as 
a proof of this, he was obliged immediately on his leaving Pondi- 
cherr, by the help of your forces to begin his aflumed government 
by the befieging efforts ; for no officer paid him obedience. Pleafe 
to remark the MailFore Vackeel s words : " You are fenfible of the 
*' pretended right of Chunda Saib, who applied to Muftaphaz- 
" ing. and by the afhftance of the French proved a rebel, and is 
" ruining the inhabitants of the province by his wicked proceedings." 
You lay that Hodjee Addee, o\ir Vackeel, was lent to Chunda 
Saib to conif l!a:ent him ; your knowledge of this affair, which I 
think may be doubted, is beyond mine: Hodjee Addee immediately 
on the death of Na/irzing difmifl'ed from his employs, and 
never fince that time trufted. Jn regard to the fecond letter to 
Chunda Saib, it tells him, that after the treacherous affaflination of 
Kazirzing, Na! ob Mahomed Allee was Subah of the Carnateck ; 
that he had fince been confirmed by the Mogul and Gauzedy Cawn ; 
and that J would fpport him offering terms to Chunda Saib if he 
defilfed from his rebellion. Of all the pieces you have referred to, 
there is not a fingle aflertion but what has been proved groundlefs, 
the fupports of your pretended rights defe(^ive and null : they cor- 
refpond indeed with a wicked caule, perpetrated with afTairi nation, 
?nd rebellion. 

It has been often repeated to you, that we never had, nor have 
any priloneis of yours : thofe in our fettlemenrs are there by the mu- 
tual agreement of ) our commandant and the Nabob. This a6t of 
purs was through a motive of compalfion at your officers requeft. 
We are ready to furrender them when you and the Nabob agree 
«n the terms : what others are in the Nabob's ^orts were made pri- 
foners fighting ?galnft him in his own dominions, and are by him 


[ 4> ] 

confined. You are acquainted with this, a convincing proof is in 
Pondichery ; pleafe to afk your officers to whom the/ gave their 

You have been already informed, that we were not ignorant of 
the iTiam inveiliture of Mootis iMlee Cawn at Pondichery j that 
fugar was diftributed for the children, and the cannon difcharged 
to awe old women. How tender, gentlemen, are you in proteft- 
ing you did not fay that Salabatzing could not make fuch an ap- 
pointment ; but yet fo plealing, fo tickling it was to your vanity, 
that you could not avoid letting us know that he did it with the 
marquis's approbation, for whom it was not furprifing that he had 
fome refpecl;. This is in French telling us what we have declared to 
you in Englifh, that Salabatzing is not at liberty to do as he pleafes, 
cannot make officers himfelf at Aurengabad, but muft fubmit to 
JMr. Dupleix's approbation at Pondichery. From hence the murmurs 
and general dlfTatifadtion that prevail among the omrahs and leading 
men from Aurengabad to the fea. The truth is, the rebellion at 
Delhi prevents the Mogul at prefeut from putting an end to thefe 
irregularities. What ads of gencrofity has the Nabob ever expe- 
rienced from the enemy .? Surely you cannot call the killing of his 
father and depriving him of his government fuch. A4ootis Allee 
Cawn may indeed be fenfible of the friendthip of our nation, in 
leaving his fort unmolelted, when laft year there was no force to 
oppofe it, and in reconmiendlng a friendfliip between him and the 
Nabob; and if Mootis Allee Cawn did fufpend taking any advan- 
tages that offered, it muft be attributed to the fenfe he has of the 
illegality of the title you invefted him with. That we aim at keep- 
ing the Carnateck is fo abfurd, that the very otters made in the 
conference immediately refute It. 

I cannot concur with you that Mr. Dupleix has made good his 
declaration to me : he offered his pretentions to an examination, 
but it was fupprefTed : he affured me he dropped all animofuv to 
Nabob Mahomed Allee ; but without waiting for a fcrutinv of 
his faneds, it was declared pofitlvely he would never upon any ac- 
count acknowledge him as Nabob of the province. 

I am very willing (and have already fhewn myfelf fo) to treat of 
meafures for reftoring tranquility ; but to what purpofe is jt, wheri 
Mr. Dupleix will not co-operate with me ; and infifts on an ac- 
knowledgement of titles which have been already proved unjuft and 
and illegal. 

It is very evident that the dates of commiffions cancel or prove 
their validity ; for inftance fuppofe a faned dated 1754, and ano- 
ther 1755, ^^^ former would of confequence be revoked and an- 
nulled by the latter ; fo that what you have advanced on that 
fubjed falls of Itfelf 

Thus far in regard to fubjects that have been introduced and dlf- 
cuffed during the conference, it will not be foreign to the purpofe, 
J cpnceivp, w examine the propofals and anfwers of each party ; 


[42 1 

as both declare their fincere inclination to reftore tranquility, let it 
appear why it has not fucceeded. 

Empowered by Nabob Mahomed Allee, we conferred, what 
regards the other parties is fo dependant on this point, that it would 
of courfe be eafily adjulled ; therefore I (hall proceed to fay, we 
propofed Mahomed Allee ihould, agreeable to his legal fancds, be 
Nabob of the province ; and that he would give the French Ja- 
pcers to the fame amount as the Englifh j a free liberty of trade 
Ihould be impartially granted to both, and both be confidered a: 
common friends to the Circar. 

Can any thing be more reafonable, more equitable, than to 
propofe that a prince inverted with a legal authority ihould be ac- 
knowledged as fuch by thofe who as Grangers live under his pro- 
te^ioD. If it is not acknowledged it certainly Ihould be difproved, 
or theperfon difputing it without any legal authority, mutt be deem- 
ed acting contrary to the eilablilhed laws of the country : What 
was the anfwer ? Without waiting for an examination of thefe titles, 
it was, that Mr. Dupleix never would on any account acknowledge 
Nabob Mahomed Alice as Suba of the Carnateck. 

When the Nabob offers to his enemies the fame advantages as 
to his friends, and when thefe muft appear beneficial to all that 
think tbemfelves fubject to the eftablilhed government, what can a 
refufai of them mean, more than a firm refolution by power of army 
to ufurp ? Let me add, that from thefe propofals the Englilh have 
not endeavoured to gain to tbemfelves any particular advantages, but 
are fatisiied, in obedience to the government, to be concerned as 
Common friends with the French ; and that the liberty of trade 
fhould be mutual, without partiality to either. How unjuft then is 
the refieftion you make, gentlemen, that the Englifh defign to re- 
main mafters of the province under the name of Nabob Mahomed 
Allee : thofe very propafals refute it : and if you are refolved that 
this /hall always be a point of divifion, we fhail always retain our 
juft fentiments and inclination for peace, and only defend when 
hoftile invafion requires it. So moderate are the Nabob's propofals, 
that to perfons unacquainted with fa£ts, they would feem to come 
fronj a prince in diftrefs, and not one whofe army has never been 
repulfed ; but wherever his ftandard has been difplayed, the fpoils 
of the enemy's arms have been conftant marks of his vidory. 

The exprelhon you ufed when our propofals were made you is 
remarkable ; " That it would at once be giving up all." If your 
intentions are to ufurp all, it may be fo ; though it may be afked at 
the fame time what right you have to do it, or what reafon to ex- 
peft a tame fubmiihon to it, and this muft appear to all mankind 
unreafonable ; probably you may conclude that Nabob Mohamed 
Allee, fenfible of our friendlnip to him will aft partially in his favours 
to us ; no doubt he will gratefully remember our fteady alliance to 
the Circar, but fofar as concerns what might be concluded and rati- 

[ 4.^ 1 
fied by treaty. The contradting parties, the King of MaiiToie, King 
of Tanjore and Morarow, v/ould guarantee it ; by this means the 
jealoufy is removed 

Now follow your propofals to exempt Madrafs from a tribute of pa- 
godas 400c per annum, to fecure to us Poonamallee, to fee our debt 
paid, and to make a provifion for Nabob Mahomed Allee in a pri- 
vate capacity. The marquis Dupleix's tides are to be acknowledged 
as prince of all the territories to the river Krifna. 

By thefe conceifions to us, and the diveiting the Nabob of his 
government, at firft view it would feem to be'wich a defign to tempt 
us to be villains, in betraying the truft repofed in us by the Nabob. 
by whofe powers we treated. If Mr. Dupleix's own actions are 
of fo black a nature as to induce him to think fo meanly of the reft 
of mankind, to them let him add this. But we have fome reafon 
to conclude that he well knows that our alliance with the Circar, 
and attachment to the Mogul's legal officer, is fuch as not to be 
iTiaken by any motives of felf-intereft, ?nd rather think this is art- 
fully defigned to amufe his and our fuperlors; but by writing 
them, how beneficial to our interell his offers have been? This 
might be anfwered at once, that he would generoufly promil'e us 
what is not his to give- To inveft him with a power, to take not 
only them, but every thing elfe away from us when he pleafed : but 
1 ihalldefcend to particulars, and firft. Madrafs never has paid nor 
been taxed with fuch a tribute ; next, we have a legal grant for 
Poonamallee ; and as to the third, it muft be done by a mortgage on 
other countries. Neither this nor the other two has Mr. Dupleix 
any power to do, or procure effeftually ; for when Monf BuiTy 
extorted from Salabatzing an order for the rents of the Rajamun- 
drum and Chickakole countries, the Nabob of thofe governments 
paid no regard to it, but difperfed the troops who were fent to 
collect the revenue. Thefe, gentlemen, are not fpecious argu- 
ments, but facts which clearly prove the infufficiency of the power 
you aflume. 

Though you thought fit by no other means to fet afide the Na- 
bob's rights, than pofitively to declare it was not Mr. Dupleix's 
pleafure to ackowledge them ; this did not lead our commiffaries 
to make ufe of the like arbitrary weapons ; when an examinatiou 
of the marquis's pretenfions was prefTed, they judged it an impro- 
per rule for their conduct, and chearfully acceded to the propolal, 
with a refolution to acknowledge, if juft, and it not, to object to 
them. Of the capital one from the Mogul, upon a flight view 
the defedts appeared ; it had the feal of the precedent emperor of 
fo old a date as 1133 of the Hegyra : and when blots in fome others 
alfo became obvious, you were ftaggered and immediately fupprelled 
a further fcrutiny ; the reafon you alledged was weak, for an exami- 
nation of the Nabob's would have neither added to or diminillied 
the force of your fanedj; befides as thefe papers were produced 


[ 44 ] 
by you voluntarih-, a^; the firft and principal fubjcdl to be difcufled, 
fliould not it have been finiihed before frtih matter was introduced ? 
You were fo fenfible of their invalidity, that vou declined the pro- 
pofed examination of your faneds ; but Mr. Dupleix foon furnilhed 
you with a iaive, that it was a duplicate ; that the original was in 
Pondichery ; that the error in the feal was a mifiake of the Mogul's 
iecretary in affixing the old emperor's leal inftead of the prelent. 
To thele I anfwer, that it is unufual to fend duplicates of faneds 
from the Mogul ; that if this is ad-.ilitted, as the duplicate is to 
fupply the place of the original, common fenfe dictates that it 
fhould be in every refpecl the fame as the original ; and that in 
patents transferring the right of kingdoms, great accuracy and cor- 
rednefs is obferved ; and that the feal could not be the millake of 
the fecretary, as it is univerfally known, that after the deceafe of an 
emperor, his feal is never made ufe of. As the falfity of this faned 
has been palpably proved, and the arguments to fupply its defedts 
confuted j as it i.-. a faned from Delly, and not from Pondichery, 
that will carry with it the proper weight ; and as a total fupprethon 
has been made of an examination of the rett upon their defects ap- 
pearing ; for thefe realons we do objedt to, and deny the rights which 
Mr. Dupleix may from thefe papers pretend to, and regard him 
with that politenels which one nation owes another, only as gover- 
nor of Pondichery and its dependancies. 

If, Gentlemen, this letter fnould appear fpun out to a great 
length, impute it to a ftrong defire that no one fubjetl you have 
advanced may be unreplied to. Our fuperiors may |u(lly claim a 
right to be acquainted who commenced, continued, and Hill conti- 
nue this calamitous war : you have very difingenuoufly faid the 
Englilh, but not fupported your allegation. In treating this point, 
I will be governed by thofe very rules you have perfcrlbed: that 
the fundamental laws of the country are to acknowledge the Grand 
Mogul for firft fovereign ; the govenor General of the Deckan for 
his reprefentative in that country; and the particular Governors 
appointed by the Governor General of the Deckan, as holding their 
authoiity fiom him. 

Should we trace thefe troubles fo far back as the unhappy war 
between our two narions, we have the greatell reafon to complain ; 
for according to the eftablilhed laws of nations, in a neutral 
prince's dominions peace ihould be preferved ; fuch prince has a 
right to inliil on it : and if afcer the lofs o. Madrafs, Nabob Anever- 
dey Cawn, fenfible of the injury to his country through our mis- 
fortune, endeavoured to prevent future rnifchiefs, from this you 
can lake no umbrage, without contradiding thofe fundamental prin- 
ciples by which the reft of the world are governed. This war 
fubfided, and fome time after Mullaphazing, who had by his ill 
conduct undergone a reproof from his uncle Nazirzing, and dif- 
gufted recired to his fmall government of Adoni, where he was 
engaged in foaic dilputes with his neighbours, when Chunda Saib, 


L 43 J 

who had by ftratagem made his efcape from the Maratta's, cirtcred 
into the fervicc of Bernia Remeadar of Cheatal Darga as a (er- 
inidar over two or three hundred horfe, and was defeated in a bat- 
tle fought with the people of Bedanore or Savanore. He tirll: 
inftilled into Muftaphazing the feeds of rebellion ; the fcheuie was 
laid for feizing the government of the Carnateck ; certain people 
who had before aililted Chunda Saib in the reduction of Trichi- 
nopoly, came into an alliance with them ; they collefted what 
force they were able, and marched towards Arcot, a flcirmifh with 
the Circar's troops happened, when they were joined by the forces 
of their allies, a battle was fought wherein Nabob Anaverdey 
Cawn was flain, Arcot was taken and the ufurpation commenced. 
From hence, gentlemen, thofe calamities v/hich have lb long pre- 
vailed took their rife : Had the Englilh any concern in them ? 
None; Why then do you unjultly cail the odium on them ? Let 
Mr. Dupleix produce a ianed from the Great Mogul or Nazirzing 
for dellroying the legal governor of the province and fomenting 
a rebellion ; I call upon him to do it, or his and our fuperiors muft 
plainly be convinced that he has afted in open violence to the fun- 
damental laws of the country in rebelling agai.ift Nabob Anaver- 
dey Cawn, the legal governor of the province, holding his autho- 
rity from Nazirzing, the Governor General of the Deckan, the 
reprefentative of the great Mogul ; an obedience to which, yoa 
have laid down as the fundamental laws of the country, and con- 
fequently ought to obey. 

As every thing that has fince happened is evidently the effect 
of that rebellion of which Chunda and his allies were the caufe, 
it is but a reafonable affertion that they are the authors of the 
whole ; and on the contrary, thofe who have withllood thefe re- 
bels ading in oppofition to the fundamental laws of the country, 
are juftihed. This you may urge is a conclulion very general, but 
it is a juft one. 

Rebellion can only be fupported by a£ls of violence : fuch have 
appeared J the lives and property of the fubjefl: were invaded j 
Mahomed Allee, fon to Nabob Anaverdey Cawn, inverted with the 
Trichinopoly government, v/hich was the principal one of the 
province, after Arcot was taken, faithfnl to his nialler, protected 
the rights of the Circar. Here, gentlemen, the Englilh firft made 
their appearance j from the Mogul and his officers they had re- 
ceived phirmaunds for their fettlements and trade, and lived under 
the prote(2tion of his governors ; and it was but gratitude to fupport 
his officers, it was jult too. They joined Mahomed Allee, and ac- 
tjuainted Nazirzing with the ftate of the province, he approved 
of their condudt, wrote to Mahomed Allee to be firm in the govern- 
ment of the Carnateck, marched himfelf to fettle the province, and 
then confirmed Mahomed Allee in it ; Muftaphazing, fenfible of his 
error, fubmitted ; but Chunda and his allies continued rebellious, 
a confpiracy was formed with the Cuduapa and Condanore Nabobs, 
and Nazirzing the lawful prince of the Deckan was aiTalEnated. 


[ 46 ] 

So true is what I have before faid, that rebellion muft have recourle 
to, and be fupported by ads of violence ; this commenced with the 
death of the lawful governor of the Carnateck, and was continued 
by the alfainnation of the Great Mogul's viceroy of the Deckan, 
Thefe are fatts which clearly prove that Mr. Dupleix (not we) 
who commenced, Hill continues this war, and as we have acted 
very conformable to, fo has he in open violation of thofe fundamen- 
tal laws of the country, which he is fubjett to, and ought to obey. 
In your memorial of a faned, I do not obferve, gentlemen, one for 
this authority; if you have any, pleafe to produce it, or acknov/- 
ledge you had no right to aiH thus, but have afted as an ally toa rebel. 
After the afTallination, Muftaphazing was releafed and fet up as 
prince of the Deckan, who, with Chunda and Nazirzing's treafure 
and jev.'els, were conducted to Pondichery. It was induftrioufly 
fpread about that a divifion was made of thofe jewels and treafures. 
Some gratuities luight be diftributed to the villains who adted their 
parts in the betraying and aiTafTmation of Nazirzing ; but the fup- 
portet of this rebellion, having the right of poflellion, took for 
himfelf the greateft part. Muftaphazing had a fmall matter gene- 
roufly beftowed on him for his expences ; greater honours were 
indeed allowed him, thofe of prince of the Deckan, and to Chunda 
Saib the fubafhip of the Carnateck. It was a prudent meafure 
firft to appoint a prince of the Deckan, and fubah of the Car- 
nateck ; for who will difpute but a prince of the Deckan has 
a power to give jageers, and a fubah of the Carnateck to govern 
the province. Nabob Mahomed Allee indeed might arte whe- 
ther all this was done by the Mogul's order, and if Mr. Du- 
pleix cannot (as it is well known he cannot) produce any of the 
laneds ; every thing from this mock authority proceeding, is defec- 
tive, contrary to the eftablilhed laws of the country, and only the 
adts of rebels. To proceed, gentlemen, Muftaphazing, thus ac- 
cording to the forms of Pondichery regularly inverted, began his 
government, it is faid, by afts of generolity for the airaffination of 
Ills uncle J to Mr. Dupleix a large dillridt, to madam Dupleix 
another, to the gentlemen of the fuperior council each according 
to his rank, jageers to the officers according to their rank, the 
fame to Mr. Dupleix's black minillers likewife ; though to do juftice 
to the gentlemen of the fuperior council, I never heard that they 
have had any Ihare in the management of thefe atFaiis, but fllently 
condemn and deteil them ; the fame I may fay of the gentlemen 
cflicers. Thefe are what Mr. Dupleix calls his rights : it may be 
by Ibme imagined that thefe gratuities were intended as a reward 
for the afTailination of Nazirzing only j no, the rebellion was ftill to 
be profecuted. Muftaphazing faw and heard the murmurs in the 
army, then awed by the guns of Pondichery ; he dreaded their 
fury when they were removed from thence, knew the horrid mur- 
*ler was unanimoufly detefted, and was fenfible that a power ufurp- 
ed nmft be fupported by force, and that he could never ellablifh 
his government in the Deckan without it ; the French troops were 


[ 47 3 
neceflary, they accordingly joined him ; but fhort-lived is pov^'er 
ufurped by indireft means : after a kw days march from Pondi- 
chery, the Nabobs of Cadaapah and Condanore, who had mur- 
dered Nazirzing, put an end to his life and ufurpation. I accom- 
panied this prince fo far, that I might, as I begun with his rebellion, 
conclude with his fate, fuch as is generally the end of ufurpers. 
I Qiall now return to the province: Chunda Saib and his allies, 
foon after the departure of Muftaphazing, took the field and begun 
their operations by plundering, befieging of forts, and bv force 
garrifoning them. Nabob Mahomed Allee on the murder of Nazir- 
zing had taken refuge in Trichinopoly, where the Englilh fent a fmall 
detachment for his fecurity j and on Chunda Saib's taking the field 
with his allies, the Englilh detached a larger force to join the Na- 
bob's army, which after taking Verdachilum, they did near Volcon- 
da ; here a fkirmilh happened, and at Utatore another ; the rebels 
being greatly fuperior, the Nabob's army crofTed the Cauvery and 
Coleroon, and encamped under the cannon of Trichinopoly, the 
rebels followed; as a fiege was imprafticable, they formed a bloc- 
kade for feveral months and raifed works, but at fuch a diftance as 
proved of no fignification. At length the Maiflbreans and Mora- 
row joined the Nabob, when the Rebels to do them juftice, made 
a good retreat with their cannon and baggage to Seringham, which 
in a fliort time capitulated ; and the traitor Chunda Saib, who had 
formed a defign of efcaping by promifes to Monagee, was in the 
fullnefs of his crimes executed. Pleafe to remark, gentlemen, as 
the French continued their alliance with Chunda Saib, the Englifli 
were firm in their attachment to Nabob Mahomed Allee, who had 
received a legal phirmaund from Nazirzing: the death of that 
prince did not cancel this phirmaund ; he was killed by rebels ; the 
government was by them ufurped j the Nabob faithful to his fo- 
vereign, ftill continued to defend his rights. We wrote to the 
Mogul- of the revolution, and our attachment to the Circar, and 
defired his orders, that we might aft in obedience to them. He 
was gracioufly pleafed to fend Nabob Mahomed Allee a phirmaund 
for the Carnateck, to appoint Gauzedy Cawn viceroy of the Dec- 
kan who likewife granted Nabob Mahomed Allee a faned and o-ave 
us orders to fupporthim: this phirmaund from the Mogul, this 
faned and thefe orders from Gauzedy Cawn have never been re- 
voked ; from which it is obvious, that Nabob Mahomed A"ee 
Cawn's title is juft, and that we have acted according to the fun- 
damental laws of the country ; and as Muftaphazing never could 
receive any faned from the Mogul, nor is it the leaft probable that 
any would ever have been granted to a publick difturber of the 
peace of the country ; fuch rights as Mr. Dupleix may pretend 
to defire from him, fuch authority as Chunda Saib might have 
alledged for the Carnateck, are unjull, illegal, and of no force; 
and confcquently Mr. Dupleix is proved by thefe fads to prolong 
the war, contrary to the eftablllhed governiueat. 


[ 48 ] 

As I have diTcufled the affairs of this province, which were 
iranlafted on your part by a pretended authority from Muftaphaz- 
ing, I fhall now return to the army, the command of which was given 
to Salabatzing, who was reieafed from confinement j and your 
troops, very indifferent who it was, fo as they had a fpecious 
pretence, continued their march w ith him to Hydrabad. As fbon 
as the news of the affaifmation of Nazirzing reached Delly, Gau- 
zedey Cawn received from the Mogul a faned for the Deckan. 
Some months were fpent in fettling this affair, when he marched at 
the head of his army towards his government, and arrived at Au- 
rengabad, where he was poilbned by Salabatzing's mother. Here, 
gentlemen, is another horrid act to fupport that caufe, the juftnefs 
of which you take fb much pains to defend ; and when the mother 
was with the Omrah's, entreating her fon Salabatzing to difmifs the 
French troops, bitter was his reply, that had fhe not poifoned his 
uncle, he might peaceably have enjoyed fbme fraall government un- 
der him, but now he detained the French as his fecurity. Stung 
with remorfe, fhe retired to her tent, fetting fire to it with defign to 
perifh in the flames, but was prevented. In this appears a plain 
convidion, that Salabatzing acknowledged Gauzedey Cawn, and 
would have fubmitted to him. He remains at the head of his 
army at Aurengabad, environed by a French guard, and (as I have 
had the honour already to tell Mr. Dupleix) not at liberty to 
adt as he pleafes, in continual apprehenlions from the Omrahs, who 
are in general diffatisfied. The Phirmaund from the Mogul to Na- 
bob Mahomed Allee is flilJ in force, and confirmed by his Vifier 
Shecaubudy Cawn, fon to Gauzedey Cawn, I have already told 
you, fhall be forth-coming. By a train of fa£ts clofely connected, 
I am perfuaded of the juftnefs of the Nabob's title ; and confe- 
quently our alliance with him, will to yours and our fuperiors ap- 
pear, that you have ingenioufly endeavoured to throw that odium on 
us, which a feries of circumllances prove you the authors of ; and 
that you commenced, continued, and flill continue a calamitous war, 
contrary to the fundamental laws of the country, every one muft 
be convinced of I am lorry, gentlemen, propofals fo reafonable, 
fo moderate, fojuft, and fo beneficial to your real intereft, as thole 
which our commiffaries had the honour to make you, fhould meet 
with fo cold a reception ; I would, if there were any grounds, I 
would hope that Mr. Dupleix figuring to himlelf the idea, and as 
from a rihng ground beholding the group of miferies fpringing from 
poilbnSj alfaffinations, breach of confanguinity, thoufands by dif- 
ferent deaths perilhing, yet lefs miferable than thoufands furviving, 
he would conclude, that the happinefs of a whole people muft be 
of more importance than the ambition of one lubjefl fatisfied by 
fuch crimes ; and if he will Itill refleft further, that this fcheme 
during a courie of five years, fupported by the perpetration of'' 
crimes fhocking to relate, alfifted by armies generally fuperior in 
number, yet always defeated, has been as yet fruftrated ; confcious 
cf ihe wickednefs of the defign, he would prefer peace, and hearken to 


purftie his plan, he nmft know, that the fame firm meafures which' 
have already feived to difconcert, will vigoroufly continue to op- 
pofe it. 

Pleafe, gentlemen, to acquaint Mr. Dupleix, that whatever 
pieces I receive from him are tranfmitted to my luperiors j and I am 
perfuaded he will do me the fame juftice in tranfmitdng mine to 
his, as it will furnifh them with the furelt means to judge of the 
real Hate of affairs on this coaft. 

I have the honour to be> 
Fort St. George, the Your moft obedient humble fervanr, 
15th Feb. 1754. Thomas Saunders. 

To the honourable Thomas Saunders, Efq; Gozernor of Madrafs. 


We have received the writing in form of a letter, which jou did us 
the honour to addrefs to us in the time when our lail Europe fhip was 
on the point of failing. The French interpretation could not be finiih- 
ed foon enough to fend it by that conveyance. We doubt not but you 
have fupplied this want, and put it in the power of your fuperiors, to 
communicate, if they think proper, to ours, this laft writing ; of 
which we could give them but a flight knowledge. We did all in 
our power to fulfil what you recommended to us on this point ; we 
are now going to reply a little more at leifure to the honour you have 
done us in prolonging our commilfion as deputies of our nation. 

We fliaJl begin, Sir, with confelhng to you, that being at Pondi- 
chery, we at the utmoft only flattered ourfelves, that you would' 
honour us with an anfwer on the fubjedl: of our prifoners at Trichi- 
nopoly, whofe milerable fituation induced us to intercede with yoii 
for them, before our departure from Sadrafs : it was no longer their 
h'berty that we demanded, only the prefervation of their lives } and 
we aded in this, lefs as deputies than as members of the French na- 
tion. We were therefore doubly furprifed at the reading of your 
letter ^ firfl:, at your leaving us in the dark about the fuccefs of our 
requefi:, and then, at your pleafing to continue with us the dif- 
cullion of what had been treated in the conferences at Sadrafs, 
With regard to this laft point, we have requefted of our governor 
to give his confent to our entering on one more aft of our pall dig- 
nity i and we made him fenfibie of our reafbns ; among which, give 
us leave to remark to you the defire we have of juftifying ourfelves, 
in your opinion, Sir, and in the opinion of all that may read your 
writing, from the reproaches you have there thrown on us. We 
defire no more than the ftrifteft juflice. 

The firfl: reproach is, to have been ivantitig in refpeSl and re- 
gnrd towards your commifTaries, in making them wait at Sadrafs, 
We might complain. Sir, that you put us to this necellity, by not 
fending us the neQeflary paffports. I'heir delay indeed was lucky 

J> for 

. [ 50 ] 

for us ; for if we had received them a fortnight (boner, we ffioakl 
have run a rilque of meeting with fome misfortmie on the road, 
v.'hich, as it was, we did not pafs without danger from the quantity 
of water we yet found. 

If you would pleafe to acknowledge on the fide of the French 
commifTaries, an equal right to complain of want of regard and re- 
fpeft, you would find them better founded. This does not point at the 
perfonal behaviour of your commilTaries, at which we cannot but 
exprels our fatisfaflion, but at the manner in which they were obliged 
to aft with us. When we produced our titles, the very next day 
after our arrival, the 22d of January, although you are plealed to 
fay it was not till after a fortnight ; they anfwered us, that they 
were not fent to treat upon titles, but to propofe to us the prelimi- 
nary you had preicribed as the bafis of the whole negociation. This 
was to acknowledge Mahomed Allee, &c. Forced, however, by 
the (entiments of natural jullice, they could not refufe to promife 
us, that they would immediately get his titles fent from Madrafs. 
They wrote accordingly, and received for anlwer, that they were 
at Trichinopoly. We again demanded that they fliould be fent 
for J and while we were waiting for them, you recalled your com- 
niiffaries, who declared to us the end of the conferences the 4th Fe- 
bruary, and adually fet out the 6th. 

Notwithftanding all this. Sir, you found a fecond reproach to 
make us, on t/re impatknce ixihich hindered us ^uniting arty longer 
for the arri'val of thofe titles. Where were we to wait for 
them .'' and how long } Vouchfafe to confider, that your depu- 
ties fet out from Sadrafs two days before us; for we did not begin 
our journey till the 8th in the morning j and that you tell us \n 
your laft letter, that the titles in queftion are yet on the road from 
Trichinopoly ; you invite us neverthelefs beforehand to come to 
Madrals to fee them. We cannot guefs how much it may take 
more for their arrival there : befides, what would be the effect ? 
Judgment may be formed from what has already paffed, and from 
the refletlions which we have already fufficierrtly made on thele 
titles, fuppofing even that you could actually produce them. Among 
thefe titles you fpeak of fome, which, though of an old date, are 
neverthelefs now mentioned for the hrlt time. Such is the Mogul'a 
Phirmaund in favour of Mahomed Allee. We ihall fee hereafter 
how you feek to contrive fome probability for iritroducing this piece, 
which becomes neceffary in order to oppofe to the Phirmaund of that 
Emperor in favour of the marquis Dupleix. 

You tax us in the third place \'iixh. precipitation and lightnefs, iff 
helie-Tjing and ad'vancing as atiefled fa8s fuch as toe cannot knotu 
nxjith any certainty. The utmoft of our defire is however, Sir, 
that they will be pleafed in Europe to pay regard, both in your 
writings and in ours, to fuch parts only as are fupported with proofs. 
But to fee if your reproach be well founded, let us take by way of 
example the very fad on which you attack us, and of which you 



are fpecially concerned to fhew the falfity, as well as our precipita> 
tion in giving belief to it. 

This is the promife of Trichinopolv, made by Mahomed Allee 
to the Maiiroreans, and guaranteed by the Englifh : we founded, 
and do found our belief of the firft part on two authentick aQs 
made by Mahomed Allee, and confirmed by oath. The fecond, 
which regards you, is clearly exprefTed in the letters of MefTrs. 
Gingen, Cope, and yourfelf, Sir ; thofe of the two former are ad- 
dreffed to Nanderauze, one of the minifters of the P»aj?., aind yours 
to him'df 

Is it believing lightly after fuch evidences? We know now that 
you pretend neiier to have ivrote ftich a thing either to the Raja or 
his minijlers. Let us fee then whether the arguments you produce 
to perfuade us of this, ought to work in us z change of that fentimenc 
which the letter abovementioned had very jullly given us. 

In the firft place, the Maifjore en^joy who is with you, is con- 
I'inced, you fay. Sir, that you nelter took part in the engagement 
in quejlion ; but his mafter, better acquainted with his own affairs, 
advances the contrary. He has put into our hands the pieces which 
juftify his aflertion ; he empowered us to profecute it, and to this 
end fent one of his envoys with us when we went to Sadrafs, 
Which of thele two authorities Ihould prevail.'' 

In the fecond place, yoii fend us a copy of a letter which may., 
add you, ha^ve fame reference to "what i':e helie^je^ and the contents 
of tuhich deceived us. It is in reality very much like that which 
we produced. There is no difference, according to the tranflation 
We have got of it, except that the article, importing your engage- 
ment, is left out, and a phrafe, with which we have no reafon to 
be pleafed, totally changed. What would you have us think of this 
difference? On one fide, you tell us that it is regiftered at Madrafs* 
the fame as you communicate it, and it would look ill in us not to 
believe you : on the other fide, it is in the hands of the Raja, fuch 
as we produce it. The conformity between the two fhev/s that the 
draft produced by the Raja is not a made piece : the want of 
erazements and interlineations, which would appear in this draft, 
if the Raja had altered it, convinces us that he has not attempted it. 
This is tiie riddle, of which we leave the Unravelling to different 
people from us, and proceed to your third argtiment j it is drawn 
from one of your letters to Chundah Saib, the which you would 
infinuate we omitted with defign, although we mentioned it, and 
communicated it at the fame time with that v.-hrch makes the prefent 
queftion. The advantage you propofe to draw from this letter, 
turns on the mention you there make of the engagement of Trichi- 
nopoly to the Englilh, before that which was made to the Maiffore- 
ans, as if the firll deniorfftrated the impolfibility of the fecond. 
The marquis Dupleix has already fhewed you, Sir, in his letter of 
the iSth February, 1752, that the engagement made to the Englifli 
could not be brought {q far back as the Epoch, you alfign it ; but 

D 2 f'-ippoiing 

[ 52 ] 

fuppofing the (a.&. to be as yon fay yourlelf j might not the neceflltf 
of affairs, v.hich induced Mahomed Allee to make a (econd en-; 
gagenicnt, have led him likewile to confirm it by facrificing the iirft 
to the want and the defire you had of fixing the Mailforeans i» 
your party ? We dare not take upon as to fay, as thefe people ad- 
vance, that is, that your real defign was not to abandon your views 
on Trichinopoly, even when you gave them your promife ; and 
they jurtity their affertion by the condudft you have obferved to- 
wards them. 

For us, we Ihall be content with reprefenting to you, that, by 
your own confetlion, you cannot produce the engagement you pre- 
tend to have been made to you, as a reafon proper to prove, that 
you took no part in that which was made to the IVIaifforeans. Yoa 
add. Sir, ahnoft inllandy, in your letter, that being become a 
mediator between Mahomed Allee, and Nandi Raja, the Maiflbre 
imm', you a^I-vifed the ^uackeely or envoy, of the Raja to obtain ft 
Janed from Salabatzing. How is it poilible you iliould have given 
hiiii fach advice to fecure Trichinopoly to him, if you had rights 
upon it ; had you forgot thefe rights in making an advance fo corf- 
trary to them r At lealt, it appears that in writing this laft article, you 
was crouded with fo many objefts, that they made you forget what 
you had laid to us a little before. You was in a hurry to produce this 
envoy again, to infinuate through his means, and in his name, many 
things eiiential to your caufe, which you would wilh to be true, or 
at leaft to be believed in Europe. Such are the uncertainty of the 
authority of Salabatzing, the invalidity of the rights of Chundah 
Saib, the nobility of Mahomed Allee, a ferpaiv gmen to him by 
Nazir zing for the go^'ernment of the Carnateck. This inveftiture 
confirmed by the Mogul, and by a letter from Gauzedey Cawn, if 
this envoy had read your own thoughts, Sir, he could not have 
better collefled, under one point of view, all the different articles 
which you have at heart to confirm, among which the Phirmaund 
of the Mogul, in favour of Mahomed Allee, does not hold the laft 
rank j for the reft, he does not talk like a man of this country, in 
afcribing fo much honour to Mahomed Allee, for his having re- 
ceived a ferpaw from Nazirzing, and in declaring him by this token 
governor of the Carnateck. The Moors and Indians all know 
that a lerpaw, which commonly is only a prefent of fome cloth, is 
not a dillinction to build fo much on, and much lefs a proof of an 
employ given. Perhaps this envoy fpoke with a defign to fupport 
only on conjedure, a point which he knew not to be true : he 
fliould have ufed the fame circumfpedion in mentioning the Mogut 
and Gauzedey Cawn. Before we leave this envoy, give us leave 
to remark of how much weight can be all that he has wrote, and 
all that he fays. The letter which you quote of his. Sir, refers 
plainly to the time when the Mailforeans, leagued with you, had 
the fame interefts, and declaimed in the fame tone againft Salabat- 
aing, againll Chundah Saib, and againft us, in iavour of Mahomed 

Ailee i 

[ 53 1 

Allee; and as to what this envoy may fay at prefent, if you haves 
mind to knov/ his true fentinients, give him leave to explain him- 
felf at twenty leagues ditlance from Madrafs j he will tell you, he 
was fent by the minifter Nandi Raja, to engage you to perform thofe 
vtry promifes, which you deny upon his own evidence. We have 
been affured from good hands, that you have detained him againfk 
his inclinations: certain people, v/ho would be prying into all myfte- 
ries, pretend that you doit with a defign to make it be believed in 
Europe, that the Maiiforeans are not far from returning to your 
party, fmce they keep an envoy with you. But without detaining 
ourfelves on thefe kinds of politicks, we continue our juftifica- 

The firft reproach which prefents Itfelf, after thofe which we 
have already refuted, is that of an excefl-ve "vanity, <which blinded 
Hs to that degree, as to make us demand the mojl imprudently in the 
■nx'orld, that our titles Jhould be examined. Others than you. Sir, 
will fee in our proceeding a ditference quite oppofite to vanity j 
and thofe that ihall read what was wrote on one tide and the other 
on this fubjeft by the deputies of the two nations, v/ill remark, that in 
your letter you put in your own drefs what palTed in the conferences, 
t-o take an advantage which the truths of the fafts, which Vv'e fup- 
pofe )ou have not had leifure to examine, would not give you. It 
will be feen in the authentick writings, which we refer to, that 
we only refufed to give copies of our pieces till you had produced 
yours ; and there alfo will appear the very well grounded reafons 
vt^e had to adl in that manner. If you have a mind to know what 
was our defign in advancing, that your conmiilfaries had orders to 
difpute our rights, it was only to defcribe what had palfed in our 
conferences, when, after the account that was given you of the 
firft communication of our pieces, you fent initead of titles, 
which we had been made to expert, interpreters to examine ours 
afrefli. Our pieces were fo entrulled to them, that they were 
jaking copies in a feparate chamber from that which we were in. It 
was upon certain words of your commiifaries, thro' which v/e faw, 
that fome fecret piece of bufinefs was preparing at Trichinopoly ; and 
upon the declaration which was repeated to us of the necelfity of ac- 
knowledging Mahomed Allee, previoufly to every thing, that one 
of us went and withdrew as well the pieces as the copies, by this 
time almoft finilhed, faying, that we would again produce all of 
them, and even the originals (for we had brought only attefted 
copies) as foon as you Ihould have in readinefs thofe you ought to 
communicate, and have it in your power to produce them. For 
the reft, your interpreters did not fay a word againll our pieces.^ 
and if we may affume a right of afferting any thing without proof, 
we could pronounce with truth, that they found them irreproach- 
able. Your coinmiftaries amuied us to the erjd of the conferences 
in the chicanery, which may be feen in their writings, and of which 
we leave the judgment to thofe to v/hom it Ihall belong. 

D 3 You 

. [ 54 "J 
Yo:a had your reafons, Sir, fqr adding to all the other reproaches 
already pointed out, that of our ignorance of the fads; but you are 
not more lucky in the choice of the example by which you would 
convince us. It is on the fubjett of one of your letters to Chundah 
Saib, which we quoted to fhew that you talked to him ftill as a 
ifriend, when he was on his way to Trichinopoly. This letter is of 
the month of Auguft, 1751 ; it is mentioned in that of the marquis 
Dupleix of the i8th February, 1752, upon this your anfwer, to 
move our ignorance, that hy the date of jour letter it muft haie 
been -wrote abo've a year after you had joined Mahotned Allee. Does 
this prove that it was not of the time we referred to it ? No, af- 
furedlyj nay, admitif you choofeit, that it was even later than we 
niake it, it will only be a ftronger proof of what we advanced, as it 
will make it appear, that you kept up ftill longer with Chundah Saib 
the appearances of friendfliip, true or falfe ; let our ignorance reft. 
Sir, on that, we place the declarations of friendlhip you made 
to Chundah Saib; in a time when yop had already joined his 
enemy a whole year j this laft circuniftance does not render our 
flfiertion falfe : and if your conduft gives the lie to your letter, 
the contradidion falls rather on you than on us. It carries in- 
deed an accufation of quite a differenc nature from ignorance, 
which you impute to us. 

It is however after this fo lucky an imputation, that you 
think you have a right to overiec with one fingle word what 
\ve had advanced upon the jufteft grounds, and to advance on 
your part, what is contradiiSted by a crowd of witnelfes. How- 
can you fay. Sir, that Chunda Saib never was ackowledged (at 
leaft you add by any one of authority) and that he vvas obliged 
on his leaving Pondichery, to be^ege the ftrong places of the 
Province. Name one fingle fiege that he made, except that ot 
Chetteput, a place that had for maiiy years belonged to his per- 
fonal enemy, and which even he only invefted to make him pay the 
money he owed to the Circar : he had then tn his camp and 
in his attendance the greateft part of the lords of the country. 
We aflert what we faw, and what we could get attefted by 
thoufands of witnefTes, if it was neceflary : but you know very 
•well yourfelf, that if the whole country had not been in fub- 
luiilion and peaceable, Chunda Saib would never have entered 
upon the fiege of Trichinopoly, wherein, notwithltanding all your 
aflurancesof friendftiip, he could never doubt but you would op- 
pofe him. The truth of this is, that little do you concern your- 
felf how much the invalidity of what you alledge appears here, 
provided the fame evidence cannot be given in Europe. 

You are contented with replying on the faft of Hodgee Ad- 
dee, from which it appears plainly, that the Englilh themfelves 
did acknowledge Chunda Saib, that ivhat lue knoto of this af- 
fair may be called in quejiion, and is beyond your knoiuledg^. 
Only a few lines after this anfwer you conclude, that in all our 


[ 55 ] 

pieces there is mt one true faS, or one that has not heen re- 
futed. " You are in ihe right, Sir, if the method of refuting which 
we have been jull obferving appears to you lufficient, of which 
the very refpeft v/e have for you mull make us doubt. It is 
however found convenient for the avoiding all perplexities ; it 
would have been a great one in the plan of the hiftory you 
propofed to exhibit, if in the courfe of it you had found Chunda 
Saib acknowledged and peaceable poffeffor, in tracing the rile 
that you would allign to the prefent war. You ftrive your 
utnioft to prove that the French begun it, and to that end 
you advance, that before this the French had a quarrel with 
Anaverdey Cawn, which has been demonftrated to you to have 
been totally finilhed before the beginning of that now in queftion. 
But Mahomed Allee, you will lay, is Ion of Anaverdey Cav/n, 
difpolTefled by Chunda Saib, and we only fupport his rights, 
which Chunda Saib had ufurped. What, Sir, are the rights 
of Mahomed Allee derived from his father in a moveable go- 
vernment i Did Mahomed Alice himfelf pretend to have any til! 
you forced him to fuppofe fo ? Was not all fettled with him 
as he deli red it, till you led him to revolt ? This is not found- 
ed on funple allegations, the proofs exift and have often beea 
fiiewn you. 

In vain do you endeavour to make but one of thefe tv/o dif- 
ferent wars ; you will find no connettion between them bat 
iuch as two fucceeding events muft neceflarily have : the efforts 
you make to ellablilh another, to jurtify you in the war you are now 
making, proves clearly that this laft gives you no pretext to act in 
a manner as if the French did appear to be the authors. 

The detail you have taken the trouble to go tlirough, of 
what has palfed ilnce the Epocha, you have chole to fix, would 
furnifli us with a fair field to take our revenge for the reproach 
you fo frequently make us on the fubjeft of facis ; but it is 
with regret we fee ourfelves in a lituation to conteft on fuch a 
matter with the chief of a nation, and efpecially of yours ; and 
we Aall difpenle with it as far as polhble : we can do it on 
this occafion, without appearing to abandon either the interell 
of out nation or of the truth. The marquis Dupleix addrefTed 
to you, Sir, two years ago a recital of thefe fame events, to 
which you have not yet given any anfwer. We refer to the 
memorial of the i&th February 1752, all fuch as would attain 
* a true knowledge of the alt'airs in queftion. The difference they 
will find between your narrative and that which we fpeak 
of, is that the marquis Dupleix does not fupport what he ad- 
vances on his lole authority, but that to every fatt he annexes 
the proof 

W e refer it in the fame manner to the pieces and men)o- 
rials of the marquis Dupleix, for the information of thole who 
are to judge ot the grievances ot the tv/o nations, and which you 

D 4 difplay 

[56 ] 

dlfplay fo pompoufly to the advantage of yours ; we do not deny 
that they will have reafon to be furprifed in Europe at what has 
pail'ed in India between Europeans, whofe fovereigns and the 
)3odies of the nations are in peace ; but the point is to fee on 
which fide the blame lliould fall. You complain bitterly that 
our governor declared to you that your flag fhould no longer be 
k fecurity to you : fuch an article merited that you Ihould have 
quoted the letter ; and you will give us leave, at leaft to doubt, 
from the ftrong reafons that we have to believe he never did 
write to you in this tone. He might however in fome degree 
have been hipported in it: Had he not a right to make re- 
prifals after you had infulted and torn down the French flag 
from the places where it was planted, and demoliflied Covelong 
after a pofleliion of two years and a half j but the French went 
to St. Thome; fuppofing that true, does St. Thome belong to 
you .'' But the country houfes of the Englifn were burnt ! their 
lurniture carried off, fome of which was brought to Pondichery ! 
It was in a Moor's country, tl«it the Moors, lawfully enraged, 
made thefe expeditions, although fome French might have been 
found in the croud at a time when the body of the French de- 
tachment refufed to follow Rajah Saib on thefe kinds of expe- 
ditions, what would there be furprifmg in it .'' V\'ithout com- 
iriending thofe whom it' may concern, we may venture to lav, 
that their fault will be nothing to compare to that of your 
people, who carried fire even into our limits. But the governor of 
Pondichery flopped fome Englifh troops paiTmg through the road 
of that town : was he to blanse, fmce thefe troops were going 
to the camp of Mahomed Allee ? that againft all reafon you 
keep our people prlfoners at Cuddalore ; and that he had rea- 
fon to believe you would embark them to fend them out of 
the country. 

We do not, Sir, but the lift of your grievances is well fuf- 
riflied to repiv to all thofe that can be oppoied to you : there 
remains to make the comparifon and verification. This lall point 
will be often embarraliing ; but a fuie rule to judge of the 
excefs of the two nations would be this, let it be leen on which 
fide appears nioft animofity. The fame fpirit which has guided 
the fword and the fire to ad, guides alfo the pen to write. It 
niav be feen in the writings of the two chiefs on which fide 
harih exprelfions, the I'evereft reproaches, and the moft oflenfive 
inveftives reign principally. We Ihall not think of anfwering thofe 
■which your lall letter is filled with againll our governor; if on 
one fide we are touched with them, on the other we cannot be 
led to offend the leaft in the world agamlt that refped which 
we are willing always to fhew to your poll. The marquis Du- 
pleix cannot but approve a modefty of which we find the mo- 
del in his writings ; we fee, in them that you reproach him con- 
tinually with the blackeji of conduit, ajjajjinationiy poifmhigs, ibme 

■ of 

[ 57 ] 

of which too have no foundation but fables which you have 
adopted, and which we never before heard of j fuch is that 
which concerns the mother of Salabatzing : you ftrive to make 
him appear as the author or the accomplice of all thefe crimes. 
Nothing more however is requifite for his full juftification but 
to read your own narrative. On his fide, he never fpeaks to 
you of the death of Chunda Saib, but on thofe occafions where 
yourfelves oblige him to it, and then in the concifefl manner, 
although nothing fo fhocking has pafled, nor that can with more 
grounds be imputed to Europeans. It feems to us, Sir, (give U3 
leave to tell you fo) that it would better become the chief of 
a nation, fuch as you are, to let this crime reft with thofe that 
did it, than to juftify it by giving room to believe that the 
whole nation approve it. You have endeavoured to difguife 
the affair by feveral means ; at laft you agree that Chunda Saib 
was executed as a criminal ; fo far is certain, that his head was 
cut off at the breaking up of a council, at which the chief of 
your army affifted ; it is faid that even this council was held 
in his tent. It is therefore of the Englifh that it might be de- 
manded with much more juftice, than of us ; whence derive 
their right to judge, and to put to death in an infamous manner 
Nabobs and governors } For all that you fay. Sir, againft Chunda 
Saib and his titles, does not difprove him to have been legi- 
timate governor of the Carnateck. Vouchfafe not to be of- 
fended at this word, and to fupport for a moment our temerity, 
until it Ihall be dilfipated by our juftification. We have but one 
very plain queftion to afk you ; Was not Salabatzing the mafter 
of Deckan, when Chunda Saib was put to death .'' and had not 
this laft a faned from Salabatzing ^ You was not ignorant of it, 
and when we produced afrelh this faned at the conferences, no 
pbjeftion was made to it. All that you fay as yet againft it 
yourfelf, amounts to no more than empty declamations againft all 
our pieces in general ; nothing decifive on this fubjeS, only 
that one is without date, and that two draughts of another are 
fealed with two different feals. We have futficiently replied to 
thele two chicaneries, neither of which has any reference to 
the faned Chunda Saib was invefted with. You will here pro- 
duce Gauzedey Cawn, as having annulled the faned of Chunda 
Saib by that which he granted to Mahomed Allee. Shew us 
then this, Sir, for we deny it ; and further, to fatisfy you that 
we do not deny after your method, we will prove to you that 
we have authority for denying it, and this by a letter from 
Gauzedey Cawn himfelf to Chunda Saib. We fpoke of this 
to your commiffaries, and they may recolledl it. 

Suppofe even there was a faned of Gauzedey Cawn in favour 
of Mahomed Allee ; when Salabatzing became without the leaft 
doubt fole mafter, had not he a right to revoke it } If he did 
<iot do it exprefsly, it is becaufe fuch a faned never appeared ; 


[ 58 1 
but he wrote to you exprefsly that Mahomed Alice was a re- 
bel, and that he forbid you aliilling him : this is proved by the 
very letter of Salabatzing. After this can one conceive how a 
roan like you can perfilt obllinately in faying that Mahomed 
Alice is legitimate niafter of the Carnateck : ftill lefs can one 
conceive how you can hope to fupply his want of right by 
inveighing again ft thofe that fay he has none ; it is never thelefs 
the method you adopt, and obferve whither it leads you, to the 
difputing Salabatzing his authority, or the inventing to evade it, 
the vaineft fubtleties ; to the relufing to acknowledge thofe that 
he has named for the government of the country, and to the 
denying or making a ihew of ignorance of their titles, even after 
they have been notified to you ; at the fame time that you have 
laid in another place, that you acted oniv by the orders of Sala- 
batzing, in your letter to the marquis Dupleix, dated 21ft Sept. 
1753 ; and in your letter of the 18th October following, you 
admit of his right to fubftitute whom he fhould think proper 
to the government of the provinces in his fubjeclion ; and in 
that of the 1 8th December following, you fay that the prince of 
Deckan, from whom you received letters to afiill Mahomed 
Allee, would rejoice to the refufing to hearken to any condi- 
tions of peace, unlefs they are begun by fubmitting to Mahomed 
Alice in acknowledging invifibie titles and chimerical rights : to 
the eltabliihing on fo flight a foundation, the advantages you 
vrouid procure for your nation when it depends only on your- 
feif to procure very foiid ones. We offered you fome, which 
do not deterve the contempt you hold tliem in ; but it is plain 
to be feen by the manner in which you. reject them, that there 
are none you would accept from any other hand but Mahomed 
Alice's, of whom you ha\e made your idol, but an idol of 
the country faihion, which has no other movement but that 
which you give it. 

If you are offered the independency and immunity of tribute 
for the town of Madrafs (which is an ineftimable advantage) 
you pretend that you have it already ; for in denying the ac- 
knowledgment in quefrion, you cannot, Sir, niean with regard to 
former times, when we knew very affuredly that it did e.xill : 
you have the proof in your books, and we in the demand that 
was made of it by the father of Mahomed Allee himlelf to the 
marquis Dupleix j it is therefore with regard to the prefent time 
by virtue of fome conceffion -, but from whom .'' it can be from 
no one but Mahomed Allee. If you are offered large fums on 
the footing of reimburfing your expences in the war, it is a 
fnare, you fay, to difengage you fro. a iMahomed Allee ; and you 
take the opportunity ot beftowing the blackeit epithets on the 
marquis Dupieix. if you are offered territories, you reply the 
grants are already given you. 


[ 59 ] 

We know very pofitively that they were not by Nazlrzing; 
this then is again by Mahomed Allee. It muft indeed be con- 
fefled that thefe advantages otFered on our part do not come 
near what you propofe to yourfelves, and of which you leave 
no longer the leaft doubt. Tou gi've us to underjland that 
Trichinopoly is in your hands as a mortgage and fecurity^ and 
that you hanje a contrad in good form. The firft form and 
moft elTential fliould be, that he who made it, has a right to 
what he difpofes of, and this condition he moft certainly fails 
in J but this is no difficulty with you j you have got pofleffion, 
and you propofe to keep it. As to the Arcot country, you con- 
tent yourfelf with poflefling a few Jageers there, in order that 
the French may pretend to no more ; becaufe your juftice in- 
clines you to eftabliih equality between the two nations. For 
all the reft of the country, you are fatisfied with being mafters 
of it under the name of Mahomed Allee : it is for this you 
choofe that this country fhould remain to him, and that every 
other perfon be incapable of poflelfing it. Mootis Allee Cawn 
of Velour, with whom you acknowledge to live in good intelli- 
gence, even ftnce Salabatzing fent him the (aned which was com- 
municated to you, cannot get your confent, becaufe he is not 
Mahomed Allee. Salabatzing himfelf cannot name any other ; 
becaufe his choice cannot be deemed free, if it falls on any 
other but Mahomed Allee ; in fuch a cafe the right devolves 
on yourfelf to appoint this laft. We offered this lame Maho- 
med Allee a confiderable eftabliftiment out of the Arcot coun- 
try ; the propofal is intolerable, it is treating a prince like a pri- 
vate perfon. This pretended prince was contented heretofore, 
but you are not fatisfied. What is the meaning of all that. 
Sir } It is eafy to divine ; this is the method by which you feek 
to eftabliih equality between the two nations, by remaining in 
pofTeflion of a confiderable kingdom, proteftors of Mahomed Allee 
in all the reft of the Carnateck, and making a particular diftri- 
bution of a few Jageers to ferve as a meafure of the liberality 
Mahomed Allee is to fliew the French. See there the end of 
thefe propofals, fo full of reafon and juftice, fo conformable to 
the laws of the country, and which we cannot rejeft, according 
to you; without declaring ourfelves unreafonable, and fomething 
worfe. The commerce, you zdd, Jhall be free to the French, juH. 
the fame as to the Englifh, although we may well be perfuaded 
that Mahomed Allee, out of gratitude and friem^Jhip, luould di~ 
Jiinguifh the Englifh in his fa^jours. However this preference 
need not alarm us ; the liberty of commerce in the Arcot country 
fijall be guaranteed by the chief of the Marattas, the king of Tan~ 
jore, the Myforeans, (s'c. What again does this mean, Sir, and what 
can the prefent and the future lords of Deckan think of it ? What ! 
Shall a country of their dependence be fubjedit to be guaranteed 
by the powers you have named.'' What! thefe powers which 


[ 6o j 

are tributary to them (hall oppofe the alterations they may th'nk 
proper to make in this province ; and it is in this manner that 
you would make it appear that you fupport only the fundamental 
Laws of the Mogul Empire, while the very idea overthrows 
them utterly. This pretended guaranty which cannot take place, 
and which is little known to the Afiaticks, prefents an idea quite 
different from that which you would lend it for the commerce 
of the Arcot country : we fee the end of it, it is the maintain- 
ing Mahomed Allee and his defcendants in the government of 
this province, in fpite of the lords of Deckan, and of the em- 
peror himfelf ; it is the continuance of a war, the duration of 
which has already been too long ; it is the ruin of Myfore 
and Tanjour, which will be the confequence of the necelhty this 
guaranty will put the mafters of Deckan to, in order to reduce 
thefe tributaries into thejull bounds they ought to obferve with 
regard to them : this is all that can be hoped from a guaranty 
as chimerical as it is oppofite and injurious to the Mogul go- 
vernment. We do not alii you what means you would piulue 
to engage thefe powers in this imaginary guaranty. We do not 
carry our curiofity fo far ; but fuppofing it had no other ob- 
jedion but the commerce, which afturedly is not the cafe, we 
beg you will permit us to offer the following refledtions. If 
■we fliould meet with any moleffation, any infult, or any in- 
juftice, our refource m ill be to arm all the people abovementioned, 
to make a league like that, which by many contrivances you 
at length formed againft us, and to begin a war vvorfe than 
this, provided our guarantees will confent to it. If a private 
Frenchman Ihould fuft'er the lofs of a thoufand pagodas the na- 
tion fliall give lacks to Morarow to engage him to come and 
ravage the whole country, and get juftice done to the perfon agr 
grieved. // is thus that the EngliJJj do not feek any ad'uan- 
tage for thevifel'ves alone, and propofe to hold all in common 
•with the French. 

In comparing, Sir, your propofais with ours, three very juft: 
conclufions fhould be drawn, with which we fliall finilh this 

The firft conclufion, is, that very nmch is wanting to your 
defiring a parity of treatment for the two nations, and to your 
having taken, for the rule of your pretenfions, and your propofais, 
an equality of juffice. Parity of treatment would be, that no 
more favour be fliewn to one nation than the other ; you are 
willing however, by your own confelllon, to have as much as 
the French (and even infinitely more, as you fliew without ac- 
knowledging it) while for this the French are obliged to ftrip 
themfelves by the rights they have ; and to inveft you with 
thofe you have not. Equality of juftice demands that every 
one receive according to his rights. Thofe of the French are 


[ 6i J 

real and well founded, and your refufal to acknowledge them 
cannot weaken them, no more than your protellations annul 

The fecond conclufion will be, that you have without the 
leafl title, an ambition more real and more unmeafurable, than 
that which you feek to infer from the titles of the marquis Du- 
pleix. You exclaim for that the lawful mafters of Deckan have 
alTociated him, to do him honour in the government of their 
country, as if he afplred to nothing lefs than the ufurping the 
whole. What exercife, or what ufe has he hitherto made of 
this authority ? Shew it us, and juftify by fome lawful inftance, 
the dread you feign. He will not conient that you give for 
fnarter of the Carnateck a man who is enflaved to you, who is 
a rebel againll Salabatzing, to whom he is accountable, as 
well as to us, for the blood of Chundah Saib. See here the 
fobjett of your cries againft him j the mafters of the coun- 
try have given him expiefsly the province of Arcot with that 
of Trichinopoly. He fees with plealure the government of 
the firft in the hands of him whom Salabatzing has chofen to 
govern it, and he is endeavouring to procure, by lawful means^ 
the fecond for the MailToreans, to whom you promifed it, and 
whom you difappointed. Would you in his place have afled 
like him .'' It is very evident not, by your endeavouring to ufurpi 
the kingdom of Trichinopoly on a tide as groundlefs as the 
celfion of a man who has no manner of right to it, and who 
never can have that of alienating it. Let the country recover Its 
tranquility, and the marquis Dupleix will aftonifh, by frelh ftrokes 
of difintereftednefs and moderation, thofe that have not fo much 
as he. 

The third conclufion fhould be, that you are very far from 
wifhing for peace as he does. He has endeavoured at it quite 
in a different manner from you, whether you confider his con- 
dudl or his offers. The affeftation, which may be called Im- 
moderate, wherewith you ftrive to lay the rupture of the con- 
ferences he propofed to you at his door, fhews plainly that 
you only endeavoured to fave appearances, and to turn them 
againfl him, If the thing were poflible. 

Excufe, Sir, the length of this letter ; one word advanced 
without proof requires often many refiedions to refute It ; we 
fhould have many others, but the equivalent will be found ir» 
former writings. If any thing fhould difpleafe you, Sir, In what 
we have been expofing to you for our juftlfication, we beg 
you will attiibute it only to the neceflity we were drove to, 
both by the end we were feeking and the matter we were 

The marquis Dupleix laughed when we requeued of him on 
jfour part, Sir, that he would not forget to tranlmit your let- 

[_ 62 ] 
ters to his fupeiiors. He is not, fays he, the perfon that 
wilhes the leaii to give them a knowledge of pieces fo favour- 
able to his caufe. 

We have the honour to be, with profound refpeft, 
Pondichery, the yth Your moft obedient and humble Servants, 

March, 1755- Fr. L. Lavaur 

De Kerjean- 

PRIDEAUX's Account of the H E G I R A. 

FROM the flight of Mahomet, the Heglra, which is the JE.XA 
of the Mahometans, begins its computation. It was hrft ap- 
jpointed by Omar, the Third Emperor of the Saracens, on thisocca- 
non. There happened a conteft before him about a debt of money : 
the Creditor had from his Debtor a bill, wherein he acknowledged 
the debt, and obliged himfelf to pay it on fuch a day of fuch a month. 
The day and the month being pafs'd, the Creditor fues his Debtor 
before Omar for the money. The Debtor acknowledged the debt, 
but denied the day of payment to be yet come, alledging the month 
in the bill mentioned, to be that month in the year next enfuing ; 
but the Creditor contended that it was that month in the year laft 
paft ; and for want of a date to the bill, it being impolfible to decide 
this controverfy, Omar called his council together, to confider of a 
method how to prevent this difficulty for the future ; where it was 
decreed, that all bills and other inftruments fhouid ever after have 
inferted into them the date both of the day, of the month, and alfo 
of the year, in which they were figned. And as to the Year, he 
having confulted with Harmuzan, a learned Perfian then with him, 
by his advice, ordained all computations to be made for the future 
from the flight of Mahomet from Mecca to Medina. And for this 
reafon, this .^ra was called the Hegira, which in the Arabick Lan- 
guage fignifieth a Flight. It takes its beginning from the fixteenth 
day of July, in the year of our Lord fix hundred twenty and two. 
And ever fmce this decree of Omar (which happened in the eigh- 
teenth year of it) it hath conftantly been ufed among the Mahome- 
tans, in the ( manner as the computation from the incarnation of 
our Lord Chrift is with us Chriftians. The day that Mahomet left 
Mecca, was on the firft of the Former Rabia, and he came to Me- 
dina on the twelfth of the fame month. But the Hegira begins two 
months before, from the firft of Moharram. For that being the 
firft month of the Arabian Year, Omar would make no alteration 

[ 63 ] 

as to that, but anticipated the computation fifty- nine days, that he 
might begin his ,/Era from the beginning of that year In which this 
Flight of the Impoftor happened, which gave name thereto. Till 
the appointing of this ^ra, it was ufual with the Arabians to com- 
pute from the laft great war they were engaged in. 

The Hegira being that, which all of the Mahometan Religion 
have, ever fmce the conftitution of Omar, computed by ; the fubjedi 
matter of the Hiftory which I now write obligeth ine henceforth 
to make ufe of this .^ra through the remaining part of it. But 
becaufe it computeth by Lunar Years only, and not by Solar, it 
is requifite that I here inform the reader of the nature of thofe 
years, and the manner how the Hegira computeth by them. An- 
ciently the Arabs, although they always ufed Lunar Years, yet by 
intercalating feven months in nineteen years, in the manner as do the 
Jews, reduced them to Solar Years ; and confequenily had their 
months always fixed to the fame feafon of the year. But this growing 
cut of u(e about the time of Mahomet, their year hath ever 
fince been ftriiStly Lunar, confiding of only three hundred fifty- 
four days, eight hours, and forty-eight minutes, which odd hours 
and minutes in thirty years making eleven days exattiy, they inter- 
calate a day on the zd, 5th, 7th, icth, 13th, 15th, i8th, zift,, 26th, and 29th years of this Period. So that their year, in 
thofe years of this period, confifl:s of three hundred fifty-five days, 
by reafon of the intercalated day, which they then add to the laft: 
month of the year. And this year all that profefs the Mahometan 
Religion have ever made ufe of; and there is a paffage in the Al- 
coran whereby they are confined to it. For the Impofi:or there 
calls it Impiety to prolong the Year, that is, by adding an In- 
tercalary month thereto. So that according to this account, the 
Mahometan Year falling eleven days Ihort of the Solar ; it 
hence comes to pafs, that the beginning of the year of the Hegira 
is unfixed and ambulatory (the next year always beginning eleven 
days fooner than the former) and therefore fometimes it happens in 
Summer, fometimes in Spring, fometimes in Winter, and fome- 
times in Autumn ; and in thirty and three yeirs compafs goes 
through all the different feafons of the year, and comes about a^ain 
to the fame lime of the Solar Year, although not exactly to the 
fame day. Which being like to create fome contufion to us wha 
are ufed to the Solar Year ; to prevent this, after the year of the 
Hegira, in the margin I add the day of the month in the year of 
our Lord in which it begins. The months of the Arab Year are as 
follows; I. Moharram. 2. Saphar. '^. The forms)- Rabin, i^. The 
later Rabia. t^. The former "Jornada, b. The latter fomada. "j-Rajeb. 
S.Shaban. f^. Ramadan. 10. Shaijuall. 11. Dulkaada iz.Dulhagha. 
The firil hath thirty days, and the fecond twenty-m'ne, and fo 
alternatively to the end of the year ; only in the intercalary years, 
Dulhagha hath thirty days, becaufe of the day added, but on all 
other years only twenty-nine. 



A chronological Table for thirty-fi'oe Years of the Hegira^ nuith the 
Days of the Month on inhich they begin in the Solar Tear. 

Years of Chrift Years of the 

from I ft Jan. Hegira. 

^ ( 20 - Dec. 2 1 

641 21 - Dec. 10 

642 22 - Nov. 30 

643 23 -Nov. 19 

644 24 - Nov. 7 

645 25 - oa. 28 

646 26 -oa. 17 

647 27 - oa. 7 

648 28 -Sept. 25 

649 29 - Sept. 1 4 

650 30 - Sept. 4 

651 31 - Aug. 24 

652 32 - Aug. 12 

653 Si- Aug. 2 

654 34-JuJy 22 

655 35 -Jul/ «» 

Years of Chrift 

Years of the 

from I ft Jan. 



I - July 16 


2 - July 5 


3 - June 24 


4 -June 13 


5 - June 2 


6 - May 23 


7 - May 1 1 


8 - May i 


9 - April 20 


10 -April 9 


1 1 - March29 


12 - MarchiS 


1 3 - March 7 


14 -Feb. 25 


15 - Feb. 14 


16 - Feb. 3 


17 -Jan. 2 J 


1 8 - Jan. I a 

THE end: 


Che De, Adm. of the 
French fleet, anchors in 
fort St. David's road 1 9a 

engages with Adm. Pocock, 

breaks the line of battle and 
bears away 1 94 

his lofs 195 

engages with Adm. Pocock 

a fecond time 205 

avoids him 206 

his fleet, greatly fuperlor 
to the Englilh, whom they en- 
deavour to avoid, but are pre- 
vented 343 

— — efcape in the night and fail 
to Pondichery 345 

• ■ engage the Englifh fleet, 
but give way with all the fail 
they can make 3 46 

retreat to Pondichery 347 

■on fight of Adm. Pocock's 
fleet weigh anchor and make 
good their retreat to the 
iflands 350 

Adlercron Colonel, marches to 
the relief of Trichinopoly 178 

• takes pofleffion of Wan- 


■ evacuates it and returns 

to Madrafs 179 

— and his regiment ordered 

to England 191 

Ahmed Abdalla, chief of the 
Pattans, marches to Delli and 

takes the Mogul and all his 
Omrahs prifoners, and after 
plundering the palace replaces 
the Mogul on his throne 339 

marches to Agra, feizes 

the revenues, and iflues his 
orders to the Nabobs and Ra- 
jas to acknowledge his fon 
Timur King of Lahore, whom 
he appoints to fuperintend 
Indofl:an ibid, 

enters Delli a fecond 

time and places his fon Timur 
on the Mogul's throne 341 

Alamparva taken 373 

Allum Geer, placed on the 
throne of the Moguls by the 
Omrahs 1 1 1 

is taken prifoner with all 

his Omrahs by Ahmed Ab- 
dalh, who replaces him on 
the throne 339 

murdered by two Moors 

difguifed in the habits of Fa- 
keers 341 

A met Shaw, a young prince, 
his remarkable behaviour 188 

Amoortarow, the Maratta Va- 
keel, comes with the Nabob 
to Madrafs 1 84 

■ aflaulta Trepalour, and 

is killed 1 86 

Anaverdy Cawn, appointed Na- 
bob of Arcot and confirmed 
by Nazirzing 43 

Andrews Mr. lent from Madrafs, 
£ to 


to take charge of the fa£tory 
at Vifagapatani 293 

Angria, Governor of Severn - 
droog, turns pirate 153 

extends his conquefts fixty 

leagues ibid. 

■ takes the Darby and Re- 

ftoration from the Englifli, 
and the Jupiter from the 
French 154 

throws off his allegiance to 

the Marattas, who apply to 
the Governor of Bombay for 
afliftance againft him ibid, 
attacks a Dutch fleet, burns 
two Ihips and takes a third 

• on feeing the Englifh fleet 

abandons the fort of Geriah 


■ tries to make his peace with 

the Marattas, who infift on 

being put in pofTeflion of the 

fort 1 60 

Arabs, very infolent and given 

to plunder 333 

plunder the Englifli facElory 

at Gombroon 338 

Ajcot, taken by Col. Coote 372 

Articles of agreement between 

the company and the Raja of 

Vifanapore fettled by colonel 

Forde 294 

Articles of capitulation for fort 

St. David 198 

for Gombroon 208 

for Vifagapatam 45 

Aurengzebe, tries to reduce the 

Marattas for twenty years, 

but in vain i 38 

d'Auteuil, his meflage to Col. 

Lawrence 47 

■ his march to furprize 

Trichinopoly 171 

— — difgraced for having fuf- 

fcred C. Caillaud to get into 

Trichinopol/ 173 


BAllapa, commander of the 
Marattas, killed 97 

Balazerow, fuccecds his father 
Budgerow in the government 
of the Marattas 1 38 

Bank remarkable, between the 
Cauvery and the Coleroon, 
defcribed 6 1 

Bazaletzing, vifited by M. Dc 
Bufly 362 

Bendermalanka taken by the 
French 1 66 

Bengal, bad news from thence 
prevents the Englilh from fup- 
porting the Viceroy againft 
the French ibid. 

Black Capt. wounded thro' the 
leg in a faiJy 265 

Bombay 1 2 3 

Bonnagery, taken by the Ma- 
rattas, who abandon it 90 

Brereton Major, makes a fally 
from fort St. George to the 
Governor's garden-houfe 255 

— takes the command of 

the army and furprizes Con- 
jeveram 288 

— — takes Trivitore 355 

attacks Wandewafii, and 

takes the Pettah 356 

— his behaviour in the bat- 
tle of Wandewafli 368 

^ dies of his wounds 369 

Bourdonnals M. de la, his ac- 
count of the Monfoon 351 

Buchanan Capt. and Capt. Forbes 
refufe a large bribe from the 
Marattas to put them in pof- 
feffion of Geriah 1 6 1 

Budgerow, ufurps the govern- 
ment (of the country Ibuth of 
Guzarat) over the Marattas, 
and is called the Nanna i 38 

BufTy De, and his troops, or- 


dered by Salabatzlng to return 
to Pondichery 165 

■ takes poffelHon of Hydra- 
bad, and fortifies it to defend 
hifiifelf 52 

——plunders the Bazars 165 
——is reinforced from Pondi- 
chery ibid. 

takes Vfap.'.patHni i56 

taken pnlonei 369 

CAdapah Nabob of, killed by 
the Marattas 186 

Caillaud Capt. his party, fur- 
rounded by the French in 
Tondenian's country 118 

• mediates between the King 

of Tanjore and Tondeman, 
and prevents hoftilities 162 

marches out of Trichino- 

poly to the afliftance of Ifouf 
Cawn 169 

— — goes againft Madura 1 70 

attempts to take Madura 

by furprizes is diiappointed 


- turns the fiege of Madura 
into a blockade, and marches 
to relieve Trichinopoly 1 72 

deceives the French, and 

relieves Trichinopoly 173 

marches from Trichinopoly 

to beficge Madura : batters in 

breach, and is repulfed 1 8 i 

lands with a Detachment at 

Madrafs 208 

• receives a Major's commif- 

iion 2 1 o 

•> fent to get afliftance from 

the King of Tanjore, &c 219 

- — gets fome troops of horfe 
from him and marches to 
Chengalaput 221 

. lays a plan for furprifing 

Sadrafs, but is diiappointed 

Major, w^ounded at the 

taking of Conjeveram 288 

Call, chief engineer, his journal 

Carical, defcrihed and taken 373 

Cauvery ri/er 6i 

Cauverypauk, taken by Capt. 
Clive 68 

Chillambrum, taken by the French 


Choultry, defcribed 98 

Chout, or tribute, paid to the 
Marattas 139 

Chunda Saib, ferves as General 
under Dueft Allee Cawn, who 
gives him one of his daughters ' 
to wife 42 

^goes with the Nabob to the 

afliftance of the Queen of 
Trichinopoly, and under pre- 
tence of a vifit gets pofleffion 
of the town, imprifons the 
Queen and puts the feveral- 
competitors for the govern- 
ment to death ibid. 

befieged in Trichinopoly, 

and carried prifoner to Sattar- 
rah by the Marattas 43 

at the requeft of Muza- 

pherzing releafed from im- 
prifonment 45 

;goe3 to Pondichery, and 

gains over the French to join 
Muzapherzing ibid. 

appointed Nabob of Arcot 

by Muzapherzing 44 

retreats with the French in- 
to Pondichery 48 

raifes an army, is aflifted 

by the French, and appointed 
Governor of Arcot by M. 
Dupieix 54 

inarches with the French 

againft Trichinopoly, and in- 
verts it (^5 

is taken prifoner by Mo- 

>nagee , 73 

— — and privately beheaded ibid. 
E 2 his 


his chara(Ster 73 

Clive Capt. joins the army at 
Trichinopoly ; is fent for to 
Madrafs to command the fiege 
ofArcot, which he takes 57 

commands Arcot during the 

fiege 58 

Tallies out and takes all the 

enemy's cannon and levels their 
trenches ibid. 

— marches out of Arcot after 

the enemy, whom he totally 
defeats, and takes the forts of 
Tiinery, Cauverypauk, and 
Conjeveram ibid. 

— — detached to cut off the fup- 
plies of the enemy 69 

is furprifed at Samieveram 

by the French, who take the 
Pagoda 70 

— — is in danger of being cut 
down by a French Sepoy ibid. 

— — ftorms and retakes the Pa- 
goda, and befieges Pitchunda 

— — takes M. D'Auteuil and his 
whole party prifoners 72 

. takes Covelong and Chen- 

galaput 84 

lands with the troops at 

Geriah 160 

takes pofleffion of the fort 


fent from Madrafs to re- 
take Calcutta 166 

' detaches two thirds of the 

army from Calcutta into Gol- 
conda to prevent M. De Con- 
flans from reinforcing M. 
Lally's Army 292 

Coftrees defcribed 7 2 

Coleroon river 60 

Colguddy plundered by Colonel 
Heron, 1 46 

Co leries, defcribed 65 

Conflans De, commands the 
French army in Golconda, 

and marches to attack Vifa- 
napore 291 

" army encamped near Tal- 

lapool 294 

— — determines to cannonade 
Col. Forde in his camp, and 
is defeated by him 29; 

retreats after the battle to 

Rajamundry and Mafulipatara 

and encamped two miles 

from the walls of Mafulipa- 
tam 301 

upon the approach of Col. 

Forde retreats into Mafuli- 
patam ibid. 

fends an officer to Colonel 

Forde to aflc quarter for the 
garrifon, which is granted 


Commiflaries, at Sadrafs 1 1 2 

Congrefs, appointed by Mr. 
Saunders and Dupleix to be 
held at Sadrafs, Mr. Palk 
and Vanfittart fent on the be- 
half of the Englilh, F. L'A- 
vaur, M> De Kerjean and De 
Baufett for the French ibid. 

Coop Saib, comes over from the 

French and joins the Englilh with one thoufand horfe 

and fourteen elephants, &c. 


Coot bodeens, treaty with Mr. 
Spencer 317 

Coote Col. joins the army at 
Conjeveram, and takes the 
command of it 360 

takes Wandewafli and Ca- 

rangoly 361 

marches to relieve Conje- 
veram 363 

marches to oppofe the 

French 564 

line of battle 365 

marches to Wandewafh 



Coote, Col. gains a compleat 
viftorjr over the French 368 

— — takes pofTeflion of the French 
camp and artillery ibid. 

takes Brigadier Gen. de 

BuITy and Le Godeville, with 
feveral other great officers, 
prifoners 369 

deftroys the country round 

Pondichery 370 

obliges Innis Cawn, the 

Maratta General to return 

home ibid. 

-—takes Chettcput 371 

— — takes Arcot 372 

reftores the Nabob to his 

capital ibid. 

— — takes Parmacoil and Allam- 
parva _ ^ 373 

Corniili, Rear Adm. joins Adm. 
Pocock 351 

arrives at Madrafs 373 

Cope Capt. marches to the a.C~ 
fiftance of Mahomet Allee 
Cawn 5' 

Coza Abdallah Cawn, appointed 
Nabob of Arcot 43 

Cuddalore, taken by the French 

Cumberland reduced from fixty- 
fix guns to fifty-eight 343 

in great diltrefs 352 



Alton Capt. diflodges the 
French from Outatoor 7 1 
Ihut up in Trichinopoly 

and in want of provifions 

Danes, attack the King of Tan- 
jore's pagodas 163 

Davecotah, taken by the En- 
glilh who have a grant for it 
from the King of Tanjore 

abandoned by the Englifh, 

the French take poffeflion t>f 
it 207 

D'Leyrite fucceeds M. Godeheu 

Delli, plundered for three day» 
by the Pattans, who retire to 
Lahore 1 90 

Deckan, a third part of the 
Mogul's empire 135 

views of the feveral pro- 
vinces in it ibid. 

Divy ifland, taken by the French 
from the Engliih 87 

Draper Col. arrives at Madrafs 

and marches to Wandev/afli 


-makes a faliy from fort 

St. George into the Black 
Town, and puts the French 
into confufion, who abandon 
their cannon 217 

leaves the army and re- 

turns to England for recovery 
of his health 287 

Dueft AlJee Cawn, Nabob of 
Arcot 41 

killed in battle with the 

Marattas 43 

Dupleix M. writes to Nazirzing 
and infifts that none of the 
family of Anaverdy Cawn 
fhall ever govern Arcot 49 

-and Chunda Saib lay a 

fcheme to aflaffinate Nazir- 
zing ibid. 

■ aflbciated with Muzapher- 

zing in the government of the 
Deckan, and affiimes the ftate 
of an Eaftern Prince, and is 
proclaimed a Nabob ibid. 

— — proclaims Rajah Saib Na- 
bob of Arcot, and by forgery 
got himlelf declared Governor 
of the Carnetick, keeps his 
Durbar, and fupports the 
charafter of Souba of the 
Deckan 77 

E 3 Dupleix, 

r N D E X. 

Dupleix, M. falfe aflertion in 
his Memoire fee Nste 73 

offers the Nabobihip of Ar- 

cot to Mootis Allee Cavvn 

*~ — his manner of relating a lofs 

of 364 French fee Note 1 09 
• forgery of the Mogul's fa- 

neds detected hy Mr. Van- 

fittart 1 1 4 

— — is fuperfeded, and returns 

to France 135 

Dupleiv Fateabat, built in 17^0, 

and burnt by Capt. Clive 

'7SI 53 

Duftuck, or order, under the 
Chan Sumaun, or Steward's 
Seal, for the honourable com- 
pany's holding the king's fleet 
atSurat 328 

ELlavanafore taken by the 
French «74 

Ellis Mr. applied to by the in- 
habitants of Surat to recom- 
mend the fitting out an expe- 
dition from Bombay for taking 
pofTeflion of the caftle and 
Tanka 3 1 i 

Elmiferam, furrenders to Capt. 
Daiton 68 

furrenders to Monagee 102 

Englifli and French propofals 
Eiadmoodin Cawn, fee Muza- 
pherzing 44 

d'Ellaing Count, taken prifoner 
2 19 
• inferts a very extraordi- 
nary claufe in the articles of 
capitulation for Gombroon 

IT' It'/pauick Lieut, wounded 
^ through both arms 265 

Forde Col. marches to Nelloure 

batters it ibid. 

deferred by the Sepoys and 

retreats 177 

is ordered to the fbuth- 

ward to prevent the defigns of 
the French againil Trichino- 
poly ibid. 

his expedition to Golconda 


lift of the forces under his 

command 293 

— embarked from Calcutta the 
1 2th October, and arrives at 
Vifagapatam ibid. 

^joins the Raja's army ibid. 

encamps within three miles 

of Tallapool 294 

marches to get between M. 

de Conflans and Rajamun- 
dry ibid. 

forms in line of battle 295 

engages the French army 


after an obftinate difpute 

gains a compleat vitlory ibid. 

• gets poffeifion of the French 

camp, baggage, ammunition 
and all their artillery, except 
four field pieces 297 

delivers up the fort of Ra- 

jamundry to the Raja of Vifa- 
napore 299 

marches towards Mafuli- 

patam ibid. 

■ enters into an alliance with 

the Raja of Narfipore, and is 
reinforced with his troops 300 

takes pofl'elTion of the 

French camp near Malulipa- 
tam 301 

invefts and takes Mafuli- 

patam by ftorm 302 

French army, demand a fum 
of money of Tan jour but are 
refufcd i retire to Fondichery 



French army, retreat in the 
night, and leave their artil' -;/ 
behind them 47 

* encamp near fort St. 

David 80 

— march to Aurangabad, 

and ire difturbed by Ballaze- 
row the chief of the Marattas 

— intrench near Trividv 

attack a convoy going 

to Col. Lawrence, near Tri- 
vidy, and are repulfed 90 

retreat to Alietore and 

MoutehiiJenour 102 

troops on the ifland of 

Seringam reinforced from Pon- 
dichery, crofs the river, and 
attempt to efcalade Trichino- 
poly ; take Dalton's battery, 
and turn the guns againft the 
town 107 

are repulfed with great 

lofs J 08 

defign to invade Tan- 

jore with a party of Ma- 
rattas 1 09 

flop the proceedings of 

the congrefs 1 1 4 

march into Tonde- 

man's country with an intent 
to prevent him from fending 
any provifions to the Engliih, 
or joining them 115 

invade the King of 

Tanjore's country, take Killy 
Cottah and Koiladdy,and make 
themfelves matters of the 
bank, which they begin to cut 
in three or four places i 22 

invert Trichinopoly, 

and cut off the the communi- 
cation from the Engliih i 24 

retreat, and encamp on 

the ifland of Seringam 1 26 

difpute the Nabob's 

right to Velloure 1 50 

— — march an army to Cup- 

port Mootis Allee Cawn ibid, 
•endeavours to get the 

dominion of all the provinces 
of the Deckan 1 63 

■ ambitious delign difco- 

vered by Ballazerow 164 

— appear againft and in- 
vert Trichinopoly 1 yz 
•ordered to return from 

Trichinopoly to Pondichery 

■ retake Outremalour 


plunder Conjeveram and 

are repulfed 179 

remain ftrongly in- 

trenched at Wandewalh for 

two months 180 

take Chetteput 181 

receive a reinforcement 

from Europe 192 
fleet anchor in fort St. 

David's road ibid. 

-army enter the bounds 

of and take fort St. David ibid. 

Admiral breaks the line 

and bears away 194 

•their lofs in the battle 

on the 28th of April 1758 
-fleet forms a line of 

battle 204 

■ get off by the favour 

of the night and anchor in 
Pondichery road 206 

fail from Pondichery 

road for the iflands 207 

-feize a large Dutch 

fhip and carry it into Pondi- 
chery ibid 
army abandon Serin- 

gam and the Englifli take pof' 
feffion of it ibid. 

take Nagore 208 

march to Trivalour, 

and fend deputies to the King 

of Tanjore to demand feventy 

E 4 Iscks 


l,<oks of roupees, a free paflage 
for their array through his 
country, and afliftance of his 
troops ibid, 

demand a fecond time 

five lacks of roupees ; the King 
will give them but four 2 1 o 
-advance againft Tan- 

jore and fire into the town, on 
which the negociation is ftop' 
ped ibid, 

-encamps at the mount. 

takes polfeflion of the Garden- 
houfe and inverts Madrafs 216 

takes pofleffion of the 

Black Town ibid. 


the Dutch foldiers and garrifons 
it 223 

feizes Poullacat, a 

Dutch fettlement 24.7 

— foldiers fent to guard 

three boats laden with ammu- 
nition from Sadrafs to the Black 
Town, while aileep are over- 
come and bound by the boat- 
men who land at fort St. 
George 251 

— fpring a mine which is 

of no far vice to them 27 1 

— evacuate their trenches. 

quit the black town and raife 

the fiege of fort St. George 


' army ready to mutiny 


abandon Narfipore and 

retire to Mafulipatam 300 
army of obfervation 

prevent Col. Forde's receiv- 
ing fupplies fromRajamundry 

take Rajamundry 302 

ihips, with Dutch co- 

blow up the EnglilTi faftory 

fleet fuperior in num- 

ber and force to the Englilh 
fleet, which endeavoured in 
vain to provoke them to fight 

" endeavour to efcape in 

the night, but are prevented by 

the Revenge 344 

efcape by hazy weather 

. 345 

■ begin to give way with all 

the fail they could make 346 

continues to retreat 347 

fail for Pond^chery to dif- 

embark their men 347 

• In Pondichery road on 

fight of Adm. Pocock's fleet 
weigh anchor and efcape him 
by (leering to the fouth, and 
make good their retreat to the 
iflands 350 
rcfolved to take Tagada 


a. party defeated near I'ri- 

chinopoly 358 

army takes Seringam, and 

cut the garrifon to pieces 359 
afl"embled at Arcot, join- 
ed by the fon of Chunda Saib 
and Irmis Cawn 361 

defeated at Wandewafli 

andlofe their artillery 368 

prifoners on parole 370 

Huflars defert to C«l. 

Cootc 373 

'Auzedey Cawn, Buckflice 
f to the Mogul 43 

appointed Viceroy of 

lours appear before Gombroon 

and take it 333 

bleak the articles of 

the Deckan by the Mogul 5 , 

poifoned by his own 

fifter J>,6 

-his fon, Shaw Abadin 

capitulation for Gombroon and Cawn, appointed by the Mo- 


gul to fucceed him, who is 

oppofed by Salabatzing, fet up 

by M. Dupleix 87 

Geriah, defcribed and and taken 


Gingee, taken by the French 5 2 

> delcribed 78 

invefted 79 

is abandoned ibid 

Gingens De Capt. encamps under 
the walls of Trichinopoly 55 
Godeheu Mr. Commiffary Ge- 
neral and Governor General 
of all the French fettlements, 
arrives at Pondichery from 
France, fuperfedesM. Dupleix 
and introduces his propofals 
" for a fufpenfion of arms to Go- 
vernor Saunders 1 26 
Godevile Mr. taken prifoner by 
Col. Coote, who grants him 
his parole 369 
Gombroon, an Engllfh fettle- 
nient taken by the French ^^ i 
Gore Capt. killed. 348 


HArdwicke Indiaman, attack- 
ed by two French fliips 
Heron, Lieut. Col- his expedition 
to colleft the revenues in the 
Madura and Tinnevelly coun- 
tries 1 43 

■ accompanied by Mau- 
phus Cawn ibid. 

— ' arrives at Maduraibid. 

• takes the Governor, 

with all his treafures 1 44 

marches to Tinnevelly 


■ returns to Madura 

■ carries away the ima- 
ges from Colguddy Pagoda 
which enrages the CoUeries, 
who attack him in the defiles in 

Natana woods and recover their 
images ibid. 

■ returns to Trichinopo- 
ly, and tried at a court-martial 
for mifcondudl ibid. 

Hookum, or order, under the Vi- 
zier's feal, to Mr. Spencer, to 
afiift and advile with Sciad 
Moynodeen Cawn in the go- 
vernment of Surat 324 

Houfbul Hookum, under the 
great feal of the Nabob, to Mr. 
Spencer to take the caftle of 
Surat for the Mogul 325 

• totheEnglilh company 

accompanying the phiruiaud 


Huflars, fifty defert from the 

French and enter the Engllih 

array. Are of great fervice 28S 


Ageers, explained 128 

James Commodore, com- 
mands the company's marine- 
forces, joins the Maratta fleet, 
and fails in quefl; of Angria's 
fleet 1 56 

chaces them ibid. 

isprevented from com- 

ing to an adion by the dilato- 
rinefs of the Maratta fleet ibid, 
anchors off Bancote, 

which furrenders to him on a 
fummons 1 5 8 

anchors off Dabul with 

an Intent to attack it, but re- 
ceives orders to return to Bom- 
bay 1=59 

lent to reconnoitre Ge- 

riah ibid, 

-joins the fleet under the 

command of Admiral Watfon 


Jembikifhna and Seringam taken, 

The French army furrender 



prilbners of war, and are fent 
to fort St. David 74 

Ingeram, taken by the I-'rench 

Johnfton Mr. fent to Vifanapore 

Journal of the fiege of Fort St. 
George 23 1 

Ifouf Cawn, the Nelloure Sou- 
badar fent to the aififtance of 
Mauphus Cawn 1 68 

— ■ marches from Trichi- 

nopoly to join the Englifh 
near Madrais, and in his way 
takes Ellavanafore 2 \ 3 

Juncan, explained 134 


Klllpatrick Capt. fiiot thro' the 
body, and prevented by the 
lurgeon from being cut to 
pieces by th.e Marattas 104 

Kirk Capt. killed at the head of 
his grenadiers, who are imme- 
diattlyled on by C apt. Kill- 
patrick to revenge his death, 
and rout the French army 

Kiftnarauze, an ally to the Na- 
bob, Killedar of Tagada 357 

Knox Capt. detached to purfue 
the enemy as far as Raja- 
mundry 298 

» is joined by Capt. 

Maclean with a reinforcement, 
comes up with the enemy. 
His Sepoys throw down their 
arms and difperfe ibid. 

• takes poffeflion of Ra- 

jamundry ibid. 

» detached againft Nar- 

fipore 299 

- • takespoffeffionof Nar- 

fipore 300 


• ^ takes Fort St. David, 

and blows up the fortifications 

encamps in the bounds 

of Negapatam, and demands 
of the Dutch money, &c. 
cannon, ammunition and pro- 
vifions 208 

lends a third tin)e an 

officer of rank, with a prieft, 
to treat the King of Tanjore, 
and to remain as hoflages for 
the psrfonnance on his part 

accomplifheshis defign 

with the King of Tanjore, and 
defeats it by his own halty 
temper 2 1 1 

defeated in a fally, 

raifes the fiege of Tanjore, 

and returns to Pondichery 


■ takes Arcot, Tripaf- 

fore and Conjeverani Trino- 
inalay, and ihews a defign to 
take Chengalaput but is pre- 
vented by the arrival of four 
companies of Sepoys ibid. 

attacks Major Cail- 

laud's party at the Mount, and 
after an obftinate difpute re- 
treats 222 
remarkable letter to 

the Gov. of Pondichery inter- 
cepted by Major Caillaud, and 
fent to Madrafs 224 

raifes the liege of fort 


Ally M. arrives at Pondi- 
chery from Europe 1 92 

St. George, and leaves his can- 
non behind 228 

retreats precipitately 

from the Black Town, and 
blows up Col. Lawrence's 
country houfe 286 

— takespolTeflionofCon- 

jeveram, and fortifies it 287 

— ■ - refumes the command 

of the French army at Arcot 



Lally M. plunders Conjeveram 


• — defeated by Col. Coote 

at Wandewafli 368 

■ retreats to Chetteput, 
alTembles the army at Gingee 
and retires within the walls of 
Pondichery 370 

— recalls his troops from 

c-eringanri 373 

Lawrence Col. marches from Ma- 

drafs to the aH' 1:ance of Nazir- 

zing, and is appointed Gene- 

raliifimo over his army 46 
— — informs Nazirzing of a 

defign againft him ibid. 
takes the chair in the 

council on the removal of Mr. 

Floyer j fets out for England 

• returns from England 

and takes the command of the 
army 65 

• is attacked by the 

French whom he repulles, and 
relieves Trichinopoly. 66 

"■ gains a compleat vic- 

tory over the French 68 

retires from the army 

on account of his health 76 

his reafons againft at- 
tacking Gingee 79 

• embarks from Madrafs 

with Capt. Gaupp's company 

and arrives at fort St David 


marches out to attack 

the French, who retreat to 
Pondichery 81 

-encamps at Trichanky, 

and attacks their advanced poft 
atVillanour ibid, 

marches back and en- 

camps at Bahoor, the French 

army is ordered by M. Dupleix 

to follow him and are defeated 


• enters Trivedy with 

his troops 84 

marches to relieve 

Capt. Dal ton at Trichinopoly 

goes to meet the King 

of Tanjore, and is elegantly 
entertained by him 92 
arrives at Trichnopoly 

encamps on the plain, 

and is detained twelve month? 
for want of provifions 94 

with Mr. Palk, is coim- 

millioned to treat with the King 
of Maifore, but prevented by 
the French 95 

■ marches into Tanjore 

country and is joined by that 
King's forces 97 

joined with recruits 

from England 98 

threatened to be at- 

tacked by the French, which 
he endeavours to avoid but 
finds it impoffible 99 

— attacks and defeats 

thera 1 00 

his army reinforced by 

Capt. Ridge loz 
attacks the French ar- 

my near the Golden Rock, de- 
feats them and takes poffeffion 
of their camp with eleven 
pieces of their artillery 104 

wounded in the arm ibid. 

cantons his troops in Koi- 

laddy ibid. 

marches to the afliftance 

of the King of Tanjore 1 22 

reviews the army, and 

marches with Monagee to the 
relief of Trichinopoly 1 24 

cannonades the French 

——goes to join the army as a 

volunteer, and lands at Sadrafs 


takes poft at the Mount, 

and keeps open the communi- 


catioa between Madrafs and 
Chengakput 213 

reinforced at the Mount 


marches from the Mount, 

and reinforces the garrilon at 
Madrafs ibid. 

^ letter from him to the 

Governor, giving an account 
of the fuperftition of the In- 
dians, and the pradlices of 
their Priefts. See Introduciion 

Lorrain regiment mutiny, and 
declare their refolution to put 
the country under contribu tion, 
unlefs they are paid their ar- 
rears in three days, which 
they receive and return to their 
quarters 290 



Aclean Capt. attempts to 
take Concale by furprize 

■ ■ is reinforced and takes it 

Madrafs, reinforced with troops 

from England 

■ reiiiiorced 

- befieged 

-journal of the (iege 
■ the fiege raifed 




Madura Gov. of, cuts off a party 

of Col. Heron's troops, and 

plunders the villages about 

Tinnevilly in fight of his army 

Madura defcribed 


up to 




Caillaud by treaty 

Mahe, a French garrifon 

Mahomet AUee Cawn, Nabob of 
Arcot, Governor of the Car- 
natick, bis title difputed by the 
French, which was the origin 
of this war 41 

made Nabob of Arcot, 

upon the defeat of his father 

retlies to Trichinopoly 44 

follicits with the Eng- 

lish for afllftance to fupport 
him againft the Rebels, and is 
joined by Capt. Cope at Wal- 
dore : his gallant prefent to 
Nazirzing 46 

' his camp is routed by 

the French 5 i 

efcapes from the French 

to Trichinopoly 54 

appointed Nabob of Ar- 
cot, and is fupported by Capt. 
Cope ibid. 

— his character 1 4 1 

■ is diftrefled by the extra- 
vagance of his brother, and 
unable to pay the workmen to 
compleat his fortification ibid. 

' is advifed by the Englifh, 

and fettles at Arcot to fave ex- 
pences 142 

met by Col. Lawrence, 

Mr. Palk and Mr. Walib, and 
invited to Madrafs 1 48 

is received at the com- 
pany's Garden-houfe, by the 
Governor, &c. 1 49 

fets out to colleft his re- 

venues, accompanied by Major 
Kilipatrick ibid. 

Mahomed Ifouf Cawn Soubadar 
of Nelloure, his character 117 

Maiffore King of, his army joins 
the Englilh 137 

Maiflbreans, demand Trichino- 
poly but are refufed 74 

• withdraw their troops 

from the Englifn army 7 5 

■ declare war againft the 

Engiifh-company, and are de- 
feated by Capt. Dalton 88 
■they attack an advan- 

ced poft and cut all the men to 

pieces ibid. 

Marattas invade Arcot and kill 

the Nabob in battle 42 

• cavalry cut the French 

Sepoys to pieces 70 

• chiefs at variance 75 

I ■ ... demand Trichinopoly and 

I N D E 

are refufed ; feparate their 

troops ibid. 
attack the Englifh camp 

and are repulfed 89 

— ■ — and Maiflbreans join the 

French at Seringam 95 

try to cut off the com- 

munication between the garri- 
fon of Trichinopoly and Ton- 
deman's country and are re- 
pulfed ibid, 

•enter the Tanjore coun- 

try, plunder it, burn the vil- 
lages, and drive off the cattle 
— — defcribed 1 3 7 

— — governed by Bramins or 
Priefts 138 

• profefs the Gentoo reli- 

gion, and believe in the tranf- 

migration of fouls 139 

■ free-booters, their drefs 

and manner of living ibid. 

— — grow rich by making their 

neighbours tributary to them 


are a deftructive foe, 

and an unferviceable friend 


ambitious vievi^s of ex- 

tending their territories, they 
march to Delli and fet up a 
Mogul 141 

— conclude a treaty with 

the Governor of Bombay, to 
join in the redudion of Angria 


enter the kmgdom of 

Maifore Ibid. 
demand thechoutof Ar- 

cot and Trichinopoly 183 
threaten to lay walle the 

countries if not paid 1 S4 
expence of taking a party 

into Englifh pay 214 
farm out their revenue of 

Surat to an officer 309, 310 

• very troublefome to the 

Englifti in the affairs of Surat 

army routed by the Pat- 
tans 340 

retire at the inftance of 

Col. Coote 370 

Mafulipatam fiege of 302 

— — — the French garrifon fur- 
render prifoners ot war to Col. 
Forde 3" 4 

Mauphus Cawn enters Arcot 
with 2000 horfe to join the 
Englifh 1 1 7 

— with his troops join 

Col. Lawrence i?3 

refufes to march till 

his fubfidies are paid i 25 

— — — — blocked up by the Po- 
lygars, gains a compleat victory 
over the rebels 1 68 

■ oppofes his brother, 
and drives his forces out of 
Madura 1 69 

Meah Atchund, applies to the 
Marattas for alfiftance to turn 
out Novas Allee Cawn from 
the government of Surat 310 

is joined by theSiddee 

■ ■ his treaty with Mr. 
Spencer 3 1 6 

Meer Saib, repulfcs the French 
near Ellavanafore, and dies of 
his wounds 1 74 

MIchie Captain, killed 348 

Mogul Shaw Hamet, depoled by 
Shaw Abadin Cawn, the Vi- 
zier, and deprived of his eye- 
fight HI 

Monagee, pays the Nabob a vifit 

with the aflurance of friendftip 

from the King of Tanjore 


Monfbn Major, wounded at the 

taking of Conjeveram 288 

' ■ takes Timmery fo rt 571 


I N D 

Alonfoon defcribcd ibid. 

the huiricanes at that 

feafon exemplified in the lofs 
of the Pembroke 375 

Moolah Allee Shaw, Governor 
of Gombroon, refides at Or- 
mus 333 

very toublefbme to the 

merchants, and extorts, by 
means of his Arabs, great loans 
from them 333 

— — — aflures the Englifli of af- 
fillarKe 337 

— — refufes, when called on, 

for fear of the French 337 

• enters into an alliance 

with the French 338 

Moors, the ^Mahometans impro- 
perly fo called Introduciion 

— — their manners ibid. 

and character 1 87 

Mootis Allee Cawn, his character 

— ^ — his deceitful conducl 149 

, . outwitted by Dupleix 


- — refufes to pay his tribute 
to the Nabob • 50 

fends his Vakeel to nego- 
tiate at Madrafs i 5 1 

— pays part of his tribute to 
Major Killpatrick ibid. 

■ refufes to fulfil his en- 
gagement ibid. 

Moracin Mr. fent to reinforce 
M. De Conflans at MafuHpa- 
tam 3p6 

. finds it taken ; fails with 

his troops to Gangam, where 
they are greatly harafTed by 
theRaja _ 3^7 

arrives at Pouliacat : is 

attacked by Col. Filher, who 
lakes ten of his officers pri- 
foners ^ 307 

— returns to Pondichery 

with the remains of his army 

E X. 

Morarow, Commander of the 
Marattas in Narzirzing's army, 
account of him 48 

fent in purfuit of the 

French, and with fifteen men 

breaks through their army 


his detachment defeated 

by the French 5 1 

— has a defign upon Tri- 

chinopoly 83 

is joined by 3000 Marattas 

goes over to the Freach 


ravages the country, and 

cannonades Trividy, which the 
Engliih take from them, and 
they retire 8g 

attacks a party of the Tan- 

jore troops 1 22 

•—for a iiipulated fum, paid by 
the Nabob and King of Tan- 
jore, leaves the French army 
and returns to his own coun- 
try 1 24 

— — rebels, and endeavours to 
make himfelf independent 164 

MufToot, Siddee, feizes the caftle 
of Surat 1756, and appro- 
priates to himfelf one third 
part of the revenues of the 
town 309 

— — his force 3 1 5 

. furrenders the caftle of Su- 
ral 318 

Muzapherzing, lays claim to the 
government of the Carnatick 


— — goes to Sattaarah, enters 

into alliance with Chunda 

Saib, whom he gets releafed, 

and applies to Ballazerow for 

aiTiftance to fupport his pre- 

tenfions, who difappoints him 


- — raifes an army, is joined by 

the French, gains a victory 



over Anaverdy Cawn whom 
he kills near Arcot, and takes 
Mauphus Cawn prifoner 44. 

» takes Arcot, over-runs the 
whole province, retires to Pon- 
dichery, and appoints Chunda 
Saib Nabob of Arcot ibid. 

— — raifes contributions and lays 
fiege to Tanjore, and receives 
a large fum to raife the fiege 

— — and Chunda Salb, marches 
out of Pondichery with 2. 
large army commanded by M. 
D'Auteuil 46 

his army difperfed, he fub- 
mits to Nazirzing, who detains 
him a prifoner of ftate 48 

proclaimed by the French 

Viceroy of the Deckan 53 

. — routed 54 


NAnna, the aftmg Chief of 
the Marattas 138 

Nanna Pundit Praden, Chief of 
the Marattas, his propofals to 
confirm the government of 
Surat to the Englilh company 

Nanderauze, his plot to feize 
Trichinopoly 8 5 

is prevented by Capt. Dal- 

ton 86 

endeavours to get pofieflion 
of Trichinopoly by ftratagem, 
and makes a propofal to M. 
De Sauflay to join him, which 
he rejefts with difdain 1 46 

— — decamps from Trichinopoly, 
marches home and raifes a re- 
bellion 1 47 

— — takes Tinnevelly and be- 
fieges Madura i6z 

Nazeabulla Cawn, refufes to pay 
his arrears and is fupported by 
the French 178 

Nazirzing, appointed Viceroy of 
the Deckan by the Mogul 44 

marches an army frou. Au- 

rengabad, to punifh Muza- 
pherzing and Chunda Saib for 
their Rebellion 45 

routs the rebels forces, and 

cuts the French gunners to 
pieces 48 

retakes Arcot 49 

marches to retake Gingee ; 

furrounds it rz 

is murdered by the Nabobs 

of Cadapah and Condanore in 
concert with the French. They 
plunder his tent, and divide 
the fpoil at Pondichery 5 3 

Nelloure, defcribed 176 

Nizam Almuluck, Viceroy of the 

Deckan 43 

- dies, and leaves four fons, 

Gauzedey Cawn, Nazirzing, 

Salabatzing and Nizam Allee 



OMrahs, their cowardice and 
treachery 1 88 

their defign againft the life 

of Amet Shaw ; are out-witted 

by him 1 89 

——are put privately to death 


Opium, given both to men and 

horfes to ferve inftead of food, 

as it damps the appetite and 

enables them to endure fatigue 

See Introdudion 

Order under the Vizier's, &c. 

Origin of the war 41 

Ormus defcribed 332 

built by the Portuguefe, 

who are expelled by the Per- 

fians and Englifli Traders ibid. 

Outremalour, fortification de- 

ftroyed by Col. Aldercron 1 78 


T} Alk Mr. in company with the 

X Nabob and Col. Lawrence, 
goes to the King of Tanjore's 
court 92 

- - — QomniilHoned with Col. 
Lawrence to treat with the 
King ot' MaiiTore 95 

— fucceeds with the King 

of Tanjore, and engages him 
to fend 30:0 horle and 2000 
Sepoys to join Col. Lawrence 

appointed one of the 

ConimifTaries to treat with the 

French, and goes to the con- 

grefs at Sadrafs 1 1 2 

15 unfuccefsfiil at Tan- 

jore, occafioned by the trea- 
chery of his Liriguift 1 1 7 

*^ fuccceds with the King 

of Tanjore "to fend his ca- 

' valry to join Col- Lawrence's 
army 122 

— influences the King of 

Tanjore to rertore Monagee, 
wliom he makes Prime Mini- 
(ler and appoints Commander 
m Chief of his army 123 

■ fent with Mr. Vanfit- 

tart to Pondichery and they 
return with the treaty and 
truce 128 

— — deputed with Col. 

Lawrence and A'lr. Walih to 

invite the Nabob to Madrafs 


Pattans, defcribed 187 

good foldiers 1 88 

— invade the Mogul's 

empire 339 

defeat Shaw Abadin 

Cawn, and place Timur on 
the Mogul's throne 341 

Perwana, granted to Air. Spencer 

&c. .324 

under the coochuck, or 

fmall feal, to Mr. Spencer, to 
proreft the inhabitants, mer- 
chants, pilgrims and trade of 
Surat 326 

under the fmall feal, 

to Mr. Spencer, for haftening 
the remittances from Surat to 
the Mogul 327 

Peelagee, a Bramin, ufurps the 
government of Guzarat over 
the Marattas 138 

Pharrafs Cawn, Deputy Gover- 
nor of Surat, is propofed Go- 
vernor 3 1 1 

Phirmaund, (firman) or order, 
under the great Mogul's feal 
and underfealed by his Viiier ; 
for the Company's holding the 
government of the caftle of 
Surat 327 

PIgot Mr. Governor of Ma- 
rafs, his behaviour ; diftri- 
butes 50000 roupees to the. 
garrifon 229 

Pocock, Adm. his fleet fails from 
Madrafs in quell of the French 
fleet 192 

— comes up with and en- 
gages them on the 2ifl: of 
April, 1758 ibid. 

repairs his damages at 

Madrafs, and fails in quell of 
the French fleet which he 
finds in Pondichery road 1 9 5 

is prevented from com- 
ing up with them for many 
days ibid. 

returns to Madrafs 

road 196 

— difcovers the French 

fleet in Pondichery road, and 
makes flgnals tochace them 203 

"^ engages the French 

fleet the third of Augull, 
«7j7 205- 

• his fleet anchor off" 

Carical 20b 



Pocock, Adm. refits his fquadron 
at Bombay, and fails for the 
coast of Coromandel 342 

• ciulfes off Pondichery 342 

• — -waters his fleet at Trinco- 
nialay ibid. 

• difcovers the French fleet 

and chafes them idid. 

• ma-kes a fignal for a general 

chafe 345 

- — makes a figrnal for the line 
of battle, which the French 
avoid by hazy weather 


• difcovers the enemy's fleet, 

and both make the fignal for 
battle and engage 346 

• anchors with his fleet in Ne- 

gapatam road, and repairs, his 
damages 348 

• receives a letter from the 

governor and Council of fort 
St. George ibid. 

— — fails from Negapatam road 
and difcovers the French fleet 
in Pondichery road 3^9 

I I obliged to leave off the 
chafe and return to Madrafs 
to water his fleet for his voyage 
to Bombay before the change 
of the Monfoon 3 5 1 

•"—detaches Rear Admiral Cor- 
nifh with {i.x fhips for the coaft 
of Coromandel 352 

' detaches Rear Adm. Ste- 
vens from Bombay With four 
fhips for the coalt of Coro- 
mandel 353 

receives orders to return to 

England ibid. 

— — anchors at Anjengo and fails 
for England 354 

» ' arrives at St. Helena, and 
waits to convoy a large fleet of 
India fhips : arrives fafe in the 
Downs ibid. 

Polier Capt. prevents the enemy 

from cutting off his retreat 


— cannonades them.gatns a vi^cy 
and retreats in good order 120 

■ conducts the Nabob to his 

capital 147 

commands the troops '\n fort 

St. David v/hen it furrendered 
to M. Lally ; figns the Capi- 
tulation 201 

takes Outremalour 178 

to wipe off his difgrace for 

the lots of fort St. David, offers 

to go a volunteer with Col. 

Draper in a fally from Madrafs 


Polygar of Marava offers a free 

faffage for the Englifh troops, 
nd invites them to fettb in his 
country 145 

Prefl:on Capt. cuts ofi^ M. Lally'3 
fupplies, and greatly harraffes 
him during the fiege of Ma- 
drafs 22 i 

intercepts a convoy of the 

enemy's ftores, &c. 235 

Priells the Bramins, abfblve theii' 
warriors by facrificing of a Buf- 
falo 139 


OUeenborough takes the Ru- 
by, a French fnow 206 
Aja, or nominal Prince of 
the Marattas, defcribed 138 
Raja of Vifanapore, imprifons the 
French Chief, plucks down 
their colours and hoifl the 
Englilh 291 

■ 'applies to Col. Cli ve at Cal- 
cutta for alfiftance to free him 
from French tyranny 291 

troops more intent upon 

plundering the enemy's camp 

than lighting 297 

Raja of Narllpore, joins his troops 

with Col. Forde's army 30O 

Rajamundry, given to the Englifh 

by the Raja of Vifanapore 294 

——defcribed 298 

- — ► taken by the French 302 

F Raillard 


Raillard Lieut, fent to the relief 
of Tagada 358 

• isdefeited by the horfe arid 

Sepoys ibid. 

— — Joles his guns, is routed and 
deftroys himfelf ibid. 

Recruits, unufed to the climate, 
fome drop down dead after a 
march of eight niiles 2S9 

Refleftions on the ficge of fort St. 
George 28; 

Reprefentaticn made to the Mo- 
gul, by Mr. Spencer, in behalt 
of theEngliih Eaft-India Com- 
pany 3ZI 

SAdet Allee Cawn, Nabob of 
Arcot 42 

Saha Raja, the nominal Prince 
ef the Marattas 1 3 S 

St David fort, invefted by the 
French « 96 

• furrenders 198 

St. Thomas's Mount, defcribed 

, 215 

Salabatzing, proclaimed by the 

French Viceroy of the Deckan 


• in oppodtion to Gauzedy 

Cawn, appointed by the Mogul 
i 10 

. his charafler i 3 6 

.——he, with M. De Buffy and 
Lav/, enter the Kingdom of 
Maiflbre, and raife a coniribu- 
tion of fifty-two lack of rou- 
pees >45 

. difcards M De Bufly 165 

writes to the Governor of 

Madrafs, for his aiiiftance to 
oppofe the French ibid. 

• is deprived of afliftance by 

the lofs of Calcutta 166 

— — comes to terms with the 
French 167 

• — —quits the French intereft, 
and meets his brother Nizam 
Ailee at Hydrabad 305 

treats with the Englilh, and 

grants them Mafulipatam, Ni- 
zampatam, and obliges the 
French troops to leave the 
country 305 

•"Salilbury, fprings a leak and is in 
great didrefs 352 

Saunders Mr. Governor of Fort 
Sc. George, arrives at Madrafs 

endeavours to negotiate a 

peace with M. Duplei.K 1 1 2 

agrees with Mr. Godeheu 

on a fufpenlion of arms 1 26 

•~- — entertains the Nabob at Ma- 
drafs 1 4.S 

complains to Mr. Godeheu 

of Nanderauze's breach of the 
fufpenfion 162 

Sauifay De, Commander of the 
French at Seringam, refufes to 
join Nanderauze in an attack on 
Trichinopoiy during the fuf- 
peniion of arms 146 

comnmnicates the defign to 

Major Killpatrick 1 47 

Schaub's Captain, company fent 
in boats from Madrats for Fort 
St. David, are taken by the 
French and carried into Pondi- 
chery 80 

Seringam ifland, defcribed 60 

Seringam pagoda's, defcribed 61 

— — occupied by tlie enemy 62 
Severndroog, defcribed 157 

— - attacked, burnt and taken, 
by Commodore James ibid. 

Shafifljury arrives at Fort St. 

George from Bonibay 268 
Smith Capt. fends a reintbrcement 

to Tagada 357 
furprizes a French convoy 


attacks Seringam, and is 

wounded 360 

Smith Capt. Is joined by the King 

of Tanjore and Toiideman ibid, 

Siddee, Admiral of the Mogul's 


I N D 

fleet, refides at Dundee Ra- 

japore 308 

Somerfet Captain, wounded in his 

ankle 34S 

Spencer Mr. prevents the Marat- 
tas from joining the Siddee br 
Meah Atehurid ~ 320 

Shaw Abadin Cawn, his afcen- 
dency over the Moguls re- 
folves to murder him 339,340 

■ employs two Moors to mur- 
der the Mogul 341 

confines all the fons and 

friends of the Mogu 1, and places 
on the throne one of the Mo- 
gul's relations ibid. 

joins an army of Marattas 


is defeated and routed twice 

bythePattans ibid. 

Stevens Rear Admiral, command 
ofthe fleet devolvcson him 353 

retakes three Erglifti veileis 

from the Malwans, piirites, and 
fails to thecoaft of Coron:andel 

Surat, inhabitants, invite the Eng- 
lifli to take poffeilion of the 
caftle, in order to preierve their 
property 3 f 2 

Surat caftle and tanka, delivered 
up to the Englifn 316 

Surat guns, &c. found in the 
catlle, given to the Englifti 
couipany 3 1 8 

Sufpenfion of arms, articles of, 
&c. 126 


Agada fort, furrendered to 
the French on honourable 

terms 359 
Tanjore, defcribed 63 
kingdom of, its extent and 

revenues ibid. 

. — ' — and Tondeman's troops to 

join the EngliJh 65 

— — troops, commanded by Mo- 

nagee, re take Koiiaddy 7 1 

E X. 

King, promifes to join Col. 

Lawrence,and deceives him 88 

King, his fplendid court 92 

troops, join the Englifli army, 

and leave it the fame d?y 93 

horfe, inftead of puriuingthe 

enemy, plunder their camp 105 

King, threatened by Nande- 

rauze to have his country laid 
watte, if he did not quit his en- 
gagements with the Engllih ic6 

troops, commanded by Mo- 

nagee, defeat the Marattas, and 
take eight hundred horfe 1 1 z 
troops di(banded by the ad- 
vice of Succogee ibid. 

in the French intereft 1 1 7 

troops, under Monagee, join 

theEngliih 124 

King, his charadler 136 

——King, and Tendeman proteil 
again ft the Engliih treating with 
the Marava 145 

King, infills on the reftitu- 

tion of his country taken from 
him by the Polygar of Marava 
alfo two diftrifts that Mona- 
gee had conveyed to Tonde- 
man ibid. 

King, confents that the 

French fnould pafs through 
his country, offers them a fmall 
fbm of money, but reftifes 
chera ii:^' troops 309 
confines the twoFi-ench h ou- 
tages, and in a fally defeats the 
French arniy 2 1 1 
chic;'.neryto Major Caillaud 

^ . -'9 

Tanjoreans, make a fucctfsfiil 

fally, rout M. Lally's army, of 

tv.'^o thoufand three hundred 

and feventy French, and raife 

the flege of 1 : ijore 2 1 1 

Tondeman's caarader 137 

Trichinopoly King of, dies 42 

three coiiiDCtitors for the 



IN D E X. 

Tricliinopoly Queen, imprifoned 
by Chunda-Saib, burns the Al- 
coran, on which he fwore to be 
true to her, and poifons herfelf 

I government changed, and 
becomes dependant on the Na- 
bob of Arcot 43 

— — taken by the Marattas ibid. 

— — defcribed 58 

— — garrifon makes a (ally, and 
diftreffes the French in their 
retreat 105 

»■ reinforced 1 og 

— • — in diftrefs for want of provi- 
fion and fuel 1 1 5 

■ reinforced from Fort St. 

David 174 

— — its importance 175 

Tripety feaft, defcribed 185 

Trivedy, taken by the French 5 1 

garrifon, fally out on the 

French, and are put to the 

fword 95 

— — furrenders to the French 

Truce, figned by Governor Saun- 
ders and Sieur Godeheu 1 3 1 


VAnfittart Mr. appointed one 
of the commiflaries to treat 
with the French, and goes to 
the congrefs at Sadrafs 1 1 2 
■■ difcovers Dupleix's forgery 
of the Mogul s laneds 1 1 4 

fent with Mr. Palk to Po«idI- 

chery, and returns with the 
treaty and truce 1 28 

VafTerot De, Captain, with ten 
troopers, performs a gallant 
action 22 1 

lays wafte the bounds of 

Pondichery 370 

Vifagapatam, fummoned by M. 
de BufTy, and furrendered 167 

Volconda Governor of, declares 
for the French 55 


WAndewalh, taken by Col. 
Adlercron, and evacuates 
it 179 

— ■ — taken by the Englifli 36 1 
battle near, gained by Col. 
Coote 368 

Watfon Admiral, arrives at Ma- 
drafs with a fleet Jroni England 
— — commands the Englifli fleet 
againft the pirates on the Ma- 
labar coaft 1 5 2 

arrives at Bombay 1 59 

fummons the fort of Geriah 

to furrender, but receives no 
anfwer 1 60 

filences their batteries and 

burns Angria's fleet, and takes 
the place ibid. 

Weyaconda, attacked and batter- 
ed in breach, efcaladed, and 
taken by Col. Lawrence 105 
Wood Capt. routs Zulapher- 
zing's forces, and takes his camp